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BRL 1961, UNIVAC II, start page 0992


Universal Automatic Computer Model II MANUFACTURER Remington Band Univac Division Sperry Rand Corporation
Photo by U. S. Navy Electronics Supply Office APPLICATIONS Manufacturer General purpose digital computer. U. S. Navy Electronics Supply Office Located at the Southwest corner of 1st deck, ESO Building, Great Lakes, Illinois, the system is used for inventory control (180,000 items, 21 stock points $200 million value. Weekly stock review, redistribution, procurement, and allocation), for electronic repair parts allowance lists (active plus reserve ships, shore installations, etc. Weekly process), for stock number identification (Technical document for use by electronic technicians), for Tables and Allowance Guides (To maintain and support a specific model of electronic equipment or system. Tri- weekly process), for consolidated load lists (Computed and tailored requirements lists for maintaining proper range and depth of stock aboard tenders and supply support ships. Semi- annual process), for stratification of assets and requirements (A stratified item by-item comparison of system inventory vs future ,needsto identify material which will be purchased or declared excess during the apportionment and bud- get fiscal years. Annual processing), for contractor performance and analysis (Control of material ordered from suppliers to determine; contractor performance, cost,procurement lead time and its variation, over- due contracts, contractor follow-up, etc. Weekly process) and for management statistics (Various sta- tistical controls to measure activity and system effectiveness, stock turn-over, volume of issues, sales, etc. Weekly and quarterly process). U. S. Department of Agriculture Commodity Stabilizatlon.Service Located at the CSS Commodity Office, Kansas City, Missouri, the system is used in the Grain Price Sup- port Program. This involves processing price support loan and purchase agreement transactions for the 31 states served by this office as a data processing center for this program. This application includes computation of loan and purchase transactions, prep-
BRL 1961, UNIVAC II, start page 0993
Photo by U. S. Navy Electronics Supply Office aration of settlement statements with farmers and producers, and recordation of accountability for these transactions - approximately 1 million transactions are processed annually. Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Located at 1 Madison Avenue, NYC (3 Univac II's) and 315 Park Avenue So., NYC (across the street - 1 Univac II), the four systems are used for actuarial (classification valuation, mortality studies and special studies), for debit accounting (preparation of life and lapse registers), for payroll, for city mortgage accounting, and for ordinary policy service (billing, dividend calculation, premium, dividend and commission accounting). Pacific Mutual Life Insurance Company Located in the Home Office Building in Los Angeles, California, the computer is used as the integral part of an integrated data processing system used to do our normal billing, collections, valuation, lapses, agents records, commissions, loans, claims and just about every other facet of the ordinary life insurance work. In addition we do some actuarial studies, agency department contest records and several miscellaneous jobs. United States Steel Corporation Located at 150 Muriel Street, Pittsburgh 3, the system is used for accounting, statistical, analytical, and engineering (multiple correlations and regression analyses) problems. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary coded decimal Decimal digits/word 12 Decimal digits/instruction 6 Instructions per word 2 Instructions decoded 54 Instructions used 54 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type One address Number range Between -1 and +1 Decimal point occurs at the right of the sign digit. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 160 120 Mult 1,720 1,680 Div 3,030 2,990 Construction Vacuum tubes Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential
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Photo by Great Northern Railway Company Addition, subtraction, and multiplication times given below include reading and executing the instruction. The time includes formation of the result in the accumulator. All instructions, however are performed at minimum latency rates. Average Operating Speeds in Microseconds Addition or Subtraction 200 (11-digit numbers) Multiplication 1,900 (11-digit numbers) Division 3,700 (11-digit numbers Comparison 200 (12-digit numbers Transfer (Memory to 40/word + 80/instruc- Register or vice versa) STORAGE Manufacturer Medium Magnetic Core Capacity 10,000 words 120,000 characters Memory Locations 0000 - 1999 Access time Zero (Memory references begin dur- ing "Time Out") Basic Cycle 20 microseconds Construction 42 separate magnetic core planes, each one a rectangle 50 cores wide and 80 cores long. Each of the planes is divided into two sections of 50 by 40 cores, making 2,000 cores in each section. Each section contains one core - for one binary position (bit) - of every one of the 2,000 words. The same relative binary position of the other half- word is held in a core in the same physical location in the other section of the plane. Thus each plane contains two binary positions in each of 2,000 words; the first and 43rd, for example, or the 9th and 52nd. Physically the memory is a rectangular prism 7 1/4 inches x 10 inches x 12 3/4 inches. A memory location thus always implies two cores in all 42 planes. The two cores are determined by the intersection of one column of fifty possible columns with two rows of the 80 possible rows. One row is in each section of the plane. All 42 planes are used twice for each word. Associated with the memory is a half-word insertion register of 42-bit capacity. Each bit is temporarily stored in a magnetic core of this register during a memory reference. Each of these register cores is associated with one of the 42 memory planes. To write into the memory, the first half of the word is placed in the insertion register and the address selector alerts the appropriate column and the proper row of the top section in each of the 42 planes. At the appropriate instant the information is transferred from each core of the insertion register to the selected core in the corresponding plane of the memory. 42 pulse times later, the second half word has been placed in the insertion register and the process is repeated in the lower section of the memory. Read-outs are accomplished in a reverse manner. The speed of the memory has been adjusted to the speed of the arithmetic portion of the Univac which permits the transfer into or out of the memory of 12 characters in 40 microseconds. Word pulses flow from or to the high speed bus and the insertion register via a mechanism which converts from serial to parallel and vice versa, in 42 bit modules. All users utilize a 2,000 word 24,000 digit, magnetic core storage unit. Commodity Stabilization Service 16 - Uniservo II's
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Photo by Great Northern Railway Company INPUT Manufacturer Media Magnetic Tape (Uniservo II) 20,12.4, or 5 Kc digit rate; 100 in/sec Keyboard Manual Unityper II Manual (50 char/in density) Card to Tape Converter 240 cards/min (80 or 90 col cards) Paper Tape to Magnetic 200 char/sec (5, 6 or 7 Tape Converter channel) Verifier Keypunching (Verifica- tion of Unityper II Tapes) The UNISERVO II Purpose The Uniservo II transports tape over a standard mag- netic head (for reading and recording) under the con- trol of Univac II. Physical Specifications The Uniservo is housed in a cabinet, the upper section of which contains the reel mounts and is covered by a removable glass door. The front panel doors are interlocked such that the center drive is stopped whenever the doors are opened. The entire front cover is easily removed, giving access to the loops. Height 62 inches Width 30 inches Depth 30 inches Working Space 6 ft 5 in x 5 ft 9 3/4 in. Weight 650 lbs. Operation Input Function. A Uniservo may be used to read the coded, magnetic dots on the tape moving forward or backward and transfer the data in the form of electronic pulses to Univac. Output Function. A Uniservo may be used to record the results of Univac processing in the form of coded, magnetic dots on a metallic tape or a mylar tape moving forward. Reel Mounts. The reel mounts hold the standard 6 inch and 8 inch reels for magnetic tape and an 11 inch reel for mylar tape. Tape Handling System. There are two independent servo systems - the two reel motor servos. The center drive is a magnetic clutch and the control signal to the clutch is supplied by Univac. The tape around the center drive hub is isolated from the tape reels by two loops of tape. The reel servos are controlled by loop size detectors. The mylar spacer used on Uniservo I, has been eliminated on Uniservo II to accommodate the higher pulse writing density. A new hard surface to minimize head wear is being provided on Uniservo II. Standard Magnetic Head. The standard magnetic head reads from or records in 8 channels. Seven of the channels are used for the 7-pulse code of the Univac System and the 8th channel is a sprocket channel. Tape speed. 100 inches per second (nominal). Tape packing density 120 characters/inch. Magnetic Clutch. Uniservo II is equipped with a magnetic clutch which provides the following: Start-Stop time of 5 milliseconds maximum. Reading or writing speed of 51 milliseconds for 720 characters (51 ms maximum to start, read 1 block, and stop).
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Rewind of any number of Uniservos, up to and including 16, simultaneously. Safety Switches. The Uniservo is fully equipped with safety switches which apply brakes to the reels if either of the 2 loops exceeds the prescribed length. Control. The control of a Uniservo is maintained by Univac and exercised during a program by the following types of instructions: Read Forward Read Backward Record at high pulse density Record at low pulse density Rewind without interlock Rewind with interlock Connection to Univac. As many as 16 Uniservos may be connected to Univac II at any one time. The connection is made by means of a sectional trough on the top of the line of Uniservos and continuing from the first Uniservo of the line to one corner of Univac. Uniservos may be electrically interchanged without effecting the program. Power Requirements The main power for the Uniservos is supplied by Univac. USN ESO Media Speed Unityper Keyboard (Off-line: source document/Univac tape) Card-to-Tape240 cards/min (Off-line) Uniservo (Tape Station) 25 Kilocycle/sec (On-line, read operation) Commodity Stabilization Service Off-line Equipment 1 Card-to-Tape Converter (80 column card) 2 Tape-to-High Speed Printers (600 lpm printers) 1 Bi-directional Paper Tape to Magnetic Tape (B-PTM-7) 1 Tape Cleaner 2 Unitypers Metropolitan Life Medium Speed Univac Card-to-Tape Converter 240 cards/min Pacific Mutual Uniservo II 100 inches/sec 250 char/inch Very reliable with metallic tape. Input buffering of 60 words of magnetic core. USS Magnetic Tape 250 char/in 100 inches/sec 80-column card to magnetic tape converter. 300 cards per minute. OUTPUT Manufacturer Media Magnetic Tape (Uniservo II) 20, 12.4, Or 5 Kc digit rate Uniprinter 10 char/sec (20 char/in density) High Speed Printer 600 lines/min (130 char line, maximum) Tape to Card Converter 120 cards/min (80 col cards) Magnetic Tape to Paper Tape 60 char see (5, 6. or 7 Conversion channel Magnetic Tape to Magnetic 90 char/sec (Speed de- Tape Transrecorder pendent upon commmica- tion facilities) USN ESO Media Speed Tape-to-Card 120 cards/min (Off-line) High Speed Printer 600 lines/min (Off-line) Uniservo (Tape Station) 2 Kilocycle/sec (On-line, write operation Metropolitan Life Univac Hi Speed Printer 600 lines/min Univac Tape to Card120 cards/min Converter Pacific Mutual Uniservo II 100 inch/sec 250 char/in Very reliable with metallic tape. Output buffering of 60 words of core. Can simultaneously read on 1 tape handler, write on a second and be rewinding a third. USS Magnetic Tape 250 char/in 100 in/sec High Speed Printer600 lines/min (Off-line) Magnetic tape to 80-column card converter - 120 cards per minute. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Tubes 5,200 Tube types 20 Crystal diodes 18,000 Magnetic cores 184,000 Transistors 1,200 Separate cabinets 4 Above figures are approximate and do not include input- output devices. CHECKING FEATURES Checking Circuits Whenever feasible, registers and other circuits appear in duplicate. Their contents are continuously compared so that inconsistencies between the data in the identical units give an indication of faulty operation, and stall the computer. At this point, the instruction may be repeated. The pulse code used in the Univac System is so designed that all characters contain an odd number of pulses. At several strategic points within Univac, every character is checked for an odd number of pulses. An indication is given whenever an even number of pulses is detected, and the computer stalls. Other types of checking circuits cause Univac to stall when other types of errors occur. An error occurs if reference to a non-existent memory address is attempted. An odd-even error in the transfer rI to rM will result in a transfer stop and the location of the error (rI address) will be indicated. The 720 character count will be displayed on a modulus 100 counter. "All ones" checker. In addition to the parity bits check on the high speed bus, a second checker establishes that the invalid "all ones" character is not inadvertently created by a system fault. Input and output checkers also detect the invalid "all ones" character. Built-in checking features are contained in the Card-to-Tape Converter, the Tape-to-Card Converter and the High Speed Printer. Fusing Univac is completely fused in order that faults may be isolated. Each bay has its own set of fuses in addition to main fuses on all DC and AC potentials.
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If a fuse blows, power is shut off and an indicator circuit shows in which bay the blown fuse is located, anda "flag" indicates the specific fuse. Voltage Monitoring An automatic voltage monitoring system continuously monitors all critical DC potentials giving an alarm if any moves outside the prescribed limits. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE. PREPARATION Manufacturer Univac has a separate power supply unit. The Univac II is designed to operate from a power service of 480 volts, 208 volts or 240 volts, three phase, 60 cycle. The system voltage must be specified in ad- vance in order that the switch gear and 75 KVA trans- former listed below may be properly supplied. Power Requirement: Kw KVA PF Motor Generator 47.3 59.2 0.8 Heaters 45.0 45.0 Blower Motor 6.1 7.65 0.8 Standby, etc. 2.0 2.0 Uniservo 16 x 1.5 Kw 24.0 30.0 0.8 ----- ----- 124.7 143.85 Univac II Power System The electrical power system for Univac II Central Computer and Uniservos consists of a packaged switchgear unit, a 75 KVA transformer, a 400 cycle motor generator set and a power supply unit. The power and control installation for the chilled water system and the peripheral equipment are discussed below. Wiring between units of the system is to be done by the user. Switchgear. The switchgear unit controls the incoming power, the motor generator set supply and 400 cycle output circuit, the filament power and Uniservo power, and it is the center of all power control circuits. The main line circuit breaker will be supplied according to the system voltage. The motor starter will always be supplied for 480 volts. Dimensions: 8 ft 4 in wide; 30 in deep; 6 ft high. 75 KVA Transformer. A 75 KVA transformer, air cooled type, is supplied for mounting by the customer. If the system voltage is 480 volts the transformer will be 480/208 and connected between the main line circuit breaker and the filament power circuit breaker. If the system voltage is 208 volts the transformer will be 208/480 and connected between the main line circuit breaker and the motor circuit breaker. If the system voltage is 240 volts the transformer will be +0/480 and connected between the main line circuit breaker and the motor circuit breaker. Motor Generator Set. The motor generator set con- sists of a 75 HP motor and two 25 KVA, 0.9 power factor 400 cycle generators. The motor is served by 480 volts, 3 phase from the switchgear. The 400 cycle output is controlled by electrically operated circuit breakers in the switchgear. Control of 400 cycle voltage and excitation for the generators is by the exciter regulator units in the switchgear. Base 93 in long x 24 in Overall 104 1/8 in long x 29 in Area 15.8 sq ft Floor loading 284 lbs/sq ft Space Requirements Approximate Dimensions Height 102 9/16 in. Width 171 3/8 in. Depth 94 3/4 in. Working Space 16 ft x 22 in. Weight 16,000 lbs Univac contains thirteen bays of chassis. These bays are arranged in a structure resembling a letter "C". There are two bays at each end, five bays along one side and four bays and a door allowing access to the interior of Univac along the other side. Each bay contains three-tiered sections. Each section contains twelve removable or plug-in type chassis. The chassis in each bay are accessible through doors which make up the casework. The core storage sections, however, contain 36 printed circuit chassis. The inter-wiring between chassis is one the back boards of the sections and bays and is accessible from inside Univac. Cooling System Requirements. The heat generated by the 5,200 vacuum tubes and the electronic components requires a cooling system. The Central Computer, Uniservos and power supply are cooled by a circulating chilled water system. 130 gallons per minute of 500 water are required. A three way mixing valve with controls and a circulating pump are required for the Central Computer and Uniservos. The power supply unit contains its own control. Water connections for the power supply may enter the cabinet either at the top or bottom. Water connections for the Central Computer and the Uniservos are at the sides near the floor and the piping may be run either on the ceiling or below the floor. Refrigeration System Requirements. The Central Computer, Uniservos, and power supply units require 35 Tons of refrigeration. USN ESO Power, computer 190 Kw 190.5 KVA 0.95 pf Power, air condit 75 Kw 75 KVA 0.9 pf Volume, computer 1,200 cu ft Volume, peripheral equip10,560 cu ft Volume, air cond & cooling tanks 1,200 cu ft Area, computer 1,636 sq ft Area, peripheral equip1,056 sq ft Area, air conditioning450 sq ft Room size, computer49.5 ft x 33 ft Room size, peripheral equip32 ft x 33 ft Room size, air conditioning400 sq ft Floor loading 20 lbs/sq ft 250 lbs concen max Capacity, air conditioner75 Tons Weight, computer 36,000 lbs Weight, peripheral equip 14,000 lbs Weight, air conditioner3,000 lbs Total weight 53,000 lbs Building modifications consisted of trenching in floors to accommodate chilled water cooling system and power cables. Water supply and return with 100 ton cooling tower and basin installed on roof of building. 75 ton compressor to produce cold water for ADP equipment and room air conditioning. Duct work for room air conditioning is installed in regular ceiling. Existing power facilities were adequate to assume the load from ADP without modification. Metropolitan Life Power, computer 124 Kw 144 KVA 0.86 pf Power, water cooler 25 Kw Volume, computer, 1,200 cu ft 16 servos, power units Area, computer, 16 servos,250 sq ft power units Area, water cooler 900 sq ft Room size 2,000 sq ft Floor loading 10 lbs/sq ft 284 lbs concen max Capacity, water cooler 50 Tons per comp. Weight, computer 16,000 lbs Weight, water cooler 13,000 lbs Above figures are for each computer.
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Walled room for motor-generator sets and voltage regulators and switch gear, fenced areas for tape storage, installed separate refrigeration equipment on 15th floor and water lines to computers on 20th floor, installed power lines from 15th floor transformers to 20th floor, dug channels in concrete floor for lines between electronic units. Pacific Mutual Power, computer 150 KVA 1.0 Pf 3 phase Room size, computer 1,500 sq ft Floor loading 150 lbs/sq ft Weight, computer 35,000 lbs Installed special power lines to fourth floor site from special switchboard directly from street transformer. False ceiling primarily for esthetic purposes Ductsinstalled for room air conditioning. USS Power, computer 221 Kw 246 KVA 0.90 pf Power, air cond 90 Kw 106 KVA o.85 Pf Volume, computer 70,630 cu ft Volume, air conditioner28,996 cu ft Area, computer7,063 sq ft Area, air conditioner2,636 sq ft Floor loading250 lbs/sq ft 250 lbs concen max Capacity, air conditioner148 Tons 25,000 cu ft/min Converted warehouse to office-type space. Plenum chambers provided. Complete air filtering and airconditioning. Installed ceiling lights, wall panels and tiled floor. 440 volt supply to switch gear. Equipment fed by conduit and cable racks. COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Manufacturer (Original Prices) Base Monthly Rental Outright 1 Shift Sale Price Description 5 Day Week F.O.B. Factory Univac II Central Com- $18,540.00 $970,000 puter w/power supply & supervisory ctl desk Uniservo II 450.00 20,000 Uniprinter 390.00 22,000 Extra Dolly Assembly for 122.50 7,000 Uniprinter Unityper II 90.00 4,500 Verifier Not currently available High Speed Printer 3,300.00 185,000 Card-to-Tape Unit w/47 2,520.00 142,100 character code Card-to-Tape Unit w/38 2,500.00 --- character code Tape-to-Card Unit 2,300.00 130,000 Perforated Tape to 1,800.00 108,000 Magnetic Tape (PTM) Converter Magnetic Tape to Perfora- 1,500.00 90,000 ted Tape MTP) Converter The high speed printer and the card-to-tape unit with the 47 character code requires a customer fur- nished voltage regulator. Prices are subject to change without notice. Rental charges include maintenance service, spare parts and test equipment. Separate maintenance con- tract and maintenance advisory service contract available to purchasers of Univac Systems. USN ESO Prime Monthly Usage Rates Central Computer w/12 Uniservos $23,940 High Speed Printer 4,250 Card-to-Tape 2,540 Tape-to-Card 2,385 Unityper 9o Verifier 250 Metropolitan Life 4 Univac II's, ea, with 16 Uniservos, total $+,035,000. 3 Card-to-Tape Converters 2 Tape-to-Zard Converters, 3 High Speed Printers cost 1,345,000. 1 High Speed Printer rents at $5,000/month. Maintenance service for 4 Univacs and auxiliaries cost $52,000/month. Pacific Mutual Unitypers, computer, servos and printer cost approximately $1.5 million. Maintenance service is performed by own maintenance staff. USS Basic system includes two (2) Univac II Computers, twenty- eight (28) Uniservos, one (1) Unityper, and one (1) Unityper- verifier. Additional equipment includes one (1) Card-to-Tape Converter, one (1) Tape-to-Card Converter, and two (2) High Speed Printers, with core buffers. Equipment is rented. Maintenance is performed by the lessor. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Manufacturer The number of engineers, technicians and operators required depends upon the equipment complement of the Univac System and the shift operation. USN ESO One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour Shift Shifts Shifts U R U R U R Supervisors 5 5 Analysts 7 8 Programmers 16 20 Clerks 5 5 Librarians 1 1 Operators 2 2 4 4 5 6 Engineers 4 4 6 6 8 9 In-Out Oper 2 2 4 4 6 6 Tape Handlers 1 1 2 2 3 3 The operators include the shift supervisor for each of the 1st and 2nd shifts. Engineers are Remington Rand personnel included as part of the rental contract. Operation tends toward closed shop. Methods of training used include 8 weeks of classroom instruction plus 18 weeks of on-the-job training. Formal training agreements between ESO and Civil Service Commission. Government wages in this line of work are not competitive with those being offered by ADDS users in industry and/or ADDS manufacturers. Skilled employees after 18-24 months training and experience in this field of work are showing a growing tendency to accept non-government employment.
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Metropolitan Life One 8-Hour Two 10-Hour Shifts Shift 4 Days/Week Used Recomm Used Recommended Supervisors 4 4 6 8 Programmers 6 6 Clerks 12 13 Librarians 3 3 Operators 14 In-Output Opera 24 Tape Handlers 4 Methods of training used includes suppliers classes for programmers and operators, occasional special classes run by programming coordinator, and on-the-job training for clerks, librarians, tape handlers, and in-output operators. Machines work 20 hours per day, 6 days per week. Operators work 10 hours per day, 4 days per week. Pacific Mutual Three 8-Hour Shifts Used Recommended Programmers 26 Librarians 0 1 Operators 5 6 Engineers 9 9 In-Output Opera 4 5 Operation tends toward open shop. Method of training used is basically on-the-,job training with some formalized classroom work. "Typical" personnel is difficult to recommend or give with great detail due to emphases and approaches to the problem. Each group must study their own problem and then work out the personnel set up. USS Two 8-Hour shifts Supervisors 7 Analysts 33 Coders 2 Clerks 4 Operators 5 In-Output Opera 3 Tape Handlers 4 Methods of training used includes equipment manufacturer schools, internal schools, and on-the-job training. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Manufacturer Reliability and operating experience based on the formula: (Available Operating Time minus Lost Time) divided by (Scheduled Operating Time). The cumula- tive performance reports for Univac I Central Comput- ers have averaged 93.0%. USN ESO Average error-free running period 16 Hours Good time 123 Hours/Week (Average Attempted to run time136 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.90 Above figures based on period 1 Jul 59 to 30 Apr 60 Passed Customer Acceptance Test 1 Jul 58 Time is not available for rent to outside organiza- tions. Computer is normally run for 40 straight hours and then there is an 8 hour preventative maintenance shift before the next 40 hours. The 10 per cent lost time includes losses as a result of tape; computer, operator, program and data error conditions. Metropolitan Life Good time102.2 Hours/Week (Average) includ good rerun time Attempted to run time112.7 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.91 Above figures based on period from Jan 59 to Jan 60 Passed Customer Acceptance Test May 58 Time is not available for rent to outside organiza- tions. These Univacs were acquired under an option to convert Univac I's to Univac IT'S. The first Univac I was accepted in late 1954. Pacific Mutual Good timeapprox 100 Hours/Week (Average Attempted to run time120 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) About 0.80 and improving. Above figures based on period 1 Jan 60 to present Passed Customer Acceptance Test 1959 Time is not available for rent to outside organizations. USS Good time120 Hours/Week (Average) Attempted to run time137 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.87 Above figures based on period 14 Mar 60 to 9 Apr 60 Passed Customer Acceptance Test May 59 Time is not available for rent to outside organiza- tions. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Manufacturer Buffer Units Input buffer (rI) 60 words of core storage. Input character rate up to 40,000 per second - dependent upon speed of Uniservos. Output buffer (r0) 60 words of core storage. Output character rates of 20,000; 12,400; and 5,000 per second. Transfer buffer (rW) 9 words of core storage. Cooperates with main memory during V and W instructions to transfer up to 9 words at 25,000 words per second. Transfer buffer (rZ) 60 words of core storage. Control of Operation Univac is controlled by instructions which are recorded on tape and read into the memory. The instructions are stored in successive memory locations beginning at 0000. Two instructions may be stored in each memory location. Simultaneous reading, writing and computation are possible due to built-in buffer units. Univac can read from one Uniservo, write on a second and rewind all other Uniservos simultaneously. Unless there is another read, write or rewind instruction immediately following, Univac may continue to compute while reading, writing and rewinding operations are being performed. Univac starts operating in accordance with the instructions stored in memory location 0000 aims refers automatically to suceeding memory locations. Certain of the instructions read from the tapes the source data upon which the instructions operate and store the source data in the memory. Other instructions cause Univac to record the results of the operations on tape. The operation of Univac is controlled by automatic sequencing. It may be interrupted by instructions that transfer the control of Univac from one memory location to another memory location not in sequence. This mode of operation conserves space in the memory
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and requires a sub-routine to be stored only once in any part of the memory. New Instructions But for several minor exceptions, Univac II executes all Univac I instructions in exactly the same manner as Univac I. Certain of these instructions, however, have been assigned new functions which serve to extend their overall flexibility. The V instruction, for example, will now transfer from one to nine words instead of merely two as was formerly the case, and the Y-Z instructions will now transfer groups of words ranging from ten to sixty in number in steps of ten words. Formerly, ten words and only ten words could be transferred when using this instruction. As a further example of the greater flexibility permitted in Univac II, the extract function (or E instruction), formerly limited to register A, has been generalized so that it now covers all instructions which read out of the memory (A, B, D, L, M, N, P and S). The EF instruction permits recombination of selected characters from register A with the remaining characters of the word in memory location. Instruction A has been extended in usefulness also, and in addition, an I instruction (transfer from register L to memory) has been adopted as a standard command. Overflow With Univac II the addition of a 1 to the control counter reading following overflow is automatic. When using Univac I programs on Univac II a special switch will inhibit the addition of 1 to the control counter reading following overflow and cause the 3rd instruction digit to be interpreted in the memory switch as a decimal zero regardless of its actual value. Therefore, in Univac I programs where the 2nd and 3rd instruction digits have been used for overflow control, the presence of these digits will not influence the execution of the instruction. Compatability Switch A switch provides three circuit corrections to promote compatibility of Univac I and II programs. Any other incompatibility will require program corrections. With the switch in position to handle Univac I programs, the Univac II will treat the 3rd instruction digit as zero, for V, W, Z and Y instructions, treat the 2nd instruction digit as zero and restore the Univac I mode of overflow action on the control counter. Tape Handling Operations As many as 16 Uniservos may be connected to Univac by a metallic duct carrying the necessary cables. Univac can read from tapes mounted on these Uniservos with the tapes moving forward or backward. Univac can record on a tape moving forward. It can read from one Uniservo, write on a second and rewind all other Uniservos simultaneously. Unless there is another read, write or rewind instruction immediately following, Univac may continue to compute while the reading, writing and rewinding operations are being performed. Tape recording for Univac II must be done according to the following: Spacing per block 4.60 in (with 1 in between blocks) (3.60 in per block) Pulse density per inch 200 nominal Blocks per reel 4,000 (metallic) nominal Read time per block 51 msec. minimum (metallic and mylar) Per reel 3.4 minutes minimum (metallic) Rewind time per reel 3.1 minutes (metallic) Feet utilized 1,535 ft metallic) 2,400 ft (mylar) PROGRAMMING SPECIFICATIONS Library and compiler routines for mathematical and commercial use, and service routines for maintenance uses, are available to the customer. Modified or Added Instructions I instruction providing for transfer of information from register rL to memory. Field selection as specified by a second instruction digit F. For the instructions A, B, D, L, M, N, P and S it operates so that the word transferred from memory location M contains only those digits from the columns of "m" which correspond to the columns in register F containing "odd" characters. The remaining column positions of the word, transferred from "m" to the receiving register contain decimal zeros. The EFm instruction permits insertion into a word in memory location "m" of the characters in those columns of register A which correspond to the columns containing "odd" characters in register F. "Odd" characters in the Univac code have a binary zero in the least significant binary position. rA will also contain the complete word which is restored at memory location "m". Add to memory. The add to memory instruction is effected by adding a special designator (H) in the 2nd digit position of the A instruction. It results in the execution of an A instruction followed by an automatic H instruction. Register rA will retain the total (rX + rA) at the conclusion of the add to memory instruction. An equivalent subtractive operation is performed by the SH instruction. Multiple Word Transfer The Vnlml, Wn2m2 word transfer instructions transfer one to nine words as specified by the numeric (n) appearing in the second digit position. Register rW provides the transfer storage. The transfer is made using V and W instructions as for Univac I except that no reversal of position occurs in a 2 word transfer as may in Univac I. Note also that if the second digits of the V and W instructions are not equal special transfers result. If nl > n2. The first (nl - n2) words transferred from ml to rW are not transferred from rW to m2. If nl < n2. The (n2 - n1 ) words transferred to rW by a previous V instruction are transferred to m2 followed by the nl words of the current V instruction. When n = 0 the instruction will be processed as a skip instruction. The Ynlm1 , Zn2m2 pair of instructions permits the transfer. groups of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, or 60 words as designated by a numeric (1 through 6) in the second digit position of the instruction. The Y, Z instructions use rZ as transfer storage. If the second digits of the Y and Z instructions are not equal, special transfers result. If nl > n2. The first nl - n2) tens of words transferred from M1 to rZ will not be transferred to M2. If nl < n2. The (n2 - nl) tens of words transferred to rZ by a previous Y instruction are transferred to m2, followed by the nl tens of words of the current Y instruction. When n = 0, 7, 8, or 9, the instruction will be processed as a skip instruction. Tape Writing Density Controls 5nm instruction causes writing of 200 pulses per inch except that manual countermanding pushbuttons will be provided to select one or more Uniservos on which the 5nm instruction will be interrupted as
BRL 1961, UNIVAC II, start page 1001
calling for a 124 pulse per inch writing density. These manual pushbuttons will be in addition to those available for block subdivision and delta (A) second digit decoding of in/out instructions. 7nm instruction causes writing at 50 pulses per inch. Block subdivision controls will operate as in Univac I with all densities. Block divisions (space between blocks) will be 1 inch except for the 124 ppi density. This will be 2.4 inches. Memory Clear A protected switch will provide for memory clear (rM) to decimal zero. Register rM will clear on read-in. Buffer Register Clear Registers r0, rI, rZ and rW clear only on read-in. Instruction Execution Time Basic machine cycle is reduced from four to three cycles (a cycle is omitted). All instructions are performed at minimum latency rates. USN ES0 Outstanding features include self-checking of the computer through use of duplicate circuitry in both the arithmetic and logical units. Standard tape labelling techniques are used; storage, shipping, protection from humidity, temperature and physical handling problems are minimal. System operates with metallic magnetic tape. Back-up master tape files are stored in a remote location as protection against loss of information through electrical, fire or other damage to the tapes stored in computer center library. This activity has experienced a high performance rate in the use of metallic magnetic tape with its ADP system. A number of tests have been made with various types of mylar base tape; but, to date, the performance of mylar tape on Univac II is unsatisfactory. Metropolitan Life Outstanding features are that the system is completely self checking and simple to operate. Each tape is kept in a cardboard box, labeled on the reel and on the edge of the box, stored like books on open shelving with stall. dividers every three reels, in locked fenced-in area. No special humidity, fire, or dust protection needed for metal tapes. Pacific Mutual Outstanding features include self checking and duplicated circuitry affording basically error free output. The Unitypers allow a complete tape system, completely devoid of any type of punch card. If anything, we have erred in over controlling for everything except humidity, which we do not control. We feel that for our ,fob we have the best equipment presently available and are trying to keep aware of the next generation. USS Metal cases are used for ordinary filing. Fireproof cabinets for some master tapes. PRODUCTION RECORD Number of systems delivered 32 FUTURE PLANS USN ESO No new components or modifications to the installed ADP system are contemplated by this activity. It is planned to retire the present ADP system and replace it with a more powerful, solid-state ADP system during FY 1962. Several new applications will be programmed for processing, in addition to the applications already in production on the present ADPs, at such time as the replacement system is installed. Metropolitan Life Plan to get from two to four more systems of the 3rd generation type such as Honeywell 800, IBM '080, etc. Plan to extend tape files from present 6 million policies, to include other types for about 40 million policies, and expect to run these files daily instead of bi-weekly, and extend the area of operations performed. Plan to be installing in many areas of work ,previously deferred because of lower expected savings and/or greater planning effort. Pacific Mutual We have gone from Univac I to Univac II and anticipate moving to Univac IIII - IBM 701 - Datamatic 801RCA 501 or some other system as soon as the new generation of computer renders ours so obsolete as to be impractical to retain. This could conceivably be in 1963, 64 or 65. We are continually investigating, modifying, etc., our system and equipment and looking to add new applications. USS Additional applications of the same type as currently processed will be installed. New systems being reviewed and evaluated for consideration. INSTALLATIONS U. S. Navy Electronics Supply Office Great Lakes, Illinois U. S. Department of Agriculture Commodity Stabilization Service Kansas City, Missouri Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (3) 1 Madison Avenue New York 10, New York Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (1) 315 Park Avenue So. New York City, New York Pacific Mutual Life Insurance Company Pacific Mutual Building Los Angeles, California United States Steel Corporation 1509 Muriel Street Pittsburgh 3, Pennsylvania U. S. Department of Agriculture Kansas City Commodity Office Kansas City, Missouri
BRL 1961, UNIVAC III, start page 1002


Univac III Data Processing System MANUFACTURER Remington Rand Univac Division of Sperry Rand Corporation
Photo by Remington Rand Univac, Division of Sperry Rand Corporation APPLICATIONS System is designed for commercial data processing as well as scientific applications. The UNIVAC III is a medium-cost, high performance electronic data processing system designed to meet the broadest possible needs of business and science. The magnetic core memory holds from 8,192 to 32,768 words in increments of 8,192 words each with a cycle time of 4.5 microseconds. Words can be pure binary, binary coded decimal, UNIVAC Xs-3, or any other form. UNISERVO III tape units allow reading, writing, and computing simultaneously. The read-write rate is 200,000 digits per second. Up to thirty-two Uniservo III tape units and six Uniservo II tape units are possible. Auxiliary online units may include card-readers which operate at a rate of 700 cards per minute, high-speed printers at 700 lines per minute, card punch units at 300 cards per minute, mass storage and other devices. The UNIVAC III is compatible with other UNIVAC tape units or with those of other manufacturer. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary or binary coded dec Binary digits/word 24 Decimal digits/word 6 Alphanumeric char/word 4 Instructions per word 1 Instructions decoded 75 (approx) Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type one-plus-one Number range Binary +- (296 - 1) Decimal +- (1024 - 1)
BRL 1961, UNIVAC III, start page 1003
Instruction word format +--------+--------------------+-------+-------+--------+---------+ | Parity | Indirect Address | IR | Oper | AR/IR' | m | | | or Field Select Op | | Code | | Address | +--------+--------------------+-------+-------+--------+---------+ | 27 26 | 25 | 24 21 | 20 15 | 14 11 | 10 1 | +--------+--------------------+-------+-------+--------+---------+ Automatic built-in subroutines includes automatic interrupt. Automatic coding includes COBOL and assembly system. Registers includes four accumulator registers, fifteen index registers, and thirteen memory address counters. All instructions are automatically modified by the Index Register designated. System is able to select as an operand from one bit to ninety-six bits through use of a field select control word. From one to fourword operands are possible. All users of UNIVAC III will be provided with a comprehensive programming package. The initial pack will contain COBOL, SALT Assy (Symbolic Assembly Language Translator), sort and merge generators, and an executive routine including contingency and error check routines. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 8 8 6+6 Digits Mult 48-724 48-124 6x6 Digits Div 68-144 68-144 6/6 Digits Arithmetic mode Serial by digit Parallel by bit Timing (Computer) Synchronous Operation (System) Concurrent The computer instruction execution cycle is such that the effective access time is zero. STORAGE No. of Decimal Access Media Words Digits Microsec Core 32,768 196,608 1.07 Drum (Mass Memory) 4,000,000/Drum 24,000,000 385 Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 32 Units No. of chars/linear inch 1,333 Char/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 9 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating 0.68-0.78 Inches Tape speed 100 Inches/sec Transfer rate 133,300 Chars/sec Start time 6.3 Millisec Stop time 6.3 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel of tape 30 Seconds Physical properties of tape Width 0.5 Inches Length of reel 2,400 Feet Composition Mylar In addition to the units described above, a maximum of 6 Uniservo II may be included in the system. Check during writing on Uniservo III. Digital representation (4 bits) 200,000 pulses/sec transfer rate, 2,000 digits/inch. INPUT Media Speed Cards 700 cards/min 80 or 90 column. No plugboard Uniservo III200 pulses/sec (Digital) Up to 32 in system 133.3 (Alphanumeric) Parallel read-write Uniservo II 25 pulses/sec (Alphanumeric) For compatibility with other Univac Tape Systems Paper Tape] OUTPUT Media Speed Cards 300 cards/min 80 or 90 column. No plugboard Card Printing Print - 900 lines/min Punch Punch - 150 cards/min Punches and prints same card in one pass. High Speed Printer 700 lines/min Editing program controlled. Paper Punch CHECKING FEATURES Modulus 3 word parity checking, arithmetic, transfer and comparison operations, and logical checks. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 75.2 Kw 94 KVA 0.80 pf Volume, computer 900 cu ft Area, computer 1,500 sq ft Room size 43 ft x 43 ft x 12 ft Floor loading 200 lbs/sq ft 1,100 lbs concen max Weight, computer 27,225 lbs Heat exhaust vents should be located at roof of each unit. Air conditioning output ducts should be near unit inlet vents. Total input line current 261 amperes/line. Recommended main circuit breaker 400 amperes/line. 115 volt convenience outlets should be located every 6-8 ft approximately 2 1/2 ft off floor. These figures include the Univac III large system w/16 tape. PRODUCTION RECORD Number on order 25 Time required for delivery 18 months
BRL 1961, UNIVAC III, start page 1004
COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Basic System Units Price Monthly Rental Computer - 8 K Memory $390,000 $ 8,000 High Speed Reader 35,000 750 Punch Unit 40,000 850 High Speed Printer 79,000 1,650 Uniservo III Synchron- 145,000 2,900 izer-Max. 16 Uniservos Uniservo III Power Supply 17,500 350 Uniservo III 24,000 ea. 500 ea. Additional Equipment Units Card Punching Printer $ 197,500 $ 4,300 Uniservo 11 20,000 450 Uniservo II Synchronizer 92,500 1,925 Uniservo II Power Supply 17,500 350 Memory-Add. 8 K - 67,500 1,400 Add. 24 K 193,500 4,030 Second Uniservo III 145,000 2,900 Synchronizer or Mass Memory Device Maintenance/service contracting is included in rental price. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Training made available by the manufacturer to the user includes a program- systems course for experienced programmers of 5 weeks duration and for inexperienced programmers of 8 weeks duration. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY The system is completely self-checking. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features are modularity, field selection, multiple word operand, index registers, scatterread-gather write, and indirect addressing. Unique system advantages includes automatic interrupt, combined with above features. The normal procedures for handling Mylar tape may be used. A one addressable modulus 24 hour clock is included. It keeps time in tenths of a second and has a digital output which can be read by the computer program. As faster components become available and more powerful input-output units are developed, they will be incorporated in this system without requiring program changes. Typical Basic, System Diagram by Sperry Rand Corporation, Remington Rand Univac Division
BRL 1961, UNIVAC III, start page 1005
Typical Expanded System Tape Line Configurations Diagram by Sperry Rand Corporation, Remington Rand Univac Division
BRL 1961, UNIVERSAL DATA TRANS, start page 1006


Universal Data Transcriber MANUFACTURER Naval Weapons Laboratory Dahlgren, Virginia
Photo by U. S. Naval Weapons Laboratory, Dahlgren, Va. APPLICATIONS Located at the Naval Proving Ground, the system is used for conversion of scientific or management data from one medium or format to another, primarily in the processing of input and output for the NORC or other computers. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 36 Binary digits/character 8 + 1 check bit Instruction word format +-----------+---------------------+---------+-------+ | MO | Ml | M2 | M3 | +-----------+------------+--------+---------+-------+ | 8 1 | 8 6 | 5 1 | 8 1 | 8 1 | +-----------+------------+--------+---------+-------+ | Operation | B-Register | Address Specifi- | Limit | | Code | Specifics- | cation of Refer- | Value | | | tion | ence to Memory | of Bx | +-----------+------------+------------------+-------+ Since there are no multiply or divide orders, the operating binary point may be considered to be in any convenient location. The carry (borrow) bit may be propagated from character to character in addition (subtraction) with use of double precision orders. A single reference to the memory brings out four characters designated as M0, Ml, M2, and M3 into the memory register. Addresses evenly divisible by four always correspond to the character read out as M0. Instruction words consist of the four characters M0, Ml, M2, and M3. Instruction words are logically divided into 4 fields as shown above, namely: Operation Code, B-Register specification, Address Specification of reference to memory and the Limit Value of Bx. The operation of the system depends upon the microprogramming of the computer to generate special orders which will transfer data from the particular external input device currently in use to the computer memory and from the memory to the external output device currently in use. The use of micro- programming, which is accomplished by use of a plugboard, allows an efficient transfer of data between the computer memory and the external devices with a minimum of special equipment. Conversion of the data within the memory from one form to another is accomplished by
BRL 1961, UNIVERSAL DATA TRANS, start page 1007
the use of an appropriate stored program. This gives a very flexible system since all that is required to change the system from one job to another is to change the connections to the external equipment, insert a different plugboard, and load a new program into the computer memory. This system was conceived, designed and is under construction by the Computer Research and Development Branch of the Computation and Exterior Ballistics Laboratory of the U. S. Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia. The system registers are: 1 Input register 1 Output register 2 Computing registers 6 B-registers (address modifiers) 1 Instruction register 1 Instruction counter Indicator latches (single bit registers) Other special registers External devices communicate with the computer via the input and output registers under control of the computer. The input register can select at high speed from either of two different external devices. The output register is normally connected to only one unit. Indicator latches are used both to control the external devices and to signal the condition of the external devices to the computer. Special electronic signal generating equipment tailored to each type of external device is used to facilitate communication with the input register, output register, indicator latches and the external device. ARITHMETIC UNIT Operation time, incl 1 memory access 11 microsec Operation time, incl 2 memory accesses 21 microsec Two memory accesses are required for such orders as read out and store orders. STORAGE No. of No. of Access Medium Words Digits Microsec Magnetic Core 2,048 36 bits/word 10 INPUT OUTPUT Media Speed Magnetic Tape (NORC) 70,000 dec dig/sec Magnetic Tape (Potter 906) 37.5/75 in/sec 200 char/inch Paper Tape (Digitronics) 300/600 char/sec (read) Paper Tape (Teletype) 60 char/sec (read) Paper Tape (Flexowriter) 10 char/sec (read) Paper Tape (Teletype) 60 char/sec (punch) Paper Tape (Flexowriter) 10 char/sec (punch) Magnetic Tape (Analogue, Ampex Model FR-100A) Speeds are 1.875, 3 75, 7.5, 15, 30 and 6o in/sec. Cards (Remington Rand) 450 cards/min (read) Cards (Remington Rand) 100 cards min Cards (IBM Model 101(1 450 cards/min (read)) Cards (IBM Model 514) 100 cards/min (punch) Typewriter (Flexowriter) Keyboard entry) Typewriter (Flexowriter) 10 char/secprint) CHECKING FEATURES The computer has automatic circuitry built into the system to check the accuracy of its operation. This check adds a parity bit to the 8 bits in each character so that the modulo two sum of the binary one's of these 9 bits is always odd. This check bit is generated after data enters the input register, is corrected as the characters are modified by various orders, and is stored in the memory along with the character. An automatic check is made for the presence of the proper parity count as the data is transferred from the memory into the working registers or the instruction register. The values in the B registers are checked automatically as they are used and there are checks on the execution of the overlay and shifting operations in the computing registers. Whenever possible checks will be made on the accuracy of data transmission between the computer and the external devices. For example, in card reading, data will be loaded into two independent shift registers from two reading stations, and after the card images are assembled in memory they will be checked against each other. In punching data into cards, the card will be read back into the computer after being punched and this card image will be checked against the card image sent out to the punch. When magnetic tapes are written the data will be read back into the computer and a check will be made on the correctness of the data. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 5 Kw 6 KVA0.83 Pf Room size, computer 480 sq ft No special preparation. Air conditioned as a small part of a large system. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced 1 Number in operation 1 COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Total approximate cost $350,000 for all units listed except IBM 101 and 514, which are rented. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Three 8-Hour Shifts Programmers 3 Operators 4 Engineers 1 Technicians 1 Operation tends toward closed shop. Methods of training used is on-the-job.
BRL 1961, UNIVERSAL DATA TRANS, start page 1008
RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Time is available for rent to qualified outside organizations. System has been in. use on several projects since January 1960. Some engineering work continues. It may be used by government agencies or contractors when time is available. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS The most outstanding difference between the computer of the Universal Data Transcriber and any other single address binary computer is the availability of the plugboard and the plugboard instructions. The plugboard is divided into three regions. The first region consists of information coming from equipment in the computer to the plugboard. This includes all of the registers, such as Register 1, Register 2, Input Register, Output Register, Instruction Register, Instruction Counter, B7, and the indicator latches, plugboard instruction specification and the internal clock. Also in this region are external inputs from the various input and output devices which have been converted to the proper signal levels. The second region of the plugboard consists of a set of approximately 75 logical packages. These packages are identical to those used in the construction of the rest of the computer. In the third region of the plugboard are exists from the plugboard of the control lines in the computer. These lines control the transfer of data from "register to register", use of the B Registers, controlling memory cycles, setting of indicator latches, shifting various registers, etc. Thus by using all three regions of the plugboard almost any conceivable (or desirable) cycle of actions can be controlled from the plugboard. This feature is primarily for use with external devices to get data to or from them and the memory of the UDT. The indicator latches in the computer are used primarily for communication between the UDT and external devices. For example, some of the indicator latches could be wired, via the plugboard, to control the stopping, starting, or reading or writing of a tape unit. Other indicator latches could be used to indicate to the UDT that an external device is in certain conditions, for example, that a card reader is moving cards, or ready to scan one row of information, or that it is out of cards, etc. Thus the program can control external devices, and external devices can be sensed by the program by use of the indicator latches. Another feature of the UDT is the "Program Interrupt" ability. If a particular exit on the plugboard is energized the computer will go into a program interrupt cycle. This exit can be energized from an indicator latch, or combinations of indicator latches and various conditions by wiring on the plugboard. When this condition occurs the computer will automatically make a program transfer to instruction location 4 at the end of the current instruction. The address (Y) of the instruction which would have normally been executed next, if the program interrupt condition had not occurred, will be automatically stored in character locations 1 and 2 in a form so that if the character in location 0 is the code for a program transfer (jump) command and the instruction at location 0 were to be executed, the computer would jump to the proper address (Y). When this feature is used the program, starting at location 4, must be suitable to take the appropriate action for the condition which caused the jump. After this is done, the program would normally remake the appropriate registers, and then jump to location 0, which would cause the jump back to the main program at the proper place. By using this feature the computer can react rapidly to external control information without requiring repeated sensing on the condition. The major advantage of the Universal Data Transcriber is its flexibility. It is not tailored to any specific computer or type of data conversion and is therefore not likely to become obsolete as fast as many specialized converters. The micro- programming and stored program features makes it easy to implement almost any desired conversion with a minimum of engineering effort and special equipment. The major disadvantage to this approach is that it is more expensive than any single specialized converter. To establish the capabilities of the Universal Data Transcriber several preliminary programs have been prepared. One program for converting 80 colon alphanumeric IBM cards to NORC magnetic tape provides for arbitrary code and format conversion, specified by header cards, and converts data to magnetic tape at a rate of 450 cards per minute. Similar programs have been developed for conversion from one magnetic tape system to another. If there is a conversion in both the code representation of the data and in the format, but not in the number base, the system can convert 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 bit characters from one form to another at a rate of approximately 3,000 characters per second. Conversion can be made from 48 bit binary words to decimal digit words at a rate of approximately 16 words per second. Conversion can be made from 13 digit decimal words to binary words at rates in excess of 50 words per second. The Universal Data Transcriber is being designed and constructed at the U. S. Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia. Subcontractors are providing the memory, logical building blocks, and various specialized input and output circuitry. The logical building blocks are all transistorized megacycle SEAC type circuitry built by Computer Control Company. Some of these are being modified to provide two phase operation where the extra speed is required. The memory is an all transistorized magnetic core memory with a full read-write cycle time of 10 microseconds, and operates in parallel on a 36 bit word or 4 characters of 9 bits each. The 80brush reading station of the IBM 101, used as a 450 card per minute reader, will load the data from a row in the card in parallel into a magnetic shift register which will be shifted into the computer on four wires in 600 microseconds. A similar circuit will be used on the second reading station so as to provide a check on the reading. Data is punched into IBM cards at 100 cards per minute by serially shifting, one bit at a time, at a 100,000 cycle shift rate, the 80 bits in the row to be punched. This shift register will pick up relays which will control the punch magnets in an IBM 514. The reading station which follows the punching station will be equipped with magnetic shift register for reading back the data from the punched card for a check. The same shift register and relays which are used in punching is 120 bits long so that it can be used to control the printing on an IBM 407. A Flexowriter is perma nently attached to the system to provide communication between the computer and the operator and is used as an input for the program tapes, and as an input or output of 5, 6, 7 or 8 channel paper tape. A NORC magnetic tape unit is used to provide communication
BRL 1961, UNIVERSAL DATA TRANS, start page 1009
to or from the Naval Ordnance Research Calculator. INSTALLATIONS Computation and Analysis Laboratory Naval Weapons Laboratory Dahlgren, Virginia
BRL 1961, VERDAN, start page 1010
VERDAN Autonetics VERDAN MBL-D9A Computer MANUFACTURER Autonetics Division of North American Aviation APPLICATIONS The computer is used in real time control systems, such as inertial navigation, bombing, weapon system central digital computer, flight control, ground checkout and alinement, and process control. As a data system, it is used for scientific computation, impact predicition, and mission readiness. The VERDAN computer consists of three interconnecte computational centers: (1) an incremental or DA section (2) a whole valve or GP section and (3) an input-output section. All three centers may be operated simultaneously. The GP section directs all computation. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 24 Binary digits/instruction 22 Instructions/word 1 Instructions decoded 52 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type One and 112 address format Number range As an integer: -(223 <= W < (223-1) As a fraction: - 1 <= W < 1 - 2-23 Instruction word format +----------+----------------+-----------+---------+--------+ | 0 1 | 2 8 | 9 12 | 13 16 | 17 23 | +----------+----------------+-----------+---------+--------+ | Not Used | Sector of Next | Operation | Channel | Sector | | | Instruction | Code +---------+--------+ | | | | Operand Address | +----------+----------------+-----------+------------------+ ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 160 80 Mult 2,000 Div 2,000 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors 1,500 Diodes 10,670 Resistors 4,500 Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential The clock rate is 332.8 kilocycles/sec. Above information is for the G. P. only. STORAGE No. of Bin Medium No. of Words Digits/Word Rotating Disc Memory 1,664 24 The average access time is one half of a disc revolution, or 5 milliseconds. Magnetic tape is under development. INPUT Media Speed 16 DC Voltages 100 times/sec (+- 0.5% Range +-lOV) 3 Ternary Coded Pulse 800 times/sec (using 8 integrators) 32 Shaft Encoder 100 times/sec (20 significant bits) 3 Resolver Incremental 800 times/sec (using 8 integrators) Tape Reader Manual Control OUTPUT Media Speed 15 DC Voltages 100 times/sec (¤0.5% Range ¤lOV) Serial Digital 332.8 bits/sec 16 Shaft Encoder 100 times/sec (20 significant bits) 4 Bin Code 100 times/sec 4 Ternary Code 100 times/sec Nixie Display on control panel Paper Tape Punch5 channel Typewriter CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Diodes 10,000 Transistors 1,500 Capacitors 670 Resistors 4,500 CHECKING FEATURES Parity on input-output. The same problem can be run on GP and DDA internally and answers compared. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 0.320 Kw 0.8 pf 400 cycle, 3 phase Volume, computer 1.4 cu ft Weight, computer 82 lbs Air conditioner is not normally required if input air is between OoF and 90oF. Blower must be supplied by user. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 180 Number in current operation 180 Number on order 883 (approx.) Anticipated production rates 5/week Time required for delivery 10 months
BRL 1961, VERDAN, start page 1011
COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Basic system consists of the computer - VERDAN, manual control panel, and paper tape reader. Additional equipment includes paper tape punch, tape prep. equipment, test equipment - C297A, and typewriter. Prices are available upon formal request to Autonetics. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS This computer was primarily designed for unmanned control systems and thus can operate for long periods of time unattended. Training made available by the manufacturer to the user includes programming course and operation and maintenance course. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Calculated mean time before failure, from parts count, is 160 hours. Realized MTBF under steady state operation is 250 hours. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS outstanding features include multiple input-output, combination GP/DDA, and small size. Due to the manner in which. the inputs and outputs are handled - internally - the computer does not halt while inputing or outputing, thus the GP, DDA and input-output operations can proceed simultaneously, making this machine almost ideally suited to the real-time control problem. The VERDAN contains a non-volatile magnetic memory. Provisions are incorporated such that in case of power failure, all intermediate information is stored on a memory channel. Upon resumption of power, the flip flops and registers etc., are reset and the program computation resumes at the point of interruption. FUTURE PLANS A digital, addressable magnetic tape reader and writer is under development as an accessory for this machine, in order to extend its capabilities. INSTALLATIONS Autonetics Division of North American Aviation 9150 E. Imperial Highway Downey, California
Photo by North American Aviation, Inc., Autonetics Division

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