|BRL 1964, TELEREGISTER TELEFILE, starting page 0252|
TELEREGISTER TELEFILE MANUFACTURER The Teleregister Corporation Photo by Teleregister Corporation APPLICATIONS General purpose computing, on-line and real-time uses such as Banking, Airline Reservations, Communications Switching, Passenger-Record Retrieval; these on-line systems work with nationwide communications networks consisting of high-speed (up to 1,200 bits sec) and low-speed (up to 200 words/min) facilities. Switching, terminating and transceiver apparatus for these networks are provided by the manufacturer. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary coded decimal Decimal digits/word Variable between 1 to 100 Decimal digits/numeric digit 4 + parity Decimal digits/alphabetic character 8 + 2 parity Decimal digits/ instruction 8 Instructions decoded Basic: 13 arithmetic (More than 200 depending 25 transfer upon application). 54 branch Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type One address Number range lo to 1099 Instruction word format +----------------+-----------+---------------+------------------+ | Digit No. | 1 2 | 3 4 | 5 8 | +----------------+-----------+---------------+------------------+ | Arithm. or Trf | Order No. | Length of Fld | Starting Address | | Branch | 98 or 99 | Branch Point | Instr. Address | +----------------+-----------+---------------+------------------+ Automatic built-in subroutines Include automatic rerun in the event of certain failures and programmable separation of dual system. Automatic coding Asset-assembler for Telefile, 1:1 Assembler Registers and B-Boxes Registers include Accumulator Control (ACR), Memory Control (MCR), Instruction Control (ICR), and Quotient Control (QCR) Registers. All orders are performed by defining field lengths in the core memory. The addressable classification
|BRL 1964, TELEREGISTER TELEFILE, starting page 0253|
is by digits. Instructions can be performed on from one to one- hundred digits per operand. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl. Stor. Access Microsec Add 80 + 16(No. of augend + addend digits) Mult 80 + 16(Sum of product digits) (3 x No. of multiplier + Multiplicand digits) Div 80 + 16 (Sum of quotient digits) (No. of digits in dividend) Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors 2,700 to 3,000 Arithmetic mode Serial by digit Parallel by bit Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential Operation of input/output is concurrent on a character- interrupt basis. STORAGE No. of No. of Access Medium Chars Digits Microsec Magnetic Core 10,000 15.0 or 16,000 Magnetic Drum 125,000 5,000 (High-Speed) Magnetic Drum 1,050,000 16,700 (Medium-Speed) Magnetic Disk 30,720,000 150,000 Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 100 Units No. of chars/linear inch 7 Track/tape Blank tape separating each record 0.5 Inches Tape speed 60 Inches/sec Transfer rate 24,000 Chars/sec Start time 2.0 Millisec Stop time 1.5 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel of tape 60 Seconds Physical properties of tape Width 0.5 Inches Length of reel 2,400 Feet Composition Mylar INPUT Medium Speed Keysets (Remote Stations) May use 100 words/min Teletype lines or high speed dataphone circuits. Typewriter Console Keyboard 10 chars sec Teletypewriters 60, 75, 100 or 200 words/min Punched Cards 150 cards/min Punched Paper-Tape 20 or 100 chars/sec Dial I/0 Device for Up to 2,000 queries/min Stock Quotations OUTPUT Medium Speed Keyset Printer (Remote Stations) 10 chars/sec Typewriter Console Keyboard 10 chars/sec Teletypewriter 60, 75, 100 or 200 words/min Punched Cards 150 cards/min Punched Paper-Tape 100 words/min Line Printers 100 words/min CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantities Tubes 0 Diodes 64,000 (logic diodes) 30,000 (clamp & speed-up diodes) Transistors 12,000 (alloy junction) 10,000 (SBT transistors) Magnetic Cores Three 10,000 characters or 16,000 characters, 15 microsecond memories. The quantities are for triplex system; i.e., three processors with peripheral subsystems excluding communications equipment. CHECKING FEATURES Parity on core output and transfer of data to and from peripheral equipment. Invalid operations in arithmetic; e.g., overflow or adding alphabetical characters. Time-out alarms if any unit does not complete its operation in a specified amount of time. Duality check including programmatic "drop-out" operation to end duality on error. Peripheral control registers may be read back and end-points of operation may be program checked. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION (Typical two-processor installation) Power, computer 60 Kw 75 KVA 0.8 pf Including peripheral and communications equipment. Volume, computer (processor site) 35,040 cu ft Area, computer (processor site) 2,920 sq ft Room size 40' wide, 73' long, 12' high Example for a typical two-processor installation. Floor loading 100 lbs/sq ft (avg) (drums) 2,500 lbs concen max Weight, computer 2,400 lbs Installation 60,000 lbs Ambient Temperature between 65o and 80oF - Dust Control with a filtering efficiency of 850 to 900 based upon the National Bureau of Standards' Dust Spot Test Method - Total Heat Dissipation 220,000 BTU. Room Size additional areas: Power Supply - 2,376 cu ft; 189 sq ft; 22 1.; 9 w; 12 high. Maintenance - 5,280 cu ft; 440 sq ft; 22 1; 20 w; 12 high. Area dimensions adaptable according to room shape; installation based upon square-feet basis; square or rectangular shape preferred. False ceiling used as plenum for air-conditioning and cables. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 14 Number in current operation 14 Time required for delivery 14 to 18 months COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Processor, random-access storage, tape handlers, and on-line communications channels. Rental contracting and rates for basic system: $30,000 and up. The Teleregister Corporation has a full-scale field service operation in more than 100 cities in U.S., servicing all installatins. This service organization, in existence for more than 30 years, operates services, and maintains Teleregister systems.
|BRL 1964, TELEREGISTER TELEFILE, starting page 0254|
PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS (Two-processor installation, 24 hour operation) One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour Shift Shifts Shifts Supervisors 1 Analysts ) Programmers ) 6 Coders ) Clerks 2 Operators 2 4 6 Engineers 1 Technicians 2 4 6 In-Output Oper 1 1 1 Personnel requirements vary with the complexity of a given installation. The Teleregister Corporation trains customer personnel at its Stamford facility and provides onsite training as well as special courses on customer premises as long as required. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE Teleregister on-line systems have been operating with a record of 99.8% up-time since 1952. The systems employ duality and built-in controls to maintain reliability, coupled with rigid preventive maintenance. They have on-line capability for 24hours per day, 7- day per week service. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS High degree of flexibility of multi-processor installations for on- line, real-time applications with access capabilities of multi- processors to common storage and common input/output communications circuits. Expansion capability of multi-processor systems by addition of modules such as processors, storage, input/output and communications equipment due to growth of customer operations. FUTURE PLANS Additional peripheral devices, higher-speed memory and random-access files. INSTALLATIONS No. of Location Processors United Air Lines, Inc., Denver, Colo. 3 Trans World Air Lines, New York Idlewild 2 Howard Savings Institution, Newark, N.J. 2 Union Dime Savings Bank, New York, N.Y. 2 Society for Savings, Hartford, Conn. 2 Teleregister TeleCenter, 75 Varick Street, New York, N.Y. 3
|BRL 1964, TRW 230 130 AN/UYK 1, starting page 0256|
TRW 230 130 AN/UYK 1 Thompson Ramo Wooldridge 230 130 (AN/UYK-1) MANUFACTURER Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Inc. Photo by Ramo Wooldridge APPLICATIONS Application areas are on-line real-time processing systems such as radar tracking, acquisition, telemetry data processing, command and control systems, etc. High reliability and operability in adverse enviroment equips the computer for remote cite location. A logically identical version of the TRW-130, the TRW- 230, is available for off-line scientific/ engineering applications. This is a non-militarized computer without naval tactical data system (NTDS) communciation channels but retaining a full line of peripheral equipment including card input/output, magnetic tape, 300 line-per-minute printer, dataphone adapter, magnetic drums, as well as paper tape and typewriter. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 15 Binary digits/instruction 15 Instructions/word 0, 1, 2 Instructions decoded 0, 1, 2 Arithmetic system Fixed point Programmed floating point. Instruction type 1, 2, or 3 address +-------+------+------+------+ | 15 10 | 9 7 | 6 5 | 4 1 | +-------+------+------+------+ | PC | AO | CF | SC | +-------+------+------+------+ PC = Primary Command AO = Address Option CF = Control Field SC = Secondary Command Automatic Built-in subroutines Wired-in boot-strap loader is initiated by the operator. Automatic coding. Logram level of programing allows TRW-130 to take on characteristics of the particular application. Lograms are available for table look-up, binary-to-BCD, gray-to-binary, curve-fit, etc., plus normal programming statements such as load, add, store, etc. Registers and B-Boxes M = Instruction Counter - Memory access address E = Decode Commands L = Access Scratch Pad Portion of Memory A = Arithmetic Register - Address option P = Extention of Arithmetic Register - Address option T = Input/Output Buffer Register Address option is direct or indirect and may be from the A, M, P or L Register. In the TRW-130, indexing is accomplished without the use of a separate hardware register and a half-adder required by most computers. The programmer may structure the index function with the appropriate selection of the address option in the Logical Commands (Logands). Thus, any core memory location may be functionally treated as an index register. Because of a unique "wired-in" feature, the incrementing of the particular cell chosen is done automatically.
|BRL 1964, TRW 230 130 AN/UYK 1, starting page 0257|
Photo by Ramo Wooldridge ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl. Stor. Access Excl. Stor. Acces Microsec Microsec Add 12 6 Mutt 12 + 3n 6 + 3n Div 12 + 3n 6 + 3n n = number of bits Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Vacum-Tubes 0 Transistors 1,700 Condenser-Diodes 6,100 Magnetic-Cores 8,192 Arithmetic mode Parallel Accuracy significance is under program control for multiplication and divide operations. Stored logic allows ease of extending all operations to multiple precision arithmetic. Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential STORAGE No. of No. of Bin Access Medium Words Digits/Word Microsec Core 8,192 to 32,768 15 3 Drum 65,536 15 15,000/block Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 16 Units No. of chars/linear inch 556 Chars/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 7 Track/tape Blank tape separating each record 0.75 Inches Tape speed 75 Inches/sec Transfer rate 41,700 Chars/sec Start time 7 Millisec Stop time 2.5 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel of tape 120 Seconds Physical properties of tape Width 0.75 Inches Length of reel 2,400 Feet Composition Outside coated mylar Magnetic tape is fully compatible with IBM 729 magnetic tape systems. Tape units are housed in militarized packages. INPUT Medium Speed Paper Tape 300 Chars/sec Cards 200 Cards/min Flexowriter 10 Chars/sec Send/Receive Set 10 Chars/sec OUTPUT Medium Speed Cards 100 Cards/min Paper Tape 60 Chars/sec Plotter 1/100 Inches/increment Typewriter 10 Chars/sec Printer 300 Line/min Optional additional peripheral devices are a buffer channel, (input or output 15 bit words main frame time per transmission is 9 microseconds) and a data phone or Tel-Pak Adapter. The input/output system is oriented to on-line real-time processing by 3 parallel bi- directional channels, two 30-bits wide and one 15-bits wide, and by a real-time hardware interrupt system of 2-level interrupts and 11 interrupt lines. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Tubes 0 Diodes 6,100 Transistors 1,700 Magnetic Cores 8,192 CHECKING FEATURES There is a built-in protection device to prevent loss of memory contents in the event of a power failure. A programmed subroutine is used to store last location of reference in case of power failure, so as to permit resumption of computation upon restoration of power.
|BRL 1964, TRW 230 130 AN/UYK 1, starting page 0258|
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 0.6 Kw 0.6 Kva Volume, computer 10.9 cu ft Area, computer 4.4 sq ft Floor loading 25 lbs/sq ft 25 lbs concen max Weight, computer 550 lbs An air conditioner is not required. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 70 Number in current operation 70 Number in current production 125 Number on order 122 Anticipated production rates 4/week Time required for delivery 3 months COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES TRW Basic System/Component Purchase Monthly Model Price Lease 130 Digital Computer $ 73,430 $ 2,050 140 Input/Output Controller 14,750 375 151 Paper Tape Reader/Reefer 5,025 130 161 Paper Tape Punch 1,625 40 185 Input/Output Typewriter 3,300 85 141 I/0 Controller Grp (incl. Read/Reeler,Punch, & Type- writer) 30,500 780 170 Magnetic Tape Unit 23,000 610 192 Magnetic Tape Controller 22,000 580 1921 Magnetic Tape Controller Kit 2,600 90 1721 Extended Core Memory Unit w/ 8,192 Word Memory 42,000 1,200 1722 Extended Core Memory Unit w/ 16,384 Word Memory 1723 Extended Core Memory Unit w/ 24,576 Word Memory 171 Magnetic Drum Memory w/65,000 Word Memory 1731 Buffer Channel (mounted in TRW-1721) 22,950 640 187 Flexowriter 14,000 445 188 Serial Send/Receive Set w/ Teletype Unit 3,250 80 186 Send/Receive Set 3,900 120 193 Static Voltage Regulator 515 20 194 Motor Alternator Set 4,250 130 256 Card Reader, 200 cds/min 17,500 470 257 Card Punch 17,250 470 266 X-Y Plotter 9,500 295 282 Med. Speed Line Printer, 300 lines per minute 30,000 900 On site maintenance rates vary greatly with location. Rates are available upon request. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour Shift Shifts Shifts Programmers 1 2 3 coders 1 2 3 Operators 1 2 3 Training made available by the manufacturer to the user includes maintenance and operator training and programming instruction. Other services available are manuals, field engineering, programming consultation and services, applications and system engineering. Operational maintenance is possible by "on call basis" due to high reliability. Design for remote site location reduces number of operational personnel. Programming Training Course (1 week) at Canoga Park subject to RW schedule for minimum group of six. No charge. Maintenance Training Course (7 weeks) at Canoga Park subject to RW schedule for minimum group of six. 7,380/class or 250/student-week. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE The computer has been operating in the field in many varied installations. The originally projected 896 hours mean time operation between failures has been exceeded. In one remote site installation the computer has been operating for over 7,500 hours without a single component failure. Field experience to date indicates an MTBF in excess of 1,000 hours for the mid-1962 system installations. The entire system design, i.e., stored logic, and all construction techniques were predicated on the objective of obtaining extreme reliability and simplified operation and maintenance under extreme environmental conditions. Due to reduced component count and premium component selection, additional self-checking features are not considered as reliability improvements. Over 140,000 hours operating time have been accumulated as of 30 April 1963. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features include military specification design and production, proven operating record in shipboard installation, mufti- level automatic interrupt, and stored logic. Unique system advantages include mufti-computer and peripheral hook-up feasibility and provisions for maximum number of peripheral devices, without field retrofit. No special procedures are required for the handling of magnetic tape. The TRW-130 (AN/UYK-1) is designed for ruggedness. (It can operate in adverse environments--on board ship or land). Small size. (The entire computer, without dismantling, can be loaded into and maneuvered within confined quarters). Compatibility with NTDS (It can communicate with Navy Tactical Data System (NTDS) peripheral equipmentl and inexpensiveness (It is economically justified even for small tasks). Stored Logic Design. The TRW-130's stored logic design effects both hardware and software--hardware in that many circuit components are eliminated, thereby reducing size, weight and construction and increasing reliability. Software in that a logical organization best suited for the application may be specified. At the micro-command level of coding, extreme efficiency and flexibility may be obtained. FUTURE PLANS Design is nearing completion for the second generation TRW-130 computer to be called the TRW-133. The most significant difference between this computer and the TRW-130 (AN/UYK-1) is that all internal operation times have been reduced by a factor of three, yet complete program compatibility with the TRW-130 has been maintained.
|BRL 1964, TRW 230 130 AN/UYK 1, starting page 0259|
Diagram by Ramo Wooldridge Logical Organization The TRW-230's logical organization is shown above. The six 15-bit registers have deliberately been given noncommittal names becuase few of them have distinctive functions. (Most instructions do not include memory addresses, but rather addressing options that reference the present contents of the M, A, or P register as an address. The M register controls all memory accesses except those made through the L register to scratchpad addresses 0-63. Before A or P are used as an address, their contents are exchanged with M, and after use M is always restored. In this way M is used to access operands, and also serves as the instruction counter. For the latter purpose M is always incremented at least once during each instruction. The E register is the memory exchange register, and is also an input-output register, It holds operands during iterative instructions and does a few other odd jobs from time to time. The L register holds instructions during execution, holds operands temporarily between instructions on occasion, and may be used to address the 64 words of scratchpad memory. The A register is the principal arithmetic register and resembles a conventional accumulator under most circumstances. The contents of A may be used as an address, also. The P register is a secondary arithmetic register and usually resembles a multiplier-quotient register. Its contents may also be used as an address, and frequently P is employed to control a program sequence in the interpretive mode. The T register is chiefly used as an input-output buffer for slow-speed devices, but when not needed for this purpose, it can be used to store intermediate operands from A or E. The other registers are a parallel full-adder, a parallel half-adder, an overflow indicator and a carry flip-flop. All transfers from the M register pass through the address counter, where the previous contents of M may be incremented by unity. The programmer controls this function except when the instruction address is incremented.
|BRL 1964, TRW 330, starting page 0260|
TRW 330 Thompson Ramo Wooldridge 330 MANUFACTURER Thompson Ramo Wooldridge, Inc., TRW Computers Co. Photo by Thompson Ramo Wooldridge, Inc. APPLICATIONS On-line, real time, process, power, test and control system. At the Riverside Cement Company plant at Oro Grande, California, a TRW computer is controlling two 310-foot dry-process kilns. The computer also makes daily calculations for quarrying and blending raw materials, keeps a complete record of the origin, weight, and chemical composition of these materials, and logs kiln data. A major overseas glass producer has installed two TRW computers in a system to automate a glass cutting plant. The computer system has made it possible to integrate factory operations, from the receipt of the order from the customer to the delivery of the completed job to the customer. At its nuclear power plant near Chinon, France, Electricite de France is using two TRW computers on the EDF-1 reactor. These two computer systems continuously monitor the radioactivity of carbon dioxide cooling gas as it flows through 1149 channels in the nuclear reactor. On a rise in radioactivity- which denotes a rupture of the uranium fuel casesthe computers are programmed to initiate immediate corrective action. Two TRW computers are being used by Electricite de France to control a 250-megawatt steam power generating station at St. Ouen, France. The computer system monitors more than 600 process variables and automatically controls plant operation to minimize power out-put costs. In 1963, Electricite de France will start using a TRW computer for control of power dispatching. The computer will be located in Paris, at the center of the EDF grid that carries power throughout France.
|BRL 1964, TRW 330, starting page 0261|
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 28 (Including sign) Binary digits/instruction 28 Instructions/word 1 Instructions decoded 93 (Basic) 284 with all instruction options. Arithmetic system Fixed point Twos complement notation for negative numbers. Instruction type One address Number range Octal -777777777 to +777777777 = D to ± 134,217,727 Decimal Instruction word format +---------+-------+----------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------+ | 28 | 27 | 26 25 | 24 20 | 19 | 18 | 17 8 | 7 1 | +---------+-------+----------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------+ | Delayed | Oper- | Instruc | Basic | Index | Spare | Oper- | Oper- | | Tag | and | Modifier | Op | Tage | | and | and | | | Mode | | Code | | | Track | Sector | +---------+-------+----------+-------+-------+-------+-------+--------+ | Operation Code | Operand Field | +--------------------------------------------+------------------------+ Automatic built-in subroutines Wired square root command. Take 26 bit square finds 13 bit root in 2128 microseconds. Automatic coding. The PROCOMP Software system includes: Special job-oriented statements- -one statement compiles from 2 to machine language instruction. FORTRAN Registers and B-Boxes 6 program accessable registers: 3 at 28 bits; 1 at 17 bits, 1 at 16 bits, 1 at 8 bits. One of the registers is the Index Register: 16 bits ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl. Stor. Access Excl. Stor. Access Microsec Microsec Add 266 133 Mult - (3 + n) 133 Div - (4 + n) 133 Above is for full words. Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Vacum-Tubes 0 Transistors 2,065 Diodes 9,315 Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential (modified) There are several operating modes provided to reduce effective average access time/instruction. The normal mode operates on a two- word sequential cycle for next instruction pick-up. A delay mode allows the programmer to use the current operand address as the basis for the next instruction pick-up. STORAGE No. of No. of Access Medium Words Digits Microsec Drum 8,000 - 224,000 to 8,500 (Avg) 130,000 3,640,000 INPUT Medium Speed Paper Tape (Flexowriter) 10 chars/sec Paper Tape (High Speed) 60 chars/sec Cards (IBM 026) 12 cards/min Digital Input Console Analog Signals OUTPUT Medium Speed Paper Tape 10-60 chars/sec Typewriter 10 chars/sec Cards 12 cards/min Digital Output Signals Analog Signals CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Tubes 0 Diodes 12,421 Transistors 2,745 Magnetic Cores 0 CHECKING FEATURES A parity check is performed on all information transfers from memory. There are marginal checking features. Programmed self-check and a hardware timer that the computer program must reset regularly are optional. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Volume, computer 4 cu ft Area, computer 12 sq ft Floor loading 150 lbs/sq ft 500 lbs/sq ft concen mar Site preparation requirements A 120-volt, 60 cycles/sec line and conduits for cables are all the installation requirements necessary. An air conditioner is not required. PRODUCTION RECORD Number in current operation 8 Number on order 22 COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Maintenance/service contracting cost about $1,000 month for a typical system. The cost varies with complexity of system and the location (geographic) of the installation. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour Shift Shifts Shifts Operators 1 2 3 Engineers 0 0 1 The training made available by the manufacturer to the user includes a control computer system course, a programming course, and a theory of operation and maintenance course. Generally, customers will have a manufacturer-designated programmer. His participation is greatest before installation. Usually phasing out once system goes on-line. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE Better than 99.3% reliability with 24-hour/day online operation.
|BRL 1964, TRW 330, starting page 0262|
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features include flexible and I/0 Units, special analog scan command, hi- low limit checks, 128 inputs in 34 milli seconds, the storage and I/0 units are field expandable. Union Carbide Olefins Company is using a TRW computer for closed-loop control of a chemical plant at Seadrift, Texas. The plant produces petrochemicals. Traffic on Los Angelest Sunset Boulevard is being controlled by a TRW computer system. The computer analyzes and directs traffic patterns to maintain maximum flow, reacting instantaneously to changing traffic conditions on the crowded thoroughfare. TRW Computers has delivered an advanced mobile computer center to Phillips Petroleum Company in Bartlesville, Oklahoma. The mobile system--called "Computermobile"--is a complete process control center, and is housed in a custom-built, 40-foot trailer. Heart of the Computermobile is a TRW digital control computer. A major advantage of this unit is that it can be moved readily and connected rapidly to equipment in Phillips plants to perform special measurements, data logging, analysis, and process control functions. A computer system which will keep a constant check on plant conditions and operations has been applied to Continental Oil Company's new $10,000,000 "ALFOL" industrial alcohol plant at Lake Charles, Louisiana. The products are used principally in the synthetic detergent and plastics industries. The TRW control computer system is used primarily to compute various unit operations factors, to monitor and log data during and after startup of the plant, to follow trends through digital printouts of both measured and calculated variables, and to monitor and check instruments and equipment. A major steel producer has ordered a TRW computer system, for delivery in the fall of 1963, that will be used to conduct dynamic process studies of the basic oxygen furnace process. Early in 1964, an international oil company will install at TRW control computer on a catalytic cracking unit. With this computer system, the company will undertake a major research project to study and evaluate the merits on on-line computer control of the cracking unit. The project will also investigate the feasibility of using the computer to integrate refinery operations. INSTALLATIONS The following are TRW computer installations, not necessarily the TRW 330: Chichibu Cement Co., Kumagaya, near Tokyo, Japan Tokuyama Soda Co., Ltd., Tokuyama City, Japan Electricite de France, Chinon, France Tennessee Valley Steam Plant Nr. 5, Drakesboro, Ky Bull Run Steam Plant, Edgemoor, Tennessee (1964) Federal Aviation Agency's Experimental Center, Atlantic City, New Jersey B.F. Goodrich Goal. Plant, Calvert City, Ky Monsanto Chemical Co., Luling, Louisiana Celanese Corp. of America, Bishop, Texas Badische Anilin & Soda-Fabrik AG, West Germany Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., Lake Charles, La. Petroleum Chemicals Inc., Lake Charles, La. Allied Chemical Corp., Ironton, Ohio Nippon Petrochemicals Co. Ltd., Kawasaki, Japan Phillips Petroleum Co., Borger, Texas Monsanto Chemical Co., El Dorado, Arkansas OPERATING TIME, GENERALIZED COMMAND LIST MILLISECONDS Load, Store, and Register Transfer 0.26 Add, Subtract, and Index 0.26 Multiply 7-bit multiplier 1.30 14-bit multiplier 2.21 21-bit multiplier 3.12 27-bit multiplier 3.90 Divide 7-bit quotient 1.43 14-bit quotient 2.34 21-bit quotient 3.25 27-bit quotient 4.03 Square Root 2.08 Jump 0.26 Extract and Merge 0.26 Shift 0.13 + 0.13/place Block Transfer 0.26/word Analog (Hi-Lo Limit) Scan 0.26/word Digital Input 0.26 Digital Output 0.26 * Start Digital Output Buffer 0.26 * Buffer automatically outputs up to 712 numeric or 572 alphanumeric characters. After ordering the output, the computer is free to continue with its program. A signal is received when the block output has been completed.
|BRL 1964, TRW 330, starting page 0263|
TRW-330 INPUT/OUTPUT SUBSYSTEMS
|INPUT/OUTPUT||Operator's console, with indicators, displays, pushbuttons, and multi-position switches.|
|EQUIPMENT||typewriters. Paper-tape readers and punches. Magnetic tape units. Punched card input/output. The analog input subsystem accepts variable-voltage inputs from instruments that measure|
|ANALOG INPUTS||pressures, flows, temperatures, and other process conditions. The basic subsystem can provide fm up to 1024 analog inputs; more can be accommodated by adding extra modules. Through a buffer, the inputs are automatically sequenced into memory at the nominal rate of 60 per second; no program running time is consumed for this operation; however, the frequency and sequence in which instrument values are read can be changed by program control. Higher input rates are available in special system configurations.|
|ANALOG OUTPUTS||The analog output subsystem uses data words in memory to regulate controller setpoints and adjust valves and other controls. The basic subsystem can provide for up to 128 analog outputs; more can be a commodated by adding extra modules. Through a buffer, these data words are converted to analog values and automatically applied to output devices; again, no program running time is consumed for this operation. The settings of the output devices are maintained by individual memory elements. Output signals can be pulses of fixed or vari- able duration, or currents or volcages in a variety of ranges. Program-controlled outputs can also be supplied.|
|DIGITAL INPUTS||The digital input subsystem accepts input signals that represent the on-or-off status of switch or relay contacts, time-of-day signals, and information from operator-controlled equip- ment. The basic subsystem can provide for up to 829 digital inputs; more can be accom- modated by adding extra modules. The digital input subsystem can include pulse counters and sequence event recorders, in which digital inputs are used to accumulate counts of events and the order in which closely spaced events occur; these systems operate without inter- rupting the computer's control or data-gathering program; event sequences can be recorded at rates up to 60 per second, and count signals can be recorded at rates up to several thousand per second.|
|DIGITAL OUTPUTS||The digital output subsystem provides signals for on-off control and for operator communication via peripheral output equipment. The basic subsystem can provide for up to 576 digital outputs; more can be accommodated by adding extra modules. Where advisory control is desir- able, special displays can be provided at remote operating locations; these displays use alpha- numeric symbols and indicator lights to present data in engineering units. Pulse train outputs can be provided for stepping operations or motor jogging.|
|PRIORITY INTERRUPT||The interrupt subsystem allows conditions outside the TRW-330 to interrupt computations; the computer retains the partial results of calculations in memory while it responds to the interrupt; after handling the emergency, and if necessary, warning the operator, the 330 resumes its calculations at the place where it was interrupted. The priority interrupt system can handle a number of separate interrupt sources in the order of their importance both with respect to each other and to the program in progress; for each interrupt line, the 330 has a unique response, so that no executive routine is required to locate the interrupt source. The basic priority interrupt subsystem can provide for up to 92 interrupt lines; more can be accommodated by adding extra modules.|
|FAIL-SAFE DESIGN||Fail-safe and self-check features are an integral part of the design and programming of TRW computer systems. Equipment or power failure of any kind causes automatic lockup of all controllers at their most recently calculated setpoints. Any output or outputs may be taken off computer control and controlled manually. A fail-safe detector restarts the program and alerts the operator if it is not reset by the computer program at regular intervals.|
|EXPERIENCE||Every TRW-330 system includes the experience-in analysis, design, manufacturing, installa- tion, and startup-of the world's leading control computer organization.|
|BRL 1964, TRW 340, starting page 0264|
TRW 340 Thompson Ramo Wooldridge 340 MANUFACTURER Thompson Ramo Wooldridge, Inc., TRW Computers Co. Photo by Thompson Ramo Wooldridge, Inc. APPLICATIONS On-line, real-time process or test control system. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 28 Binary digits/instruction 28 Instructions/word 1 Instructions decoded 109 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type One address Number range 0 to ± 134,217,727 Instruction word format +--------+------------------+-------+------+---------------+ | 29 | 27 26 22 21 18 | 17 16 | 15 | 14 1 | +--------+------------------+-------+------+---------------+ | Parity | Mode Modi- Basic | Index | Rel. | | | | fiers Oper. | Desig | Tr. | | | | Code | | Mode | | | | Operation Code | | | Operand Field | +--------+------------------+-------+------+---------------+ +--------+------+------------------------------------------+ | 29 | 28 | 27 1 | +--------+------+------------------------------------------+ | Parity | Sign | Magnitude | +--------+------+------------------------------------------+ Automatic built-in subroutines Bootstrap Loader Binary to BCD and BCD to Binary Conversions Automatic coding There is a PROCOMP software package. Registers and B-Boxes There are 5 programmable registers + accumulation + optional registers, for interrupt, etc. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl. Stor. Access Excl. Stor. Access Microsec Microsec Add 16 8 Mult 68 62 Div 80 74 Above times are for full length words. Arithmetic mode Parallel Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential STORAGE No. of No. of Access Medium Words Digits/Word Microsec Magnetic Core 4,000- 29 6 65,000 Magnetic Drum 8,000- 32 8,330 130,000 Magnetic Tape Channels or tracks on the tape 7 Track/tape The magnetic tape characteristics are under development.
|BRL 1964, TRW 340, starting page 0265|
INPUT Medium Speed Paper Tape 10-300,chars/sec Cards 300 cards/min Magnetic Tape Variable Analog Signals from instrumentation Digital Signals from operator and process Digital Clock OUTPUT Medium Speed Paper Tape 10-100 chars/sec Typewriter 10 chars/sec Cards 100 cards/min Magnetic Tape Variable Analog Signals to instrumentation Digital Signals to operator and process 80-column cards are used. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Tubes 0 Diodes 5,700 Transistors 1,830 Capacitors 712 Resistors 6,075 Flip-Flops 64 Magnetic Cores 120,000 to 480,000 CHECKING FEATURES Marginal checking features are built in. Parity checking is done on the drum and core storage units and on the transfers. There is a programmed self-check available, and a watch-dog timer that the computer resets regularly. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 1 Kw Volume, computer 84 cu ft Area, computer 12 sq ft Floor loading 125 lbs per sq ft Weight, computer 1,500 lbs Input-output elements are not included in the above figures. Site preparation requirements 120v, 60 cycles/second, single-phase power, with conduits for interconnecting cables are all that are required. An air conditioner is not required. PRODUCTION RECORD Time required for delivery 12 months COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Maintenance and service contracting cost about 16,000 per year. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour Shift Shifts Shifts Operators 1 2 3 Engineers 0 0 1 Training made available by the manufacturer to the user includes a control computer system course, a programming course, a theory of operation and maintenance course, and a process analysis course. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE The TRW-340 design is based on operating experience with successful computer control installations that have logged over half a million hours of on-line, twenty-four-hour-per-day operation with reliability better than 9 ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features include the flexibility of memory size, full-expandability of memory and inputoutput, and a 990 reliability in round-the-clock operation. OPERATING TIME, MICROSEC (INCL. MEMORY GENERALIZED COMMAND LIST ACCESS TIME) Load, Store, and Register Transfer 16 Add, Subtract, and Index . . . . . . . . . . 16 Multiply 7 bit multiplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 14 bit multiplier . . . . . . . . . . .245 21 bit multiplier . . . . . . . . . . .359 27 bit multiplier . . . . . . . . . . .457 Divide 7 bit quotient . . . . . . . . . 147 14 bit quotient . . . . . . . . . . .261 21 bit quotient . . . . . . . . . . . .375 27 bit quotient . . . . . . . . . . . .473 Square Root ............ 228 Jumps................... 16 Extract and Merge . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Shifts 0-7 places ............. 16 8-15 places ............ 33 16-23 places ........... 49 24-31 places ........... 66 Core Searches .......... 16/word *BIockTransfer, Core/Drum and Drum/Core . 130/word -Block Transfer, Drum/Drum . . . . . . . .260/word -Hi-Lo Limit Drum Scan . . . . . . . . . .260/word -Digital Input Drum Scan .. 10/lin Digital Input . . .. ... . . . 16 Digital Output . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 . * These commands are executed off-line; for core/drum and drum/core block transfers, the program is automatically "frozen" for 16 microseconds every 130 microseconds until transfer is complete; for the others, only 16 microseconds of actual program operating time are required. At the end of a block transfer, an interrupt signals completion; this interrupt may be masked if not needed. At the end of a drum scan, one of two interrupts signals whether scan was successful or not.
Go To Table of Contents