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BRL 1964, DAYSTROM 046, starting page 0088

 
  
DAYSTROM 046

MANUFACTURER
Daystrom Incorporated, Control Systems Division

APPLICATIONS
The Daystrom 046 is a stored program digital computer designed specifically 
for use as the central processor in real-time monitoring and control systems. 
In such applications, the 046 operates as two interconnected, yet
independent devices: The input/output section automatically controls and 
sequences information flow to and from various field and peripheral devices; 
the arithmetic and control section executes the program to perform all
arithmetic and data handling functions. Both devices have independent 
access to memory and function simultaneously providing the adaptability 
and efficient use of computing time necessary for real time applications.

Applications include on-line process monitoring and control, offline and 
on-line data reduction, off-line and on-line scientific calculation, 
on-line automatic checkout, and on-line high-speed data acquisition.
The Daystrom 046 is used for on-line monitoring and control of the 
following industrial processes: chemical processing plants, gas dispatching 
centrals, nuclear test facilities, oil production fields, power plants, refineries,
steel mills, television switching centrals, telemetry central, automatic 
checkout, range safety systems, communication switching and data acquisition.
In addition, off-line uses are data reduction, scientific problem solving, 
and logistics and command problems.

PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system      Binary
Binary digits/word          22
Binary digits/instruction   22
Instructions/word            1
Instructions decoded        50
Arithmetic system           Fixed point
 Floating point is programmable.
Instruction type            One address
Number range                0 (221 - 1)
Instruction word format
              +--------+------+---------+---------+
Bit Position  | 22     | 21   | 20 - 14 | 13 - 1  |
              +--------+------+---------+---------+
Function      | Parity | Sign | Command | Address |
              +--------+------+---------+---------+
Automatic built-in subroutines  
   Square root 
Automatic coding  
   MOSAIC 46 Assembler 
Registers and B-Boxes  
   4 registers available to the programmer  
   7 registers total
The machine is basically a single address machine where some instructions 
are broken down into several single address instructions. The sign bit 
and the three most significant octal digits of each instruction word represent
the command.

ARITHMETIC UNIT
             Incl. Stor Access
             Microsec
Add           1,320      670
Mult         10,120    5,060
Div          10,560    5,280
Construction (Arithmetic unit only)
 Vacum-Tubes               0
Arithmetic mode           Serial
Timing                    Synchronous
Operation                 Sequential
 Double precision arithmetic is  automically
performed.

 STORAGE
                 No. of       No. of     Access
 Medium          Words        Digits     Microsec
Magnetic Core    16,384         22        440
Magnetic Drum   262,144         22      8,600 (average)
Minimum core storage is 4,096 words.
 Minimum drum storage is 16,384 words.
Magnetic Tape
 No. of units that can be connected         32 Units
 No. of chars/linear inch                  200 or 556 Chars/inch
 Channels or tracks on the tape              7 Track/tape
 Blank tape separating each record           0.75 Inches
 Tape speed                                 75 or 150 Inches/sec
 Transfer rate                          15,000 to 83,000 Chars/sec
 Start time                                  3.3 Millisec
 Stop time                                   1.8 Millisec
 Average time for experienced
operator to change reel of tape             45 Seconds
 Physical properties of tape
 Width                                       0.5 Inches
 Length of reel                          2,500 Feet
 Composition                                Mylar
The magnetic tape units employ IBM format and operate in a direct access 
mode. The tape units rewind with or without erase, sense the end of tape, 
read or write a record, advance or retreat n records, and advance to end of
tape.

INPUT
 Medium                Speed
Keyboard               Manual
Paper Tape             120 or 300 chars/sec
Punched Cards          150 cards/min
Analog Signals       2,000 signals/sec
Digital Signals
Punched card input is optional.

OUTPUT
 Medium Speed
Paper Tape              60 or 110 chars/sec
Typewriters (up to 8)   15 chars/sec
Analog Signals         200 signals/sec optional
Digital Signals        200 signals/sec
Magnetic Tape       15,000 to 83,400 chars/sec
Punched Cards          100 cards/min
Line Printer             5 lines/sec
Punched card output is optional. A 100 line/sec printer is optional and a 
60,000 signal/sec analog signal rate is optional.


BRL 1964, DAYSTROM 046, starting page 0089
 

All input and output operations are controlled and sequenced by circuitry 
independent of the arithmetic portion of the computer. The input/output 
circuits have direct access to memory allowing scanning and outputting to
proceed simultaneously with calculations.

CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM
Type            Quantity
Tubes                0
Diodes          10,000
Transistors      5,000
Magnetic Cores  90,112 - 360,448
The cores are used in memory only. Their quantity depends on size of memory.

CHECKING FEATURES
Parity checking is performed on memory and Input
Output transfer. Diagnostic routines are available.

POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION
Power, computer        1 Kw
Volume, computer      63 cu ft
Area, computer         9 sq ft
Floor loading         90 lbs/sq ft
Weight, computer   8,000 lbs
No special installation requirements are necessary.   Air conditioning is 
not required for ambient temperatures between 40 and 110oF and humidity 
between 0 and 95%.

PRODUCTION RECORD
Number produced to date       11
Number in current operation   11
Time required for delivery    12 months

COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
Prices available on request. Maintenance and field service is available at 
$120 per regular 8 hour day plus travel and lodging from the nearest 
regional office.

PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
One operator per 8-hour shift. Standard programming, operating, and 
maintenance courses are available either in manufacturers plant or at job site.

RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE
Manufacturer guarantees on-line availability at without scheduled down 
time. Component derating of 500 of manufacturers' values for most 
components provides increased meantime between failure and operating margins.
Each component is subjected to rigid quality control. Circuits are tested 
within the overall system by performance of d~namic temperature'tests from minus 
40oC to plus 70 C while all voltages are varied t 5/0.
All components are specified by a reliability and quality control 
engineering group which examines each system and component in detail 
and establishes criteria on all factors which  contribute to the 
reliability of the equipment.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Outstanding features include 7-level priority interrupt and direct access 
to memory without interruptions of program.

INSTALLATIONS
Louisiana Power & Light Co. (2 machines) La Place, La.
 Gulf States Utilities Co., Beaumont, Texas 
Carolina Power & Light Co., Goldsboro, N.C. 
Duquesne Light Co., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 
Kansas Gas & Electric Co., Wichita, Kansas 
Union Carbide Olefins Co., Charleston, W. Va. 
Clark Oil and Refining Co., Blue Island, Illinois 
Public Service Electric & Gas Co., Newark, N.J. 
Continental Oil Co., Cody, Wyoming

REMARKS
Model Number Item
 636-C 	Magnetic Core Volume (4,096 words)
 641 		Magnetic Drum
 		(16,384 to 262,144 words)
 636-S 	Stall Alarm Feature
 645 		Digital Display Unit
 640 		Tape Punch
 644 		Line Printer
 637 		Typewriter
 637-RP 	Typewriter with Reader & Punch
 646 		Operator's Panel
 647 		Basic TC Reference Junction Box
			Additional Analog Inputs
			Additional Analog Outputs
			Additional Digital Inputs
			Additional Digital Outputs
636-T 	Hand Tools 636-SP Spare Parts




BRL 1964, DAYSTROM 136, starting page 0090
 


DAYSTROM 136

MANUFACTURER
Daystrom, Incorporated, Control Systems Division

APPLICATIONS
The Daystrom 136 is a stored program digital computer designed specifically 
for use as the central processor in real-time monitoring and control systems 
In such applications, the 136 operates as two interconnected, yet
independent devices: The Input/Output Section automatically controls and 
sequences information flow to and from various field and peripheral devices; 
the Arithmetic and Control Section executes the program to perform all
arithmetic and data handling functions. Both devices have independent 
access to memory and function simultaneously providing the adaptability 
and efficient use of computing time necessary for real-time applications,
which include on-line process monitoring and control, off-line and on-line 
data reduction, off-line and online scientific calculation, on-line automatic 
checkout, and on-line high-speed data acquisition, in such areas of on-line
monitoring and control as found in chemical processing plants, gas 
dispatching centrals, nuclear test facilities, oil production fields, 
power plants, refineries, steel mills, television switching centrals, 
telemetry central, automatic checkout, range safety systems, 
communication switching, data acquisition, and off-line uses as data reduction, 
scientific problem solving, and logistics and command problems.

PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system             Binary
Binary digits/word                 24 plus sign and parity
Binary digits/instruction          24
Instructions/word                   1
Instructions decoded              122
Arithmetic system                  Fixed point
   Floating point is programmable.
Instruction type                   One address
Number range                       0 +- 224 - 1
+------+---------+-----------+------------------------+
| 25   | 24   16 | 15     14 | 13                   1 |
+------+---------+-----------+------------------------+
| Sign | Command | Address   | Modified or Unmodified |
|      |         | Mod. Code | Operand Address        |
+------+---------+-----------+------------------------+
Automatic built-in subroutines  
   Square Root 
Automatic coding
   MOSAIC - 136 Symbolic Assembler
   Guarded Trace 
Registers and B-Boxes
    Of the many registers used to perform operational functions, 4 are 
available to the programmer. 64 special index registers and indirect 
addressing are available with all commands.

ARITHMETIC UNIT
          Incl. Stor. Access 
          Microsec 
Add        37.2
Mult.     111.7
Div       968.2
Construction (Arithmetic unit only)
 Vacum-Tubes            0
Arithmetic mode        Serial
Timing                 Synchronous
Operation              Sequential
The parallel multiply capability is optional. If the option is not 
exercised, then the multiply time is 968.2 microseconds.

STORAGE
                  No. of   No. of    Access
                  Words    Digits    Microsec
Magnetic Core    16,384       26          4
Magnetic Drum   262,144       26      8,600
Minimum magnetic core storage is 4,096 words.
 Minimum magnetic drum storage is 16,384 words.
Magnetic Tape
 No. of units that can be connected       32 Units
 No. of chars/linear inch                200 or 556 Chars/inch
Channels or tracks on the tape             7 Track/tape
Blank tape separating each record          0.75 Inches
Tape speed                                75 or 150 Inches/sec
Transfer rate                         15,000 to 83,400 Chars/sec
 Start time                                3.3 Millisec
 Stop time                                 1.8 Millisec
 Average time for experienced
operator to change reel of tape           45 Seconds
 Physical properties of tape               0.5 Inches
 Length of reel                        2,500 Feet
 Composition                               Mylar
The magnetic tape units employ IBM format and operate in a direct access 
mode. The tape units rewind with or without erase, sense end of tape, 
read or write a record, advance or retreat n records, and advance to end of
tape.

INPUT
 Medium         Speed 
Keyboard        Manual 
Paper Tape       120 or 300 chars/sec 
Punched Cards    150 cards/min 
Analog Signals 2,000 signals/sec 
Digital Signals

OUTPUT
Medium          Speed
Paper Tape            60 or 110 chars/sec
Typewriters (up to 8) 15 chars/sec
Analog Signals       200 signals/sec
Digital Signals      200 signals/sec
Magnetic Tape     15,000 to 83,400 chars/sec
Punched Cards        100 cards/min
Line Printer           5 lines/sec
Up to 60,000 analog signals per second, the punched card input and output, 
and a 100 line/second printer, are optional. All input and output operations 
are controlled and sequenced by circuitry independent of the arithmetic
portion of the computer. The input output circuits have direct access to 
memory allowing scanning and outputting to proceed simultaneously with calculations.

BRL 1964, DAYSTROM 136, starting page 0091
 


CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM
 Type              Quantity
Tubes                  0
Diodes            15,000
Transistors        5,000
Magnetic Cores    90,112 to 360,448
The diode count includes tunnel and back diodes. The quantity of magnetic 
cores depends on the size of storage used.

Each component is subjected to rigid quality control. Circuits are designed 
with a component derating of 50% and tested within the overall system by 
performance of dynamic temperature tests from minus 40oC to plus
70oo and 
110oF, relative humidity between 0 and 95%.

PRODUCTION RECORD
Number produced to date         2
Number in current operation     2
Time required for delivery     12 months

COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
Computer with 4,096 word core memory, typewriter, punch, and reader cost 
$148,000.00.
Maintenance and field service is available at 120.00 per regular 
8-hour day plus travel and lodging from the nearest regional office.

PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
One operator is required for each 8-hour shift. Standard programming, 
operating, and maintenance courses are available either in 
manufacturers plant or at job site.

RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE
Guaranteed on-line availability is 99% without scheduled down time. 
Component derating (50% of manufacturers values for most components) 
provides increased meantime between failure and operating margins.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Outstanding features include direct access to memory without interruption 
of program and flexible command structure.

INSTALLATIONS
A steel corporation in Detroit, Michigan and the 
Carolina Power and Light Co., Goldsboro, N.C.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES
Model Number Item
 636-C 	Magnetic Core Volume (4,096 words)
 641 		Magnetic Drum
 		(16,384 to 262,144 words)
 636-5 	Stall Alarm Feature
 645 		Digital Display Unit
 640 		Tape Punch
 644 		Line Printer
 637 		Typewriter
 637-RP 	Typewriter with Reader & Punch
 646 		Operator's Panel
 647 		Basic TC Reference Junction Box
		Additional Analog Inputs
		Additional Analog Outputs
		Additional Digital Inputs
		Additional Digital Outputs
636-T 	Hand Tools 
636-SP 	Spare Parts






BRL 1964, DAYSTROM 636, starting page 0092
 

DAYSTROM 636

MANUFACTURER
Daystrom, Incorporated, Control Systems Division

    
Photo by Daystrom, Inc.

APPLICATIONS
The Daystrom 636 Computing System is used for online monitoring and control 
of industrial processes such as chemical processing plants, gas dispatching 
centrals, nuclear tent facilities, oil production fields, power plants,
refineries, steel mills, television switching centrals, telemetry central, 
automatic checkout, range safety systems, communication switching, and 
data acquisition. In addition some off-line uses are data reduction, scientific
problem solving and logistics and command problems.

The Daystrom 636 is a fast, highly reliable, general purpose digital 
computer designed for either on-line or off-line applications. Exceptional 
input/output capabilities combined with a large instruction repertoire allow 
marraige to virtually any process.

Some applications are on-line process monitoring and control, off-line and 
on-line data reduction, off-line and on-line scientific calculation, on-line 
automatic checkout, and on-line high-speed data acquisition.

PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system          Binary
Binary digits/word              15
Binary digits/instruction       15
Instructions/word                1
Instructions decoded           131
Arithmetic system               Fixed point
 Floating point is programmable.
Instruction type                One address
Number range             0 to 215-1, to 0 to 230-1


BRL 1964, DAYSTROM 636, starting page 0093
 


Instruction word format
+----------+----------------+-----------+
|    6     |    3           |   6       |
+----------+----------------+-----------+
| Function | Addressing/    | Execution |
|          | Indexing Field | Field     |
+----------+----------------+-----------+
+----------+----------------+-----------+
|    6     |    3           |   6       |
+----------+----------------+-----------+
| Function | Addressing     | Execution |
| Field    | Field          | Field     |
+----------+----------------+-----------+

Automatic built-in subroutines
   Square root
   Gray Code to straight binary conversion. 
Automatic coding
   MOSAIC-636 (Macro Operation Symbolic Assembler and Information Compiler)
   UNICOMP (Universal Compiler, FORTRAN compatible)
   DAPAL (Daystrom Power Plant Automation Language) 
Registers and B-Boxes
  10 programmable registers including 2 index registers, 2 arithmetic 
  registers, 1 base address register, 1 find address register, 
  1 boolean logic register, 1 input/output register, 1 priority level
   (input/output) register, 1 next instruction register.

The 131 instructions include square root, gray-to-binary conversion, 45 
separate branch commands, Boolean algebra operations, 7 compare commands, 
incrementing commands, partial operand command, and normalize commands.

ARITHMETIC UNIT
         Incl. Stor. Access 
         Microsec
Add       17
Mult      17
Div      272
Construction (Arithmetic unit only)
 Vacuum-Tubes           0
 Transistors        1,777
 Condenser-Diodes   3,291
Arithmetic mode        Serial
Timing                 Synchronous
Operation              Sequential
 Certain instructions and all memory transfers are made in parallel. 
Input/output functions progress without loss of computation time.

 STORAGE
                   No. of          No. of Binary     Access
                   Words           Digits/word       Microsec
Magnetic Core       32,768            15               4
Magnetic Drum      262,144            15           8,600 (average)
 Minimum core storage is 4,096 words.
 Minimum drum storage is 16,384 words.
Magnetic tape
No. of units that can be connected    32 Units
No. of chars/linear inch             556 Chars/inch
Channels or tracks on the tape         7 Track/tape
Blank tape separating each record      0.75 Inches
Tape speed                            75 or 150 Inches/sec
Transfer rate                     15,000 to 83,400 Chars/inch
 Start time                            3.3 Millisec
 Stop time                             1.8 Millisec
 Average time for experienced
operator to change reel of tape       45 Seconds
 Physical properties of tape
 Width                                 0.5 Inches
 Length of reel                    2,500 Feet
 Composition                           Mylar
The 636 magnetic tape option is fully compatible with the standard IBM 
format. Core/tape transfers utilize the direct-access-to-memory feature 
of the 636; following the proper set-up commands, transfer proceeds
simultaneous to and independent of the normal computer programs. Tape 
features provided include record read and write, rewind with or without erase, 
advance to end of tape, and  advance or retreat n records.

INPUT
Medium                    Speed
Keyboard                  Manual
Paper Tape               120 or 300 cards/sec
Punched Cards            150 cards/min
Analog Signals         2,000 signals/sec
Digital Signals      880,000 signals/sec

OUTPUT
 Medium                   Speed
 Paper Tape               60 or 110 chars/sec
Typewriters (8)           15 chars/sec
Magnetic Tape         15,000 to 83, 400 chars/sec
Analog Signals           200 steps/sec
Digital Signals          200 points/sec
Punched Cards            100 cards/min
Printer                    5 lines/sec
Analog signal output rate of 60,000 steps/second is optional. The printer 
speed of 100 lines/second is also optional. The computer has direct memory 
access for input/output with no computation slow down.

CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM
Type                  Quantity
Tubes                      0
Diodes                 6,200
Transistors            3,700
Magnetic Cores        65,536 to 524,288
Each component is subjected to rigid quality control. Circuits are designed 
with a component Derating of 50% and tested within the overall system by 
performance of dynamic temperature tests from minus 40oC to plus
70oC while all voltages are varied +-5%. All components are 
specified by a reliability and quality control engineering group which 
examines each system and component in detail and establishes criteria 
on all factors which contribute to the reliability of the equipment.

CHECKING FEATURES
Fixed checking features include parity on memory and transfers, computer 
stall alarm, overflow, diagnostic program routines, and the memory is 
preserved on power failure. The stall alarm may be actuated by memory
parity, power failure, or incorrect or stalled program loops. This alarm 
provides signals for setting or resetting relays, alarming, and disarming 
selected output devices.

Optional checking features include guarded address, clock or word failure 
for drum memory, and battery back-up for continuous operation of up to 30 minutes.

POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION
Power, computer           3 KVA
Volume, computer        200 cu ft
Area, computer           27 sq ft
Room size                 7 x 12 ft
Floor loading           100 lbs/sq ft
Weight, computer      2,000  lbs



BRL 1964, DAYSTROM 636, starting page 0094
 



Site preparation requirements
Other than conduit and cabling provisions required for input/output 
signals, no special room design is required.
Air conditioning is not required for ambient temperatures of 40 to 110o F., 
relative humidity of 0 to 95%.

PRODUCTION RECORD
Number produced to date          5
Number in current operation      1
Number in current production     4
Number on order                  4
Anticipated production rates    12/year
Time required for delivery       6 months

COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES
Computer with 4,096 words core memory, 1 typewriter, 1 punch, and 1 reader 
cost $95,000.00.
Maintenance and field service is available at $120.00 per regular 8-hour 
day plus travel and lodging from the nearest regional office.

PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
One operator is required for each 8-hour shift.
Programming, operating, and maintenance training courses are available 
either at manufacturer's plant or at customers site.

No routine maintenance or scheduled down time is required other than 
occasional cleaning, oiling, etc., of electro-mechanical peripheral devices.
Guaranteed on-line availability is 99% without scheduled down time. Unique 
"Ground-plane" construction and the use of a pure sine-wave clock insures 
low noise radiation and susceptibility. Component derating (50% of
manufacturers values for most components) provides increased meantime 
between failure and operating margins.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Outstanding features include a sine wave clock (low radiation, less 
susceptible to noise), a direct and indirect address modification 
and single or double indexing without loss of computing time, and 
direct input/output capabilities without program intervention.
Unique system advantages include an easily expandable memory, 
an easily expandable input/output, and a stall alarm feature.

FUTURE PLANS
A parallel multiply capability is planned.

INSTALLATIONS
National Broadcasting Co., Burbank, California 
Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, Schenectady, N. Y. 
Louisiana Power and Light Co., La Place, La. 
Atomic Energy of Canada, Toronto, Ontario

Model Number Item
 636-C 	Magnetic Core Volume (4,096 words)
 641 		Magnetic Drum
 		(16, 384 to 262,144 words)
 636-5 	Stall Alarm Feature
 645 		Digital Display Unit
 640 		Tape Punch
 644 		Line Printer
 637 		Typewriter
 637-RP 	Typewriter with Reader & Punch
 646 		Operator's Panel
 647 		Basic TC Reference Junction Box
		Additional Analog Inputs
		Additional Analog Outputs
		Additional Digital Inputs
		Additional Digital Outputs
636-T 	Hand Tools 
636-SP 	Spare Parts


 
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