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BRL 1961, RASTAC, start page 0766

RASTAC

Random Access Storage and Control MANUFACTURER Laboratory for Electronics Photo by Photo International for Laboratory for Electronics, Inc. APPLICATIONS System is designed for mass information handling, providing integrated random access computer storage. RASTAC was developed to provide large scale digital computers with a random high speed data retrieval capability. Generally speaking, the storage media of most computers is not geared to the requirement for frequent access to segments of its file - the queueing problem tends to reduce the systems usage to that of an electronic file clerk. RASTAC permits considerably more access to information by the computer of an updating station and at the same time, leaves the computer free to perform its prime data processing functions. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Optional Digits per word Variable Digits per instruction 12 Instructions per word Variable Instructions decoded Two Instruction type One address, specifying beginning of transfer point Instruction word format 12 Character Instruction +----+--------+---------+--------+---------------+----+----+ | IM | TRACK | ADDRESS | SECTOR | NO OF SECTORS | OF | IM | +----+--------+---------+--------+---------------+----+----+ IM = Instruction marker OP = read or write operation There are three registers, viz the I/0 Register, the instruction register, and the track address register. The RASTAC System is designed to be operated with any large computer installation and therefore the choice of the number system or digits per word is entirely up to the option or the machine characteristics of the user. The only fixed word is this system is the 12 character instruction word. This instruction word is coded in excess 3 decimal notation. ARITHMETIC UNIT No arithmetic unit as such Timing Synchronous OperationSequential STORAGE No. of No. of Access Medium Words Digits Microsec HD File Drum Variable 1875 to 62 197,000 av. million Up to 33 file drums can be included in the standar system giving a maximum of approximately 62 million characters. The access times given above include drum switching. The file drum rotates at 3 rps and recording is serial. Each file drum has a capacity of 15 x 10 bits. The average random access time to any part of the file remains constant, independent of the total number of drums. Each file drum unit contains its own reading and writing mechanism and track selection devices. INPUT Media Speed Keyboard (Alphanumeric) Manual Paper Tape 330 char/sec From any Computer 20 kc character The system is designed to work as an input-output device connected to a large computer; as such, its information transfer rate is 20 kc character rate. OUTPUT Medium Speed To any Computer 20 kc CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Use Tubes 150 DC and pulse power drivers Diodes 8,000 Primarily for logic Transistors 100 Flip-flops and inverter switches Magnetic Cores 2,000 Logical amplifiers and inverters The system is composed of nine basic types of highly reliable magnetic modular building blocks, plus a small number of special plug-in counter packages. All packages are readily accessible as well as completely interchangeable within a given type. CHECKING FEATURES Operational errors which may occur during a read or write routine and parity errors of the paper tape input are detected. Errors are classified internally as critical or non-critical depending on their effect on information in the storage. Critical errors stop reading or writing instantly. Non-critical errors allow reading to continue to the end of the addressed information. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE. PREPARATION Power, computer 13.3 Kw 15.3 KVA Vole, Central System 300 cu ft Volume, File Drums (ea) 35 cu ft Area, Central System 48 sq ft Area, File Drums (ea) 9 sq ft Room size 25 x 30 ft Floor loading 200 lbs/sq ft 200 lbs concen max Weight, computer3,200 lbs, total Weight, File Drums 800 lbs, each Clean atmosphere is desirable but not essential, inter-cabinet cables may be run in void beneath floor or in conduits as may be dictated by the site. 3 phase, 110-120v AC power is required. PRODUCTION RECORD Time required for delivery from receipt of order 8 months COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Central System Controller $100,000 to $300,000 File Drums $ 34,000 to $ 38,000 Maintenance and service contracts are available and arecustomarily negotiated under separate con- tracts. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Training is available to the users by the manufacturer. Since the RASTAC System is normally incorporated into a large computer complex the problem of deciding the typical personnel requirements are integrated with those of the large computer installation with maintenance and engineering service on a shared basis with the computer. The actual system users themselves are of many and varied types and need little instruction or operational abilities. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY A similar system, RASTAD has been in operation for a period of approximately 8 months. During this time, the reliability figures have shown a meantime-to-failure of approximately 200 hours. The previously established reliability figures of the component board types used in the RASTAC System in conjunction with the circuitry technique, etc., have shown this to be a conservative figure. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS High capacity bulk storage with low access-time, make the RASTAC System suited for integrated operation with a computer. The unique advantage of the RASTAC System is the flexibility of the storage device. The storage capacity can be raised from the basic 15 million bits to 500 million bits with no change in random access time. FUTURE PLANS New developments at Laboratory for Electronics, are concentrated in two main fields with regard to the RASTAC System, that of additional output devices and of newer and better storage devices. In storage development, a new flexible Bernoulli Disk is being used to decrease the cost per list stored and the access times.
BRL 1961, RASTAD, start page 0768

RASTAD

Random Access Storage and Display MANUFACTURER Laboratory for Electronics, Inc. APPLICATIONS System is designed for mass information handling. It can function as an integrated random access computer storage and display system and as an information storage and display unit for reference library techniques, such as management sales reports, status of operations, and inventory and production control. RASTAD was developed to provide large scale digital computers with a random, high speed, data retrieval capability. Generally speaking, the storage media of most computers is not geared to the requirement for frequent access to segments of its file - the queueing problem tends to reduce the systems usage to that of an electronic file clerk. RASTAD permits considerably more access to information by either the computer or the output display devices and at the same time, leaves the computer free to perform its prime data processing functions. Additionally, the output rate of the display devices provides data availability rate far in excess of that provided by the usual output devices. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Optional Digits per word Variable Digits per instruction 12 Instructions per word Variable Instructions decoded Two Instruction type One address, specifying beginning of transfer point Instruction word format 12 Character Instruction +----+--------+---------+--------+---------------+----+----+ | IM | TRACK | ADDRESS | SECTOR | NO OF SECTORS | OF | IM | +----+--------+---------+--------+---------------+----+----+ IM = instruction marker OP = Read or write operation The RASTAD System is designed to be operated with any large computer installation and therefore the choice of the number system or digits per word is entirely up to the option or the machine characteristics of the user. The only fixed word in this system is the 12 character instruction word. This instruction word is coded in excess 3 decimal notation. There are three registers, the I/0 register, the instruction register, and the track address register. ARITHMETIC UNIT No arithmetic unit as such Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential Drums are asynchronous. STORAGE No. of No. of Access Medium Words Digits Microsec HD File Drum Variable 1875 to 62 197,000 avg million Up to 33 file drums can be included in the standard system, giving a maximum of approximately 62 million characters. The access times given above include drum switching. The file drum rotates at 3 cps and recording is serial. Each file drum has s capability of 15 x 106 bits. The average random access time to any part of the file remains constant, independent of the total number of drums. Each file drum unit contains its own reading and writing mechanism and track election devices. INPUT Media Speed Keyboard (Alphanumeric) Manual Paper Tape 330 char/sec From any computer 20 kc char The system is designed to work as an input-output device connected to a large computer; as such, its information transfer rate is 20 kc character rate. OUTPUT Medium Speed Remarks SM-II Viewer System 20 kc Direct View Storage Tube Device with instruction keyboard The SM-II is a completely flexible output display device. The information displayed is stored on the face of the tube. This display may consist of a page of information or may take the form of a map, chart, graph or any abstract display desired. The total display capacity for the 21" Viewer is 13,000 characters. Storage time for a display is up to 20 minutes. This retention capability permits the superimposition of the pertinent data over an original display for a more complete evaluation at a single viewing. Data retrieval and display is accomplished by pressing keys on a keyboard similar to an office calculator. The desired information is retrieved and displayed in less than 2 seconds after the start key is ressed (this occurs where only one viewer is used. Under more severe conditions where ten viewers were requesting information at the same moment, the waiting time for display of information on the lowest priority viewer would be less than 20 seconds.
BRL 1961, RASTAD, start page 0769
CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Use Tubes 150 DC and pulse power drivers Diodes 8,000 Primarily for logic Transistors 100 Flip-flops and inverter switches Magnetic Cores 2,000 Logical amplifiers and inverters The system is composed of nine basic types of highly reliable magnetic modular building blocks, plus a small number of special plug-in counter packages. All packages are readily accessible as well as completely interchangeable within a given type. CHECKING FEATURES Operational errors which may occur during a read or write routine and parity errors of the paper tape input are detected. Errors are classified internally as critical or non-critical depending on their effect on information in the storage. Critical errors stop reading or writing instantly. Non-critical errors allow reading to continue to the end of the addressed information. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE. PREPARATION Power, computer 13.3 Kw 15.3 KVA Volume, Central System 300 cu ft Vole, File Drums (ea) 35 cu ft Area, Central System 48 sq ft Area, File Drums (ea) 9 sq ft Room size 25 x 30 ft Floor loading 200 lbs/sq ft 200 lbs concen max Weight, computer 3,200 lbs, total Weight, File Drums 800 lbs, each Clean atmosphere is desirable but not essential, inter-cabinet cables may be run in void beneath floor or in conduits as may be dictated by the site. 3 phase, 110-120v AC power is required. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 1 Number in current operation 1 Number in current production 1 Time required for delivery 8 months COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Central system controller $100 000 to $300,000 File Drums $ 34,000 to 38,000 Viewers, displays 20,000 to 30,000 Additional equipment Viewers 20,000 to 30,000 File Drums 34,000 to 38,000 Maintenance and service contracts are available and are customarily negotiated under separate contract. Rental is negotiable. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Training is available to the users by the manufacturer. Since the RASTAD System is normally incorporated into a large computer complex the problem of deciding the typical personnel requirements are integrated with those of the large computer installation with maintenance and engineering service on a shared basis with the computer. The actual system users themselves are of many and varied types and need little instruction or operational abilities. The display units simply require a request and location of information and proceed from there automatically. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY The RASTAD System has been in operation for a period of approximately 8 months. During this time, the reliability figures have shown a mean-time-to- failure of approximately 200 hours. The previously established reliability figures of the component board types used in the RASTAD System in conjunction with the circuitry techniques, etc., have shown this to be a conservative figure. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features include high capacity bulk storage with very low access time, coupled with the ability to display large sections of information for long periods with minimum access to the files. The RASTAD System is suited for integrated operation with a computer. The unique advantages of the RASTAD System is the extreme flexibility of the storage and display devices. The storage capacity can be raised from the basic 15 million bits to 500 million bits with no change in random access time. The display generation equipment allows an unlimited number of viewers to be driven from one symbol generator at speeds an order of magnitude greater than the fastest mechanical output devices. The characters displayed can be either alphanumeric or abstract synbols and can be changed in a matter of minutes. The high output speeds of the display devices coupled with the access times of the central storage enable up to 100 output devices to be coupled with the RASTAD System before queueing times become a serious problem. FUTURE PLANS New developments at Laboratory for Electronics, are concentrated in two main fields with regard to the RASTAD System, that of additional output devices and of newer and better storage devices. With regard to the output of display devices, systems are being developed to enable wall displays for the briefing room applications of the integration of access systems for microfilm archival storage and systems for hard copy read out devices. In storage development a new flexible Bernoulli Disk is being used to decrease the cost per list stored and the access times. The access times of these disks will allow many hundred viewers to be coupled into one system without overload. New low cost types of viewers are being developed using stored video techniques for display recirculation.

BRL 1961, RCA 110, start page 0770

RCA 110

RCA 110 Electronic Industrial Computer System MANUFACTURER Radio Corporation of America Industrial Computer Systems Department APPLICATIONS The system is designed to perform industrial control functions, on-line in real-time. The RCA 110 was designed not as a "package" but as a total system - which can be tailored to the exact data control needs of each user. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary or binary coded decimal Binary digits/word 24 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type One address There is a limited two address feature. There are 71 wired-in instructions. Registers include 7 indexable address modifier reg- isters and 8 high speed input-output registers. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Microsec Add 56 Mult 728 Div 868 Timing Synchronous Word time is 28.89 microseconds. Clock frequency is 936 kilocycles/sec. STORAGE Media No. of Words Access Microsec Magnetic Core 256 to 4,096 Magnetic Drum 4,096 to 51,200 8,300 avg. Drum transfer rate is 200 kilocycles/sec. Up to 12 buffer tracks are available for input-output. INPUT OUTPUT Industrial control CHECKING FEATURES Computer free time is automatically assigned to self checking routines. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 5.0 KVA220 Volts Size, computer 82 x 34 x 105 inches ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS The system automatically responds to off-limit or emergency situations and handles them on a priority basis with a complete analysis of priority after each instruction. This eliminates the delay be- tween the occurrence and the recognition of an emergency condition. The system will correct the most urgent situation first, but if more than one trouble-spot should occur at the same time, it automatically appraises the urgency of each and handles it in turn. INSTALLATIONS Radio Corporation of America Industrial Computer Systems Department Electronic Data Processing Division 21 Strathmore Road Natick, Massachusetts

BRL 1961, RCA 200, start page 0772

RCA 200

RCA Series 200 Guidance Computer MANUFACTURER Radio Corporation of America Missile Electronics and Controls Division APPLICATIONS Interial navigation and guidance digital differential analyzer. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 20 Arithmetic system Twos complement Instruction type Single instruction - integrate; coding specifies integrator interconnections. Number range - 1 < N < + 1 Instruction word format +------------------+------------+--------------+ | | | Mem. Plane 0 | + [delta]Y Address + Y Register +--------------+ | | | Mem. Plane 1 | +------------------+------------+--------------+ | | | Mem. Plane 2 | + [delta]X Address + R Register +--------------+ | | | Mem. Plane 3 | +------------------+------------+--------------+ Programming capability consists of selecting up to 12[delta]Z's as components of Z[delta]Y, selecting a [delta]Z to be used as [delta]X, and specifying lengths of Y and R registers. ARITHMETIC UNIT Time for processing one integrator is 850 microseconds Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors 1,500 Diodes 300 Magnetic cores 1,024 Other components 2,100 Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Asynchronous Operation Arithmetic unit is serial, operating on 2 bits at a time. Com- puter is a digital differential ana- lyzer. STORAGE No. of Medium No. of Words Digits Coincident Current 16 integrators 20 bits Core Memory integrators INPUT OUTPUT Input consists of error signal in accelerometer control loop; computer converts this signal to digital form in conjunction with a digital velocity meter. The computer is part of the accelerometer control loop. Core memory is loaded with a photoelectric reading head, through which a 25" length paper tape is pulled by hand. Output consists of increments of desired quantities, which are used to drive stepping motors. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Diodes 300 Zener diodes Zener diodes to be replaced by resistors in sub- sequent models. Transistors 1,500 Types 2N404 and 2N357 Magnetic cores 1,024 CHECKING FEATURES All checking is performed through programming. A pluggable checkout panel is used to display all important computer signals as an aid to programmed checkout. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE. PREPARATION Power, computer 0.02 Kw Volume, computer 0.06 cu ft Weight, computer 4.5 lbs Power, space and weight specifications are for micromodular version. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY System has been operating for over 3 months and is about to go on flight test. FUTURE PLANS System to be micromodularized in early 1961. Present operating version contains "mini-modules", having the two base dimensions the same as those of RCA's micromodule, but with a height of 1 to 2 inches, depending on the module.

BRL 1961, RCA 300, start page 0773

RCA 300

RCA Series 300 Central Computer MANUFACTURER Radio Corporation of America Missile Electronics and Controls Division APPLICATIONS Real time control, airborne and shipboard applications (guidance, navigation, fire control, etc.); sensor signal data processing, air or shipboard (trajectory analysis, target keeping, etc.); and missile-space applications - guidance, on- board checkout, data reduction, etc. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 13 Binary digits/instruction 13 Instructions/word 1 Instructions decoded 33 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type One address Instruction word format +------+-----------+-------+---------------------+ | Sign | 1 3 | 4 | 5 12 | +------+-----------+-------+---------------------+ | | Command | B Box | Operand Address | +------+-----------+-------+---------------------+ All input and all output proceeds automatically upon recognition of "Start Input/Output" instruction. There is one B- Box of 8 bits. Modular nature of parallel machine permits word length to suit problem. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 24 12 Mutt 96 86 Div 168 156 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors 1,418 Diodes 518 Arithmetic mode Parallel Timing Synchronous Operation Concurrent STORAGE No. of No. of Access Media Words Digits Microsec Transfluxors 8,192 max. 106,300 3 Cores 1,024 max. 13,330 4 Transfluxors are used in non-destructive read-out mode for program storage; cores axe used for data storage. INPUT Media Speed Tape Reader 20 char/sec Voltage Analog-to-Digital Con 50,000 bits; sec Direct Digital 41,667 words/sec The tape reader loads programs only. There are 3 A-D converter channels in prototype. Up to 32 are available. Up to 32 words of direct digital inputs (from shaft of A-73 converters, etc.) can be accepted. OUTPUT Media Speed Flexowriter 10 char/sec Analog/Digital Conversion41,667 words/sec Direct Digital 41,667 words/sec Up to 32 channels of A-D conversion are available. 5 channels are operative in the prototype. The direct digital output is used for discrete control of external devices. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Diodes 54096 1,346 650C3 64 651CO 670 653C9 212 Transistors 2N357 1,692 2N404 3,708 Above counts are for a configuration consisting of 1,024 words transfluxor memory, 1,024 words core memory, 18 analog input words, and 18 analog output words. CHECKING FEATURES Checking is accomplished by repeat programming. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE. PREPARATION Power, computer 0.135 Kw Volume, computer 3.0 cu ft Weight, computer 100 lbs PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 1 Number in current operation 1 Time required for delivery 12 months RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Computer operating in laboratory for over twelve months. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding feature is the transfluxor memory. INSTALLATIONS Radio Corporation of America Missile Electronics and Controls Division Burlington, Massachusetts

BRL 1961, RCA 301, start page 0774

RCA 301

Radio Corporation of America 301 MANUFACTURER Radio Corporation of America Electronic Data Processing Division
Picture by Radio Corporation of America APPLICATIONS The computer is a general purpose, digital, stored program, transistorized machine consisting of high speed storage, program control, a control panel, and a power supply. The program control unit contains circuitry for the interpretation and execution of the instructions. The high-speed storage unit is a magnetic core, decimally addressed, random- access device which provides the storage for data and programs. Memory cycle time is 7 microseconds. The basic unit contains 10,000 or 20,000 alphanumeric characters. The control panel contains the controls and indicators necessary for the operation and maintenance of the computer. The power supply unit supplies power for operation of the control panel, the high-speed storage, and the program control, and standard voltages for the control of the input- output equipment. Transistor and diode logic techniques are employed throughout the system. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary coded decimal Number of binary coded decimal Variable digits per word Number of characters per 10 RCA 301 characters instruction Number of instructions per word Variable Number of instructions decoded 40 Arithmetic System Fixed point Programmed Floating point Instruction type Two-address Number range Limited by size of memory Instruction word format +-----------+-------------+-----------+-----------+ | 1 | 1 | 4 | 4 | +-----------+-------------+-----------+-----------+ | Operation | N Character | A Address | B Address | | Code | | | | +-----------+-------------+-----------+-----------+ Automatic coding RCA Narrator - COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language)
BRL 1961, RCA 301, start page 0775
A variety of general-purpose service programs are provided. These include distribution-sorting, trace, memory dump, on- line input-output service routines, the RCA 301 Interpretar and the RCA 301 COBOL Narrator. ARITHMETIC UNIT Microseconds Add time (decimal), including 210 instruction acquisition Programmed multiply time, average 7,800 Transfer instruction 126 Compare 56 to 161 Basic cycle time 7 Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Operation Concurrent Above times assumes 6-character fields. Multiply time assumes average multiplier digit is 5. STORAGE No. of Access Media Char. Microsec Magnetic Core 20,000 7 Record File Over 4.6 x 106, each 4.25 x 106 The number of words of storage is variable due to variable word length. The Record File is random access. Up to 5 files may be used. Access to files is simultaneous. Magnetic Tape Hi Data tape Type 580 Tape Station, with Tape Adaptor, records 222 char/inch at 100 inches/sec. The type 581 Tape Station, with Tape Adaptor, records at 333 char/inch at 100 inches/sec. No. of units that can be connected 12 Units No. of chars per linear inch of tape 250 Chars/in Channels or tracks on the tape 1 Track/tape Blank tape separating each Inter-Block gaps = record approx. one inch Tape speed 30 Inch/sec Transfer rate 7,500 Chars/sec Start timeUp to 20 Millisec Stop time Not exactly established (overlaps computation) Average time for experienced 45 Seconds operator to change reel Physical properties of tape Width 1/2 Inches Length of reel 1,200 Feet Composition Mylar INPUT Media Speed Punched Paper Tape 100 chars/sec Punched Cards 600 cards/min Magnetic Tape See Magnetic Tape Record File 2,500 char/sec (transfer rate) OUTPUT Media Speed Punched Paper Tape 100 char/sec Punched Cards 100 cards/min Magnetic Tape See Magnetic Tape Record File 2,500 char/sec (transfer rate) Hi-Speed Printer 600 lines/min (120 char/line) CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Types Transistors 3656 3680 Diodes 8510674-D3 Quantity depends on system. CHECKING FEATURES Accuracy control is accomplished on the RCA 301 system by the following methods: Processor, Models No. 303 and No. 304 Program Control The following conditions will stop computer operations: Incorrect parity in memory address register Incorrect parity in memory register Incorrect parity in operation register Incorrect parity in N register Incorrect parity in N R (repeat) register Input/Output Any of the following conditions will stop computer operation: Device not operable or not responding to applicable computer command Parity error in data received from input device Non-verification of data sent to an output device Paper Tape Reader - Punch Control - Model No. all The computer is caused to stop whenever any of the following conditions occur: Failure to receive the write-verify pulse Incorrect parity of information being read Characters in a gap space Reader not following command Punch not following command Card Reader Control - Model No. 314 The card is read at two stations and a hole count check is made. An error will stop the computer, and the Card Reader. Punch Card Control - Model No. 315 The cards are automatically read after punching. On-Line Printer Control - Model No. 316 Signals are returned to the printer control module from the On-Line Printer, so that corrective measures can be taken whenever any of the following conditions occur:
BRL 1961, RCA 301, start page 0776
Low paper supply Ribbon failure Printer motors off Power supply off Record File Control - Model No. 317 Any of the following conditions will cause the computer to stop: Incorrect parity of address sent to Record File Non- verified write information Record file not following command Incorrect parity of information being read Hi-Data Tape Group Control - Models No. 318 and No. 319 Monitors the write-verify check, the addressverify parity check, the operability, and the response to commands of the Hi-Data Tape Group. Paper Tape Reader-Punch - Model No. 321 The information received at the punch is checked; and when parity is correct, a write verify pulse is returned to the Paper Tape Reader-Punch Control. Card Reader - Model No. 323 Each card is read twice to permit an accuracy check. On-Line Printer - Model No. 333 Signals are sent to the Computer so that corrective measures may be taken which cause the Printeroperation to stop whenever any of the following conditions occur: Low paper supply Ribbon failure Printer motor off Printer in non-operable condition Card Punch - Model No. 334 The cards are read after punching to permit an accuracy check of the punched data. Record File - Model No. 361 Parity check is performed on the information to be written and on the address received from the Record File Control for the selection of records. Hi-Data Tape Group - Model No. 381 Automatic stop of tape at end of reel Write lockout Write verify Address verify Operable indication Record File Mode Control - Model No. 391 Parity checks of data and address are performed. Simultaneous Mode Control - Model No. 392 Parity checks are performed on SOR and M registers. An error will stop the computer. However, the other modes will complete their operation before they stop. 580/581 Adaptor - Model No. 393 The write-verify pulse is received when the headwrite current is of correct parity. Operability and response to commands are also checked. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Estimated Area (Average System) Data Processing Equipment Area 825 sq ft Additional Area Consumed by Aisles, Exits, structural columns and unusable corners 425 sq ft Engineering Service 300 sq ft 1,550 sq ft Above estimate does not include any space for Analysis, Programming Personnel, Magnetic Tape Reel Library, Operating Supplies, Air Distribution or Power Equipment. Estimated Power KW KVA Data Processing Equipment 25.9 32.2 Engineering Service Requirement 3-55 4.5 ----- ----- 29.4 36.7 Above power requirement should be 208V, 4-wire system at a constant voltage to insure proper power for the equipment, and does not include any power requirements for the computer system and engineering service area. Estimated Cooling Tons Data Processing Equipment Requirement 8.4 Engineering Service Equipment Requirement 1.0 ---- 9.4 The above cooling is based on the requirement to remove the heat dissipated by the equipment. This equipment will give satisfactory operation in an environment of 72 degrees F temp. and 50'%, relative humidity. Estimated Floor Loading The installed RCA equipment can be placed on a floor which will support a loading of 100 lbs/sq ft. Most office buildings have floors that meet this loading requirement. It must be understood that above estimates are not to be considered complete or final in any respect. Final specifications on power, cooling and floor loading will be issued. Site Preparation The layout and installation are very flexible. Site preparation is a customer responsibility normally accomplished by electrical, mechanical and structural contractors employed by the customer in arrangements that are not part of the EDP equipment purchase lease or service. State and local laws and regulations require that a professional engineer or architect take responsibility for preparation of the site and procurement of necessary permits. PRODUCTION RECORD Prototype under construction Time required for delivery from receipt of order 18 months
BRL 1961, RCA 301, start page 0777
COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES RCA 301 Card System Basic Selling Price Monthly Rental 1 623 Card Reader 15, 50 350 1 314 Card Reader Control 6,900 130 1 634 Card Punch 8,900 200 1 315 Card Punch Control 13,750 275 1 361 Record File 14,900 300 1 317 Record File Control 6,250 125 1 632 On-Line Printer 32,200 700 1 316 On-Line Printer Control 7,850 150 1 303 Basic Processor (10,000 char.) 89,400 1,750 -------- ------ Total $196,000 $ 3,980 RCA 301 System and Components 1 301 Basic Processor with 20,000 $112,900 $ 2,350 characters of core storage 1 321 Paper Tape Reader/Punch (100 char/sec) 7,800 170 1 311 Paper Tape Control 5,900 120 1 381 HiData Tape Group (6 tape stations 74,900 1,520 7,500 char/sec) 1 318 Hi Data Control 17,900 375 1 391 Record File Mode Control (Permits 32,800 690 simultaneous operation of up to five Record Files) 1 329 Simultaneous Mode Control (Permits 27,900 590 simultaneous read-write and under some conditions read-write-compute) 1 393 Tape Station Adaptor Permits use of 15,900 320 22,222 or 33,333 char/sec tape stations) Equipment lease and service agreements available PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Typical Personnel Required per Shift One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour Shift Shift Shift Supervisors 1 1 1 Analysts * * * Programmers * * * Coders * * * Clerks 0.5 0.5 0.5 Librarians 0.5 0.5 0.5 Operators 2 1 1 Engineers 0 0 0 Technicians 0 0 0 In-Output Oper 0.5 0.5 0.5 Tape Handlers 0.5-1.5 0.5-1.5 0.5-1.5 ----- ----- ----- Totals 10 7 6 The number of persons working in an RCA 301 EDP center is dependent upon the work and complexity activity of the system. *If it is desired to accelerate the system development and programming, this area should be augmented until the initial peak is overcome. Training made available by manufacturer to users: RCA offers, without charge, courses in the application and use of the RCA 301 Transistorized EDP System equipment. RCA will provide training of personnel or representatives of the users in the analysis of data processing tasks to be assigned to the equipment, in the development of procedural systems and of computer programs, and in the revision and correction of the procedures and programs developed by trainees. This training of analysts will be performed at mutually agreed upon locations beginning 15 days after selection of equipment. A continuous education program is also available to prospective users. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Features include: a. Variable item and record length b. Building block concept c. Large internal magnetic core storage for its size d. Random access file e. Low installation cost System advantages are: In addition to the library, RCA provides the customer with an Automatic Assembly System designed to simplify and therefore expedite the writing of programs. The system is "machine oriented", i.e., its format is designed to accept instructions closely analogous to actual machine instructions. English language programming (COBOL) will be available to users of this equipment. FUTURE PLANS RCA continues electronic research in support of this system. INSTALLATIONS U. S. Navy Administrative Office, EXOS AO, EAD, EDPB, Washington 25, D. C.
BRL 1961, RCA 501, start page 0778

RCA 501

Radio Corporation of America 501 MANUFACTURER Radio Corporation of America Electronic Data Processing Division
Photo by Radio Corporation of America APPLICATIONS Manufacturer A general purpose, self checking, readily expandable system in the intermediate and large-scale performance class. The system design uses the "building-block" philosophy which results in an expandable, flexible integrated data processing operation, which can be tailored to the customer's needs at the time of delivery and expanded whenever future needs require it. The system may include both on-line and off-line input and output devices in addition to the Computer with High-Speed Storage. On-line equipments are electrically connected to the Computer and are controlled by the Computer Program. Off-line equipments are not electrically connected to the Computer and they are operated independently of the latter. Both on-line and batch data-processing are available in the System. U.S. Naval Propellant Plant The NPP system located in slag. 749 (JATO Test Area), Naval Propellant Plant will be an ordinary five-tape digital computer system which will be used with an Automatic Data Acquisition System on-line to monitor firings of solid propellant rocket motors and to calculate immediate quick-look parameters to indicate to monitoring personnel corrective action required. All applications of the computer will be strictly scientific. It will be used to compute theoretical specific impulse, experimental specific impulse from ballistic firings, heat transfer, and burning rate. The tapes to be used in on-line firings are non-gap type. Scott Air Force Base Located in Building 1604 at Scott AFB, Illinois, the system is used for traffic control, personnel, traffic analysis, manpower authorization accounting, programmed communications, unit authorization list, and circuit directory. Air Reserve Records Center Located at 3800 York Street, Denver 5, Colorado, the system is used for maintenance of personnel data on USAF reservists, preparing statistical reports reflecting the reserve military personnel strengths and skills, controlling military reserve manpower requirements and allocation of skills in the event of mobilization, preparation and control of questionnaires sent to individual reservists and to the Selective Service Boards, control of the Reserve Officer Promotion Act promotion program, preparation of mailing labels for periodicals, preparation of rosters for personnel assignment control, and determination of those eligible for discharge and preparation of applicable discharge certificates. Fidelity-Philadelphia Trust Company Located at 135 S. Broad Street, Philadelphia, the system is now processing 42,000 Special Checking Accounts. On July 1, 1960 accounting for 30,000 Personal Loans will begin. Cut-over of 50,000 Regular Checking Accounts will begin late this year with completion planned during the first half of 1961. General Tire and Rubber Company Located in Akron, Ohio, the system is used for
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Photo by Fidelity-Philadelphia Trust Company billing, inventory control, sales analysis, and accounts receivable within the Tire Division. State Farm Life Insurance Company Located on the 9th Floor at 112 East Washington Street, Bloomington, I11., the system is used for consolidated records of life insurance policyholders for purposes of premium billing and accounting, policy reserve and dividend liability, policy termination benefits, policy loans, summary accounting and statistics, agents' compensation and production statistics, budget setting and compliance reports, unit costs, and actuarial studies. Electronic Data Processing Division, RCA Located at Camden, N. J., the computer is used for justification of engineering change notices, providing technical information for changes in the field, customer reliability studies, testing of special features resulting from configuration modifications, develop long term maintenance techniques, procedures and techniques, analysis of methods costs, and debugging service routines, diagnostic routines, and customer reliability routines. RCA Electronic Systems Center Located at the Cherry Hill Plant, RCA Electronic Systems Center, Merchantville, N. J., the system is used for customer program testing (preparatory to customers receipt of leased or purchased system), presentations (demonstration for potential customers) training (RCA and customer personnel in programming and operation), and revenue work (data processing for customers not presently in the market for data processing equipment of their own). RCA Service Company-Electronic Data Processing Sales Department Located at 1725 "K" Street, N.W., Washington 6, D.C., the system is used for sales demonstrations, debugging, and computing and calculating operations for governmental agencies, commercial and industrial business organizations. EDPD-New York Electronics System Center Located at 45 Wall Street, New York, N.Y., the system is used for a complete back office data processing system for brokerage firms, national election predictions, and investment analysis for investment advisory firms. RCA Astro Electronics Division Located at Locust Corners, N. J., the system is used for scientific and engineering investigations, information retrieval, intelligence processing studies, and electronic production schedules. RCA Service Company, EDP Administration Located at Cherry Hill, Camden S, N. J., the system is used to conduct theoretical and practical courses in the site utilization of electronic test equipment for the maintenance of computer installations, devise special methods whereby sub-moduals are tested in order for instructors and trainees to develop new test methods for the computer and peripheral
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Two RCA 501 Systems Photo by New York Electronic Systems Center equipment, and conduct computer courses of instruction to develop trainees ability to interrogate the logic of the equipment. Ordnance Weapons Command Located at the Headquarters, Ordnance Weapons Command, Rock Island, Ill., the system is used by the National Inventory Control Point for supply management of Ordnance materiel, major weapon components and spare parts, by the Production Equipment Agency for inventory management of Army owned production equipment, by the Rock Island Ordnance Depot for stock accounting, by the Rock Island Arsenal for production, planning, scheduling, and control and the performance of reporting and comptroller activities and by the NICP for cataloging. Atlantic City Electric Company The system, located at Accounting and Data Processing Center, Egg Harbor Township, N. J., is used for Customers Accounting - includes preparation of bills and centralized receivable operation, Payrollincludes all normal payroll functions and labor and automotive cost distribution, and Stores Accountingincludes maintenance of master files of material and supplies, pricing of material used, application of overheads and cost distribution of material and supplies consumed. Other applications will follow. Ordnance Ammunition Command Located at the Ordnance Ammunition Command, Joliet, I11., the system is used for scientific and engineer- ing applications pertinent to the reliability assur- ance program for ammunition and special weapons. Raytheon Company - Missile Systems Division Located at the Raytheon Company, Andover Plant, Andover, Mass., the system is used for engineering documentation, generation breakdown and parts list, with changes, and for major item repair parts list provisioning. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Manufacturer Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word Variable Characters/instruction 8 (Octal equivalent) Instructions/word Variable Instructions decoded 49 Arithmetic system Fixed point (Programming tech- niques make floating point fea- tures available Instruction type Two address Number range No limit (Depends on number of characters in the memory) Instruction word format +------+---------+------+---------+ | X | XXX | X | XXX | +------+---------+------+---------+ | Op | "A" | N | "B" | | Code | Address | Char | Address | +------+---------+------+---------+ Automatic codingAutomatic Assembler RCA Narrator (COBOL) Registers and B-boxesIncluded Decimal. information is automatically decoded during input to its octal equivalent. It is stored in memory in binary form. ARITHMETIC UNIT Manufacturer Due to variable word length feature, time depends on "n". Storage access is 15 microseconds for characters. All time is in microseconds. Addition Time Decimal 15n1 + 45n2 + 30n3 + 90 Binary 45n where nl =total number of spaces and/or minus characters found to the right of both operands n2 = number of digits in the shorter operand n3 = difference in number of digits of the operands Fornegative sums, add 30(n + 1) + 15 where n = number of digits in the sum. n =number of characters in augend for binary addition Multiplication Time (Microseconds) Decimal 15 [110 + (12n1 + 32) n2 ] + 15n3, for nl > 0 and n2 > 0
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Photo by Atlantic City Electric Company 15 (n2+n3+3), for nl = 0 and n2 > 0 15 (nl + n3 + 3), for n2 = 0 and nl > 0 15 (n3 + 3), for nl = 0 and n2 = 0 (Item Separator Symbol alone or all spaces plus I.S.S.) where nl = number of digits in multiplicand n2 = number of digits in multiplier n3 = total number of spaces (including sign) and/or minuses to the right of the least significant digits of the operands Division Time (Microseconds) Decimal 15 [ 261 - 7n2 + 15n2(nl-n2)+41] +15n3 for nl > n2 15 (3n1+ n2+ 12) + 15n3 for nl < n2 15 (n2 + 7) + 15n3, for nl = 0 (i.e ., the dividend where missing) nl = number of digits in the dividend n2 --number of digits in the divisor n3 = total number of spaces (including sign) and or minuses to the right of the least significant digits of the operands The figures below serve to indicate general relative speed. For a specific case the formulas can be applied (Microseconds). Add 240 to 420 Multiply 1,900 to 9,600 Divide 1,300 to 2,400
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Photo by U.S. Army Ordnance Ammunition Command Construction Transistors 135 Diodes 400 Magnetic Cores 4,096 one matrix) Magnetic Cores 114,688 one module) No tubes are used Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Operation Concurrent Operands may be any length that does not exceed memory size. STORAGE Manufacturer No. of No. of Access Media Words Digits Microsec Magnetic Core Variable 262,144 (max) 15 (4-char) Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 62 Units No. of chars/linear inch 333.33 ms's/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 16 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record 0.34 Inches Tape speed Approx 100 Inches/sec Transfer rate 22,222 33,333 66,666 Chars/sec Start time 3.5 Millisec Stop time 2.5 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel 45 sec or less Physical properties of tape Width 3/4 Inches Length of reel 2,400 Feet Composition Mylar Base U.S. Naval Propellant Plant Access Medium No. of Chars Microsec Magnetic Core32,768 chars or15 microsec/ 65,536 octal digitschar The magnetic core memory can be expanded to 262,144 locations. A random access drum with 1.5 million characters is optional equipment. In certain instructions, four characters may be brought out in parallel with a total access time of 15 microseconds, i.e. 15/4 microseconds per character. There is no "word" concept in this computer. It is a variable word length computer. Scott Air Force Base No. of Access Medium Chars Microsec Magnetic Core 16,384 15
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Photo by Raytheon Manufacturing Company Mitchel Air Force Base Medium No. of Chars Access Microsec Magnetic Core 32,768 15 Expandable from 16,384 to 65,536 character loca- tions in steps of 16,384 character locations. Fidelity-Philadelphia Trust Company Media No. of Char Access Microsec Magnetic Core 16,384 15 Magnetic Tapes 9,000,000 per reel 30 General Tire and Rubber Company Medium No. of Char Access Microsec Magnetic Core 65,152 15 State Farm Life Insurance Company Medium No. of Char Access Microsec Magnetic Core 49,152 15 Electronic Data Processing Division, RCA MediumNo. of CharAccess Microsec Magnetic Core 65,536 15 EDPD - New York Electronics System Center Medium No. of Char Access Microsec Core 65,536 15 RCA Astro Electronics Division Media Random Access File High Speed Storage (Core Memory) RCA Service Company, EDP Administration Medium No. of Char Magnetic Core Variable Ordnance Weapons Command Media No. of CharAccess Microsec Magnetic Tape 65,536 15 Magnetic tape for bulk storage. Atlantic City Electric Company Media No. of Char Access Microsec Magnetic Core 16,384 15 Magnetic Tape 9,400,000 30 Reading from tape potentially simultaneous opera tion Ordnance Ammunition Command MediumNo. of CharAccess Microsec Magnetic Core Type 32,768 15 Raytheon Company - Missile Systems Division Medium No. of CharAccess Microsec Magnetic Core Dory 32,968 15 Octal numbering system makes this memory comparable to systems with much larger memory capacities.
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Photo by Air Reserve Records Center INPUT Manufacturer Media Speed Paper Tape (Read) Approx 1,000 char/sec Magnetic Tape 22,222 33,333 66,666 char/sec File Control Approx 18,700 char/sec On-Line Card Buffer Up to 33,333 char/sec U. S. Naval Propellant Plant Paper Tape 1,000 char/sec Magnetic Tape 33,333 char/sec Speeds of 22 KC or 66KC are other options. Magnetic tape start-stop time is 3.5 milliseconds. Up to 62 magnetic tape stations can be connected on- line. Information is recorded twice on the magnetic tape for accuracy control purposes. Scott Air Force Base Paper Tape 1,000 char/sec Magnetic Tape 33,000 char/sec Mitchel Air Force Base Paper Tape (7 channel) 1,000 char/sec On-line equipment Magnetic Tape 33,000 char/sec 2300' usable tape per reel Cards 400 cards/min Off-line transcription Punched paper tape density is 10 char/in. Magnetic tape density is 333 1/3 char/in. Fidelity-Philadelphia Trust Company Media Speed Punched Paper Tape1,000 char/sec Add Punches have been greatly improved by refine ments made recently by the manufacturer (Friden). General Tire and Rubber Company Paper Tape 1,000 char/sec Speed excludes time required to pass gaps. State Farm Life Insurance Company Magnetic Tar (8)33,333 cue'/sec Paper Tape ) 1,000 char/sec Electronic Data Processing Division, RCA Paper Tape 1,000 char/sec Magnetic Tape 33 KC RCA Electronic Systems Center Paper Tape 1,000 char/sec 7 level code variable word length Magnetic Tape 33,333 cue'/sec 3/4" mylar 7 level code w/parity parallel dual recording. RCA Service Company - E D P Sales Dept. Magnetic Tape 7 channel Paper Ta EAM Cards (80 Cole EDPD - New York Electronics System Center Paper Tape 1,000 char/sec Magnetic Tape 33 KC
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High Speed Magnetic Core Storage Photo by Air Reserve Records Center RCA Astro Electronics Division Media Speed Cards Paper Tape Magnetic Tape RCA Service Company, EDP Administration Magnetic Tape 7 channel Paper Tape EAM Cards (80 Col.) Ordnance Weapons Command Magnetic Tape 33,333 cue'/sec Completed variable item of record length Paper Tape 1,000 char/sec On-line Punch Cards 400 cards/min Off-line Magnetic tape speed - 100 inches/sec, packing at 333 1/3 chars/inch. Dual recording. Approximately 2400 ft per reel. Read reverse. Atlantic City Electric Company Punched Paper Tape1,000 char/sec Magnetic Tape 33,000 char/sec 7 level code (even parity) on 1 inch paper tape Ordnance Ammunition Command Paper Tape 1,000 char/sec Magnetic Tape 33,000 char/sec Raytheon Company - Missile Systems Division Magnetic Tape 33,000 char/sec 3.5 mil sec start - stop time Paper Tape Reader 1,000 char/sec On-line Card Reader 400 cards/min Off-line OUTPUT Manufacturer Media Speed Magnetic Tape Approx 16,667 22,222 33,333 66,666 char/sec File Control Unit Approx 18,700 char/sec On-line Printing Up to 900 lines/min (120 chars) Monitor Printing Up to 10 char/sec On-line Card Buffer up to 33,333 char/sec Paper Tape (Punch) Up to 100 char/sec U.S. Naval Propellant Plant Paper Tape 10 char/sec Monitor Printer 10char/sec Magnetic Tape 33,000char/sec Scott Air Force Base High Speed Printer600 lines/min Magnetic Tape 33,000char/sec Card Punch 150 cards/min Mitchel Air Force Base High Speed Printer600 lines/min Off-line equipment. 120 characters per line. Computer Monitor Printer10 char/sec On-line electric typewriter Magnetic Tape 33,000 char/sec Used with EMP off line or subsequent operation Punched paper tape can be produced with simultan eous operation of Monitor Printer.
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Random Access Drum Storage Photo by Air Reserve Records Center Fidelity-Philadelphia Trust Company Media Speed High Speed Printer600 lines/min Dorm time bas been negligible General Tire and Rubber Company High Speed Printer600 lines/min On-line Magnetic Tape 33-3 KC Monitor Printer 10 char/sec State Farm Life Insurance Company Magnetic Tape (8)33,333 cue'/sec On Line Printer 600 lines/min 120 char/line Monitor Typewriter 10 char/sec Paper Tape 10 char/sec Electronic Data Processing Division, RCA Card. 150 cards/min Magnetic Tape 33 KC Monitor Printer (Flexowriter) 600 char/min RCA Electronic Systems Center Magnetic Tape ELectro-Mechanical Printer Monitor Printer RCA Service Company - EDP Sales Dept. Magnetic Tape Paper Tape - (7) channel FAN Cards Monitor Printer High Speed Printer EDPD - New York Electronics System Center Media Speed Magnetic Tape 33 KC Electro Mechanical Printer -600 lines/min On Line Electro Mechanical Printer -600-900 lines/min Off Line RCA Astro Electronics Division Card Magnetic Tape On Line Printer RCA Service Company, EDP Administration Magnetic Tape Paper Tape ) Channel EM Cards Monitor Printer (Flexowriter) High Speed Printer Ordnance Weapons Command Magnetic Tape 33,333 char/sec Punch Cards 150 cards/min Off-Line Hard Copy 600 lines/min Off-Line 120 char/line Tape speed is 16,667 char/sec if destined for the Transcribing Card Punch. Atlantic City Electric Company Magnetic Tape 30 microsec/char Printer (off line)600 lines/min-Alpha Numeric 900 lines/min-Numeric only Punched Paper Tape100 char/sec
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Magnetic Tape Storage Photo by Air Reserve Records Center Ordnance Ammunition Command Media Speed Monitor Printer 10 char/sec On-Line Printer 600 lines/min Magnetic Tape 33,000 char/sec A printer line consists of 120 characters. Raytheon Company - Missile Systems Division On-line Printer600 lines/min Card Punch (Off-line) 150 cards/min Magnetic Tape33,000 char/sec Monitor Printer10 char/sec (Part of Console) CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Transistors 2N583 2N269 2N585 2N270 2N579 2N301 2N586 2N581 2N247 2N301 2N277 2N469 Diodes 1N97 1N270 1N91 Quantity depends on System. CHECKING FEATURES Accuracy Control is assured in the RCA 501 System by the following methods: Computer - Model No. 503 Program Control The following Program Control conditions cause the Computer to stop: Incorrect parity in memory address register (3 characters) Incorrect parity in memory register (4 characters) Arithmetic unit malfunction Incorrect parity in output of bus adder Incorrect parity in normal operation register Incorrect transfer of operation from normal to simultaneous mode Time pulse generator malfunction Malfunction of previous result indication Illegal operand in decimal operation Automatic Rerun When selected, incorrect parity detected on reading from magnetic tape will automatically cause entrance to a routine which will back up the tape and re-read it. The computer will stop if incorrect parity is detected on re-reading. Input-Output The following input-output conditions cause the computer to stop: Tape station reading extra bits in the gap Missing timing bit when reading a character from the tape station Tape station does not obey control signals Odd number of characters from paper tape block read Incorrect parity from tape read (see automatic re-run) Incorrectly selected tape Incorrect start message - end message sequence Incorrect parity at the output of computer write buffer or absence of Write-Verify signal from tape station Incorrect paper tape parity On-line printer not operable On-line Printer paper supply low Tape Station - Model No. 581 Remote lockout Local lockout Inoperable indication Automatic stopping of tape at end of reel Write lockout Write verify Write-to-read switching time Dual Recording
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Punched Card Input Photo by Air Reserve Records Center On-Line Printer - Model No. 533 The printer operation stops automatically under the following conditions, and signals are sent to the computer in order that corrective measures may be taken: Low paper supply Printer Unit inoperative (Motor switch is off or ribbon is inoperative) A visual indication is given of the number of lines printed Off-Line Printer - Model No. 535 Provisions are made for corrective measures to be taken when the following conditions occur: Failure to print in a selected colon or printing in an un- selected column (Print Error) Low paper supply Line overflow Incorrect parity Tape station inoperative Printer unit inoperative A visible indication is given of the number of lines printed or the number of messages printed depending on the plugboard connections. Card Transcriber - Model No. 527 The following conditions initiate stopping of the equipment: Incorrect parity at the input or output of the Card Editor or at the output of the Card Reader Incorrect SM, EM sequence Tape station inoperable Failure of write- verify check Failure of comparison check Failure of multi- punch check Input hopper empty or output hopper full E T W (End Tape Warning) Card Reader - Model No. 528 The following conditions initiate stopping of the equipment: Incorrect parity at the output of the Card Reader Tape station inoperable Failure of "Write Verify" check Failure of comparison check Input hopper empty or output hopper full E T W (End Tape Warning) Transcribing Card Punch - Model No. 537 The following conditions cause stopping of the equipment: Incorrect parity at the input or output of the Electronic Unit Storage Incorrect SM - EM sequence Incorrect punching check Input hopper empty or output hopper full Tape station inoperable
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Punched Card Output Photo by Air Reserve Records Center Card Punch - Model No. 538 The following conditions cause the machine to stop: Incorrect punching End file End data Feed failure Output hopper full Tape station inoperable Tapewriter - Model No. 523 A parity check is included, which assures correct parity of all characters punched into the paper tape. Detection of incorrect parity by. the parity check mechanism will lock the keyboard and the Check Indicator will be illuminated until the Code Delete Key is depressed. Simultaneous depression of two keys will neither print nor punch either character. Tapewriter-Verifier - Model No. 525 Same as above. Computer Punch - Yodel No. 512-5 and No. 512-7 Computer Punch - Model No. 513-5 and No. 513-7 Information and control signals required to control the computer punch are derived from the computer. The required electrical returns from the computer punch to the computer are produced by the computer punch. Parity is checked at the computer punch; if incorrect parity is detected, the computer will stop and an indicator lamp on the computer console will light. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Manufacturer Power, system 5.6 Kw 230v 8.O KVA 24,200 Btu/hr Power, computer 1.5 Kw 115-120v 2.1 KVA (excl high speed stor) Volume occupied 300 cu ft Area occupied 64 sq ft Room size 375 sq ft Floor loading 13 lbs/sq ft, distributed 78 lbs/sq ft, concentrated Weight, computer 5,000 lbs, total Site preparation The layout and installation criteria are flexible for the RCA 501 EDP System. Site preparation is a customer responsibility normally accomplished by electrical, mechanical and structural contractors employed by the customer in arrangements that are not part of the EDP equipment purchase lease or service. State and local laws and regulations require that a professional engineer or architect take responsibility for preparation of the site and procurement of necessary permits. RCA engineers are avail
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On-line Printer Photo by Air Reserve Records Center able to assist the customer in the installation p8. U.S. Naval Propellant Plant Power, computer 13.6 Kw 15.6 KVA, including tape stations and other peripheral equipment Power, air conditioner 22 Kw 27.5 KVA Volume, computer system 770 cu ft Volume, air conditioner1,000 cu ft Area, computer system 98 sq ft Area, air conditioner 100 sq ft Rom size, computer 27 ft x 27 ft Room size, maintenance 17 ft x 13 ft Room size, sir conditioner 13 ft x 8 ft Capacity, air conditioner 20 Tons Air conditioner includes ADA system Weight, system 10,000 lbs Weight, air conditioner 2,000 lbs Raised floor for cable runs, false ceilings, sir conditioning through ducts in ceiling; existing build ing is earth-covered reinforced concrete; modifications required removing existing partitions, some electrical and other utility services but essentially no external modifications; power distribution new: 37-5 KVA single phase 2400/4160, 120/24ov transformer. Scott Air Force Base Power, entire system 32.5 Kw 42.5 KVA Volume, computer11,664 cu ft Volume, sir conditioner6,048 cu ft Area, computer1,296 sq ft Area, air conditioner504 sq ft Room size, computer 36 ft x 36 ft x 9 ft Room size, sir conditioner 28 ft x 18 ft x 12 ft Capacity, air conditioner40 Tons; 10 Tons re- quired for computer system Weight, computer 13,300 lbs, total comput- er and components Installed false ceiling, raised floor, and power requirements used existing room. Mitchel Air Force Base Model Equipment Recommended Weight Concentrated Distributed Opera- Max Prop BTU/Hr No. Description Area Facility Area Lbs. Loading Loading tional Kw KVA KVA Sq Ft Sq Ft Lbs/Sq FtLbs/Sq Ft 208/120 503 Computer 64.0 3755,000 78 13 7.1 10.1 8.0/2.1 24,200 523 Tapewriter & 22.0 50 185 8.4 3.7 0.2 0.25 685 Table 581 Tape Station 6.2 25 900 145 36 1.1 1.3 3,750 561-2 High Speed 23.6 110 1,500 127 27 3.0 4.32.9/1.4 10,240 Storage (The above items are located in the computer area) 535 Electro-Mech- 20.4 125 1,500 73 12 4.9 6.15.6/.5 16,750 anical Printer 527 Card Transcriber 21.6 140 1,500 7011. 5.6 7.1 6.3/.8 19,800 (The printer and card equipment are located in 800 sq ft area adjacent to computer)
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Assembly of Miniature Components Photo by Air Reserve Records Center The building type is brick construction, cement floors with asphalt tile. The ceiling is acoustical panel suspended from wooden roof trusses. The basic modifications made for the computer included a raised all metal floor with 1/8" vinyl covering (Modular 4' x 2' floor panels), an inclosure of the entire computer area with movable steel partitions (Type "CC Accoustiwall" by E. F. Hauserman Company), and an addition of a separate air conditioner for the computer area (27 linear diffusers each 48" x 12" 195 cfm with 4" throw.) (Unit is Carrier type 39u11. Electro static air cleaner is Minneapolis Honeywell Model F22, No. 208 (Type C washing). Two condensing units, each with 325,000 BTU/hr at 105OF capacity (Carrier type 5H40 compressors.). Installation of electrical circuits of data processing equipment included a new main power distribution panel board with main feeders No. 4 350 MCM type RH and No. 1 1/0 ground wire, 3 1/2" conduit to trans. vault. Additional wiring circuits for air conditioning equipment and office lighting were also installed. The original ceilings in the computer area were removed and installation of AMC metal pan (perforated) acoustic ceiling with metal attenuation pan was made. The suspension system was "Kemp" and the material was glass fiber sound insulating pads with minimum NRC of 0.85. The ceiling in the input- output area has the plenum above the whole area. The entire ceiling acts as a diffuser. This ceiling has no insulation and no attenuation pan. The raised floor serves as air return to air conditioner. The air conditioning equipment was placed on raised concrete floor (5000 No., 2 1/2" min over ribbed steel deck.) Fidelity-Philadelphia Trust Company Power, computer26.6 Kw 34.3 KVA 0.77 Pf Power, air conditioner42.53 Kw 49.48 KVA 0.862 pf Volume, computer 13,016 cu ft Volume, sir conditioner 4,933 cu ft Area, computer 1,62T sq ft Area, sir conditioner 592 sq ft Floor loading 200 lbs/sq ft 1,000 concen max Capacity, air conditioner30 Tons Weight, computer 2,000 lbs Weight, sir conditioner11,600 lbs Weight, total 15,200 lbs Plenum chambers, perforated metal ceiling, Belair flooring, storm windows, stainless steel framed viewing window, special power lines. General Tire and Rubber Company Volume, computing system12,800 cu ft Area, computing system1,600 sq ft Capacity, air conditioner 20 Tons False ceiling, raised floor, wall insulation, wiring installation of two 10-Ton air conditioning units, partitioning, painting, etc.
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Modular Assembly of Miniature Components Photo by Air Reserve Records Center State Farm Life Insurance Company Power, computer 28.5 Kw 33.5 KVA Area, computer 1,496 sq ft Room size Irregular Weight, air conditioner16,200 lbs Capacity, air conditioner Two 5 Ton units One 10 Ton unit Conventional wall to "room off" area. 20 Tons of supplementary air conditioning. Cables run between floor and dropped ceiling (already there) of rooms below. Necessary ducting was added for air condition- ing. Electronic Data Processing Division, RCA Power, computer only 7.1 Kw 10.1 KVA, max Area, computer 220 sq ft Room size required 2,000 sq ft Weight, computer and all peripheral 20,110 lbs Capacity, air conditioner 30 Tons Air conditioning is chilled water system. False flooring is used. RCA Electronic Systems Center Power, computer 7.1 Kw 10.1 KVA 0.7 Pf Power, sir conditioner 100 Kw 50 KVA Area, computer 64 sq ft Area, air conditioner 360 sq ft Room size, computer 375 sq ft Room size, air conditioner 400 sq ft Floor loading 13 lbs/sq ft 78 lbs concen max Capacity, air conditioner 70 Tons Weight, computer 5,000 lbs Weight, sir conditioner 90 lbs/sq ft Site preparation requirements include false floor raceways for cable, carpeting, building brick - fire- proof, and false ceiling plenum chamber for forced air system. RCA Service Company - E D P Sales Dept. Power, computer 65 Kw 85 KVA 0.77 Pf Set up for 2 system - only one now in use Power, air conditioner 60 Kw78 KVA 0.77 pf Set up for 2 system - only one now in use Vole, computer 2,430 cu ft Volume, air conditioner13,500 cu ft Area, computer 441 sq ft Area, air conditioner1,350 sq ft Room size, computer 38 ft x 100 ft Room size, air conditioner 20 ft x 75 ft Floor loading 13 lbs/sq ft 900 lbs concen max 145 lbs/sq ft max Capacity, air conditioner 60 Tons + 30 Tons standby Weight, computer 43,500 lbs Weight, air conditioner 13,620 lbs Site preparation requirements include seven (7) inch raised floor for cable distribution, acoustical tile false ceiling and complete automatic C02 fire extinguishing system with central control panel in- dication. RCA Astro Electronics Division Power, sir conditioner20 HP Volume, computer 15,000 cu ft Volume, air conditioner1,350cu ft (with plenum) Area, computer 90 sq ft Area, sir conditioner 90 sq ft Room size 1,000sq ft Capacity, air conditioner 20 Tons Weight 20 Ton Worthington Unit RCA Service Company, EDP Administration Power, computer 7.1 Kw10.1 KVA Area, computer 64 sq ft Room size 375 sq ft Floor loading 13 lbs/sq ft
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Automatically Printed Wiring Photo by Air Reserve Records Center Floor loading 78 lbs concen max Weight, computer 5,000 lbs Site preparation requirements include raised floor, increased air conditioning, ceiling to floor partitioning for classrooms, and acoustical tile false ceiling. Air conditioning is an extension of the building air conditioner. Ordnance Weapons Command Power, computer 31.9 Kw 40.25 KVA 230V 10'%, 60 cycle Power, air conditioner 6o.5 Kw Volume, computer 1,082 cu ft Vole, air conditioner 5,600 cu ft Area, computer 209 sq ft Area, air conditioner 800 sq ft Room size, computer 3,652 sq ft Room size, air conditioner 1,600 sq ft 80 x 20 x 10 ft Floor loading 113 lbs/sq ft 200 lbs concen max Capacity, air conditioner84 Tons Weight, computer 23,500 lbs Weight, air conditioner12,000 lbs Space can accommodate twice the complement now installed. Figures are for full complement, including off line equipment. Converted loft type warehouse, reinforced concrete construction. False floor installed to permit all cabling under the floor. Concrete block interior walls except Tape Library which has semi-permanent steel walls. False ceiling, metal, sound absorbing, under concrete ceiling. Extension of bus ducts from 4th floor to 1st floor ( 65 ft). Equipment itself requires 24 tons of air-conditioning. Balance is for latent and ambient heat for a total of 24,000 sq ft area. Atlantic City Electric Company Power, computer 7.1 Kw 10.1 KVA Volume, computer 320 cu ft Area, computer 64 sq ft Room size, computer 375 sq ft Floor loading 13 lbs/sq ft 78 lbs concen max Weight, computer 5,000 lbs Air conditioner is part of general conditioning system for entire building. Computer installed in new buildings whose design in- cluded necessary structural considerations. Ordnance Ammunition Command Power, computer 74.1 Kw 90.5 KVA Power, air conditioner 71.9 Kw Vole, computer 8,160 cu ft Vole, air conditioner 907 cu ft (includ condensers, cooling tower & air filter) Area, computer 280.20 sq ft Area, air conditioner 120 sq ft Room size, computer 1,600 sq ft Room size, air conditioner343 sq ft Floor loading 513.60 lbs/sq ft 3,112.20 lbs concen max Capacity, sir conditioner50 Tons Weight, computer 17,600 lbs Weight, air conditioner 12,162 lbs Required installation of pedestal type floor painted combustible walls with fire retardant paintmodified air conditioner ducts to channel return air thru electro dust filter.
BRL 1961, RCA 501, start page 0794
Standardized Modules Photo by Air Reserve Records Center Raytheon Company - Missile Systems Division Power, computer 30.25 Kw 38.9 KVA (Complete System) Power, air conditioner 23 Kw Volume, computer 21,600 cu ft Volume, air conditioner12,480 cu ft Area, computer2,160 sq ft Area, air conditioner1,060 sq ft Room size, computer40 ft x 54 ft Room size, air conditioner (47 ft 4 in) x (22 ft 4 in) Floor loading100 lbs/sq ft 100,000 lbs concen max Capacity, air conditioner 20 Tons 450 cfm per ton Weight, computer 16,200 lbs Weight, air conditioner 5,000 lbs Exterior walls are filled concrete blocks, plastered and covered with "Kalistron". Interior partition is floor to ceiling metal and glass partitions. Windows are existing metal frame windows removed and space filled with glass blocks. Ceilings are hung metal pan type with glass wool insulation. Also included flush type fluorescent lighting, supply and return air diffusers. Floors are aluminum and tile raised floor as manufactured by "Lisky". Protection of tape library is accomplished by an automatic CO flooding system. Remainder of area is protected-by a combustion sensitive "pyralarm" which opens power circuit to computer equipment and air conditioning system and signals alarm adjacent to the room and in Main Guard House. Power distribution is by main feed panel in computer room through cables under raised floor to each piece of equipment. The air conditioning equipment is housed in a room built into a monitor centered over the main floor, outside and to the north of the computer area. Exterior walls and flooring are made up of metal partitions as manufactured by "Mahon". Interior flooring is made up of 2" x 6" matched boards. All construction is for a four hour fire protection as requested by F. I. A. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 24 Number in current operation 16 Time required for delivery12 months COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Basic System Sales Price 1 503 Computer $ 257,000 1 561-1 Hi-Speed Storage (16,384 char) 120,000 6 581 Tape Stations (33,333 char'/sec) 29,700 ea 1 523 Tapewriter 3,300 ea 1 525 Tapewriter-Verifier 4,500 ea 1 533 On-Line Printer 60,000 ea 1 580 Tape Station (22,222 char/sec $ 25,190 1 582 Tape Station (66,666 char/sec; 1 535 Off-Line Printer (600 lines/sec 1 561-2 High-Speed Storage (32,768 char 1 561-3 High-Speed Storage (49,152 char 1 561-4 High-Speed Storage (65,536 char 1 543 Tape Selecting Unit (additional 8 sta) 1 595 Tape Selecting Unit (additional 16 sta) 1 527 Card Transcriber (400 cards/min) 1 528 Card Reader (400 cards/min) 1 537 Transcribing Card Punch (150 cards/min) 1 538 Card Punch (150 cards/min) 1 567 Random Access File (1,500,000 char) 1 560/597 File Control & Power Units $ 110,000 1 512-5/7 On-Line Paper Tape Punch (100 char/sec) 17,200 1 513-5/7 On-Line Paper Tape Punch (300 char/sec) 38,700 1 551 On-Line Card Buffer 1 523 Tapewriter 1 525 Tapewriter-Verifier 547-6 Tape Switching Unit 11,800
BRL 1961, RCA 501, start page 0795
Quan Model Basic System Monthly Rental 1 503 Computer $ 5,400 1 561-1 Hi-Speed Storage (16,384 char) 2,400 6 581 Tape Stations3,333 char/sec) 550 ea 1 523 Tapewriter 110 ea 1 525 Tapewriter-Verifier 150 ea 1 533 On-Line Printer 1,300 ea 1 580 Tape Station (22,222char/sec $ 465 1 582 Tape Station (66,666char/sec) 1 535 Off-Line Printer (600 lines/min 1 561-2 High-Speed Storage(32,768 char 1 561-3 High-Speed Storage49,152 char 1 561-4 High-Speed Storage65,536 char) 1 543 Tape Selecting Unitadditional 8 stations) 1 545 Tape Selecting Unitadditional 16 stations) 1 527 Card Transcriber(400 cards/min) 1 528 Card Reader (400 cards/min) 1 537 Transcribin Card Punch (150 cards/min) 1 538 Card Punch ?150 cards/min) 1 567 Random Access File (1,500,000 char) 1 560/597 File Control & Power Units 1,525 1 512-5/7 On-Line Paper Tape Punch (100 char/sec 400 1 513-5/7 On-Line Paper Tape Punch (300 char/sec) 900 1 551 On-Line Card Buffer 1 523 Tapewriter 1 525 Tapewriter-Verifier 1 547-6 Tape Switching Unit 300 Maintenance and service contracting benefits: Industrial Specialists Debugging Time Allowed Standard Programs General Backup Executive Orientation U. S. Naval Propellant Plant Monthly Price Rental One 503Computer$257,000 $ 5,400 One 561-2High Speed Storage 177,000 3,400 Five 581Magnetic Tape 14$,500 2,750 Stations One Tapewriter Verifier 4.500 150 Total $587,000 $11,700 Scott Air Force Base One 503 Computer, one 561-1 High speed storage, five 581 Tape stations, one 533 On-line printer, and one 538 Card punch rents for a total of $13,850 per month. A 5 to 7 channel tape to tape converter and a PCAM card to 7 channel tape converter caused a one-time cost of $6,790. Maintenance and service is included in rental. Mitchel Air Force Base The Air Reserve Records Center system consists of Model Description 1 503 Computer, less High Speed Storage Unit (Includes Program Control, Console, Paper Tape Reader, Monitor Printer, Tape Select- ing and Buffer Unit - A (eight trunks and Power Supply). 1 561-2High Speed Storage (32,768 characters) 10 581 Tape Station, 33,333 char/sec 1 535Electro-Mechanical Printer (Off line 600 lines/min) 1 527Card Transcriber For sales and rental prices, see page 16 of GSA Contract No. GS-OOS-23296. Fidelity-Philadelphia Trust Company System rents at $16,150 per month, including maintenance. General Tire and Rubber Company Computer, console, 8 tape stations, paper tape reader, on-line printer and 2 tapewriters rent at approx $16,ooo. State Farm Life Insurance Company 503 Computer, 561- 3 High Speed Storage, eight 581 tape stations, 533 High speed printer, six 523 Tapewriters, twenty-four 525 Tapewriter- Verifier, rents at $19,760 per month. Two 527 Card Transcribers and a 5971 Tapewriter Reader, temporary for conversion period, rent at $4,550 and $160 per month. Rental includes maintenance. Electronic Data Processing Division, RCA System configuration is as follows: 503 Computer 561-4 High Speed Memory Paper Tape Reader Monitor Printer 581 (8 Tape Stations 547-6 (6)Tape Switching Unit 537Transcribing Card Punch 527 Card Transcriber RCA Electronic Systems Center Cost of basic system $586,000 Cost of additional equipment$1,359,800 Rental rate for basic system$11,850 per month Rental rate for additional equipment $26,570 per month Maintenance and service contracting is included in rental. RCA Service Company - E D P Sales Dept. System includes one 503 Computer, one 543 Tape Selector, one 561-4 High Speed Storage, twelve 581 Tape Stations, one 533 E. M. Printer, one 547-6 Tape Switching Panel, one 513-7 Hi Speed Paper Tape Punch and at a total rental of $21,100 per month. System includes three 581 Tape Stations, one 535 Printer, one 527 Card Transcriber, one 537 Transcribing Card Punch, two 523 Tape Writers, and two 525 Tape Writer-Verifiers at a total rental of $10,700 per month. Maintenance is performed by our technicians, who are a combination of operators and maintenance technicians..
BRL 1961, RCA 501, start page 0796
EDPD - New York Electronics System Center - System Configuration Model No. Quantity DescriptionSales Price Monthly Rental 503 2 Computer $ 257,000 $ 5,400 561-4 2High Speed Storage 291,000 5,400 543 2 Tape Sel. B-1 56,700 1,200 581 27 Tape Stations 29,700 550 533 2 Electro Mechanical Printer 60,500 1,300 (On Line) 535 2 Electro Mechanical Printer 170,000 3,400 (Off Line) 527 2 Card Transcriber103,000 2,275 537 2 Transcriber Card Punch 148,300 2,965 523 2 Tape Writer 3,300 110 525 2 Tape Writer Verifier 4,500 150 547-6 2Tape Switching Unit 11,800 300 513-5 2Paper Tape Punch38,700 900 513-7 2Paper Tape Punch38,700 900 All sales and monthly rentals are for a quantity of one. RCA Astro Electronics Division Rental contracting and rates for system Monthly Model Description Rental 503 Computer, less High Speed Storage $5,400 Unit 561-1 High Speed Storage (16,384 char) 2,400 581 Tape Stations, 33 KC (4) 2,200 533 On Line Printer (600 lines/min) 1,300 567 Random Access File 500 568 File Control Unit 1,375 597 Power Supply 150 538 Card Punch 1,700 591 Card Reader Punch 1,500 525 Tapevriter Verifier 150 RCA Service Company, EDP Administration System, composed of Tape Stations (12), Computer, High Speed Storage, Tape Selector B-1, Card Trans- criber, Transcribing Card Punch, Printer Off-line, and Tapewriter-Verifier, sells at a total sales price of $1,215,900. Rental for above equipment on an 8 hour shift, 5 days per week for 1 month is $24,390. Ordnance Weapons Command 5 Tape Stations, On-Line Printer, Computer, Paper Tape Reader, Monitor Printer, and one Module Memory, rents at $11,800 per month. 5 Tape Stations, 3 Modules Memory, Off-Line Card Transcriber, Transcribin Card Punch & Electro- Mechanical Printer rents at 16,510. Maintenance is included in basic rental. Atlantic City Electric Company Main frame rents at $7,800 per month. 7 Tape Stations, Off-line Printer, computer punch, 4 tapewriters, 4 tapewriter-verifiers, and 4 addpunches rents at $9,285 per month. Ordnance Ammunition Command Total rental is $17,585 per month. Raytheon Company - Missile Systems Division 8 tape stations, 1 503 computer, 2 Modules (Hi-speed memory 1 On-line Hi-speed printer, and rents at $14,500 per month. 7 tapewriters, 6 tapewriter verifiers, 1 card transcriber, 1 card punch, and 1 tape switching unit rents at $5,945 per month. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Manufacturer'srecommendation for a "typical" system one 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour Shift Shifts Shifts Supervisors 1 2 3 Analysts Programmers Coders Clerks Librarians 1 2 3 Operators 3 5 7 Technicians 2 4 5 In-Output Oper 1 2 3 Tape Handlers 1 2 3 *Variable depending on problem. Training made available by Manufacturer to Users as required. Analyst Training, Technical Training, Automatic Programming Training, Pre-Installation Training of Operators, Coders, clerks, etc, and Operator Training are made available. The figures on personnel requirements are approximate and depend on the size of the system. U. S. Naval PropellantPlant One 8-Hour Shift Used Recommended Supervisors 1 1 Analysts 2* 2 Programmers 1 4 Coders 0 1 Clerks 1 1 Librarians 1 1 Operators 2 2 Engineers Technicians Operation tends toward closed shop. RCA-supplied training course. Accelerated course given mathematicians at NPP. *Analysts do programming and coding because of present personnel shortage. Because of a lack of operators for the machine being utilized, they also have acquired the ability to operate the machine. Engineers and Technicians are RCA personnel.
BRL 1961, RCA 501, start page 0797
Scott Air Force Base one 8-RourTwo 8-HourThree 8-Hour Shift Shifts Shifts Used Recom UsedRecomRecommended Supervisors 2 2 2 2 2 Analysts 4 4 4 4 4 Programmers 10 10 10 10 10 Clerks 1 1 1 1 1 Operators 1 1 3 3 8 Tape Handlersl 1 3 3 8 Operation tends toward open shop (USAF). Personnel were selected within this command for computer training on the basis of computer aptitude and speciality background. We attempted to select personnel with background training in each of the applications scheduled for the computer, e.g., based upon our expected requirement for analysts and programmers for the personnel application, we selected personnel with high computer aptitude and previous personnel experience. Mitchel Air Force Base one 8-Hour shiftTwo 8-Rour Shifts Used RecommendedUsed Recommended Supervisors 2 11 1112 Analysts 4 6 - - Programmers 15 1T1T Coders 0 0 0 Clerks 3 3 4 Librarians 1 1 2 Operators 1 6 3 Engineers 3 1010 Technicians 0 0 0 In-Output Oper 0 0 0 Tape Handlers 2 0 3 Methods of training used Programmers - Five weeks formal classroom and on-the-job training - total 12 months Operators - Two weeks classroom and 5 1/2 months onthe-job training - total 6 months Organization consists of Data Development Division (Programming and Operations) and System Analysis Division. One position in System Analysis Division is concerned with ADP equipment and use in our system. "Used" personnel are in Systems Analysis Division. "Recommended" is combination of both Divisions. Programmers at this installation are analyst trained. Analysts in Systems Analysis Division are former programmers. This installation operates 20 hours per day and 9 hours on Saturday. Overtime is not normally required in the operating area. Engineers are furnished by the contractor. Operators presently perform all operating functions, i.e., peripheral equipment operation, tape handling, and console operation. Fidelity-Philadelphia Trust Company One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour Shift Shifts Shifts Supervisors 2 Programmers 6 Librarians 1 Operators 1 Engineers 2 1 1 Technicians 2 2 In-Output Oper 1 Tape Handlers 1 Operation tends toward open shop. Methods of training used include RCA Schools plus on-the- job training. General Tire and Rubber Company One 8-Hour Shift Supervisors 1 Programmers 1 Clerks 1/2 Librarians 1/2 Operators 2 Engineers 2 Technicians 1 Operation tends toward closed shop. Methods of training used are RCA personnel-conducted courses. State Farm Life Insurance Company One 8-Hour Shift Supervisors 3 Analysts 3 Programmers 10 Clerks 6 Librarians 1 Operators 4 In-Output Oper 29 Not in production as yet. These are anticipated figures. Operation tends toward open shop. RCA for programmer and operator training. Electronic Data Processing Division, RCA Operation tends toward closed shop. Methods of training used are RCA training schools, plus on- the-job training. RCA Electronic Systems Center One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour Shift Shifts Shifts Used Recomm Used Recomm Used Recomm Supervisors 1 1 2 2 3 3 Librarians 1 1 1 1 1 1 Operators 1 1 2 2 3 3 In-Output Oper 1 1 2 2 3 3 Tape Handlers 1 1 2 2 3 3 Operation tends toward open shop. Methods of training used includes 5 weeks program training and on-the-job training in operations. The shift supervisor, operator, and tape handler rotate between jobs - actually use three men per shift on all equipments. Programmers, analysts, etc. are not part of Operations group. Support in this area comes from another group. RCA Service Company - E D P Sales Dept. One 8-Hour Shift Supervisors 5 Analysts 5 Programmers & Coders Z Clerks 10 Operators* *8 Technicians* Tape Handlers* Salesman 5 Personnel shown are for one shift operation on one system with maintenance on a 24-hour 7-day basis. Approximately 12 additional operator technicians and programmers will be required upon installation of 2nd system. Operators, technicians and tape handlers also perform demand and preventive maintenance. Supervisors consist of Center Manager, Sales Manager, Systems and Programming Manager, Operations Manager and Office Manager. Clerical personnel include Office Administrative, Sales and Accounting functions in addition to data preparation operations. Operation tends toward closed shop. Operator technicians trained for 6 months at school and thereafter on the job. Experienced Systems Analysts and Programmers attend 4 week programming ccurse and untrained employees receive an 8 week basic training course plus on-the-job training.
BRL 1961, RCA 501, start page 0798
EPDP - New York Electronics System Center Operation tends toward closed shop. Programmers given formal school training and onthe-,job training. RCA Astro Electronics Division one 8-Hour Shift Supervisors 1 Analysts 2 Operators 2 Operation tends toward open shop. We use our own training program for computer center personnel and personnel who submit problems to the Computer Center. A three tier approach is used for personnel requirements for the Computer Center. 1. Professional programmers are attached to the Computer Center. (2 + a supervisor) 2. Project programmers, who are considered professional programmers, are attached to the Engineering Sections that are developing projects. They work in concert with competent line engineers in developing programs. 3. Open Shop Engineer Personnel. These are engineers who are trained by us to develop and program the less complicated problems. RCA Service Company, EDP Administration This system is used for training of service personnel to support EDP Operations in the Field. Ordnance Weapons Command Two 8-Hour Shifts Used Recommended Supervisors 6 10 Analysts 21 21 Programmers 21 26 Clerks 6 7 Librarians 1 2 Operators 4 4 In-output Oper 6 6 Personnel were selected from within the installation with emphasis on obtaining some from each of the application areas (subject matter specialists). Others had specific backgrounds desirable, i.e. Management Analysts, Accountants, Mathematicians/ Statisticians and Tab Equipment Planners. There is no job as Coder, per se. When using object or machine coding, each programmer codes his own. On large program, he may have assistance. There are no tape handlers. Equipment operators perform the function when set-ups are required. Input-output operators include 4 tapewriter and tapewriter verifier operators. Initially operation is on a closed shop basis, but as each application becomes operational, analysts are placed in "customer" organization. United States Civil Service Commission training agreement calls for six month program; a 1 week orientation -classroom, 4 weeks programmer training by RCA - classroom, 4 weeks applied problems -half classroom, half on-the-,job training, 1 week advanced analysis - classroom, and on-the-job training. Atlantic City Electric Company one 8-Hour Shift Recommended Supervisors 4 Analysts 1 Programmers 2 Clerks 3 Librarians 1 Operators 3 In-Output Oper 12 Operation tends toward open shop. Training is performed on site and at manufacturer's schools. Computer is in process of being shaken down during system testing and parallel production runs. Recommended organization shown above is the anticipated requirement. The manufacturer will have a maintenance staff of 8 employees on site. Ordnance Ammunition Command One 8-Hour shift Supervisors 6 Analysts 7 Programmers 15 Clerks 2 Librarians 2 Operators 4 In-output Oper 3 Tape Handlers 2 Operation tends toward open shop. Methods of training used includes manufacturer's training courses, specialized OMETA courses, guided applications and on-the-,job training. Raytheon Company -Missile Systems Division One 8-Hour Shift Used Recommended Supervisors 2 Depends on projects Analysts 9 Depends on projects Programmers 15 Depends on projects Librarians 1 1 Operators 1 1 Engineers 2 3 Technicians 1 1 In-output Oper 1 1 Tape Handlers 1 1 Operation tends toward closed shop. Methods of training used include programming and technical training given on-site by RCA instructors. RCA maintains several full time on-site representatives for methods assistance. Classes, case problems and on-job training is also given. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Manufacturer Reliability is obtained by dual recording on tape, simultaneous operation, automatic accuracy checks, lockout features of the Input-output equipment, and tape. flow sensing. U.S. Naval Propellant Plant Installation date for NPP equipment was 1 June 1960. At present, Bureau of Weapons equipment is being utilized. Scott Air Force Base Good time145 bra 45 min Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 95% Above figures based on period 1 Apr 6o to 3o Apr 6o Date system passed 9 Mar 60 Time is available for rent to outside organizations. We are currently preparing programs for the support of Hqs Air Weather Service. We expect to utilize approximately 30 hours of computer time for these applications. Mitchel Air Force Base Goad time 78 Hours/Week (Average Attempted to run time98 Hours/Week (Average Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.795 Above figures based on period1 Jan 6o to 1 May 6o Date this system passed 9 Nov 59 Time is not available for rent to outside organiza- tions. Fidelity-Philadelphia Trust Company Good time 15 Hours/Week Average) Attempted to run time 15-16 Hours/Week Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.984 Above figures based on period 2 Jun 6o to 18 Jun 6o
BRL 1961, RCA 501, start page 0799
Date this system passed11 Jan 60 Time is available for rent to outside organizations. Have had no down time 9 Jun 60 to 18 Jun 60, inclusive. Rent 8 hours per day to R.C.A. General Tire and Rubber Companyy Good time39 Hours/Week (Average) Attempted to run time35 Hours/Week (Aver e) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time 0.90 Above figures based on period 11 Apr 60 to 6 May 60 Date this system passed11 Apr 60 Time is available for rent to outside organizations. State Farm Life Insurance Company Date this system passed1 Mar 60 to 28 Mar 6o Time is available for rent to qualified outside organizations. Experience to date limited to system and program testing. Progress is satisfactory and improving. Electronic Data Processing Division, RCA Good time110 Hours/Week Average Attempted to run time 112 Hours/Week (Aver e; Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time 0.98 Above figures based on period Jan 59 to 16 Jun 60 Time is not available for rent to outside organiza- tions. RCA Electronic Systems Center Good time118.3 Hours/Week (Average Attempted to run time 120Hours/Week (Average Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.985 Above figures based on period Dee 59 to May 60 Date this system passed 15 May 59 Time is available for rent to outside organizations. RCA Service Company- E D P Sales Dept. Date this system passed16 May 60 Time is available for rent to outside organizations. RCA Astro Electronics Division Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 100 Above figure based on period from 6 weeks to date Date this system passed Initial system 1 Jan 60 Time is available for rent to outside qualified organizations. Due to short length of time since installation we cannot make a definitive statement as to our running time. However our experience has been good. After acceptance test we started at 80% running time and have improved to 100% for the past six weeks. RCA Service Companyy, EDP Administration Time is not available for rent to outside organizations. Ordnance Weapons Command Average error-free running period 48 Hours Good time82.7 Hours/Week (Average) Attempted to run time83.5 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.99 Above figures based on period 1 Jul 60 to 30 Jul 6o Time is available for rent to outside organizations on a limited basis. RCA Maintenance requires minimum of 90 minutes daily. Time is available from midnight until 0530. Computer good time is over 99'% over a six month period. Down time accumulated is primarily due to tape station malfunction and secondarily due to the paper tape reader. (Electro-Mechanical devices). Raytheon Company - Missile Systems Division System passed Customer Acceptance Test 26 Jul 60 ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Manufacturer The RCA 501 System can be tailored to fit the needs of the user. It takes advantage of the latest programming techniques and can be expanded to suit future needs. The design concept, using completely transistorized circuit modules, saves power and space. Reliability and savings in maintenance costs have been realized by actual field operational data. Records (word) lengths are completely variable both on tape and in memory. Unique symbology on tape tells the computer where messages and items begin and end. Thus, artificial fixed word or fixed maximum word lengths do not have to be resorted to i.e., each item and message occupies on tape only the exact space that it requires. Blocks of several messages may also be variable in length. The system handles all of this automatically. U.S. Naval Propellant Plant Outstanding features: Completely variable recording of data; building block or modular expansion principle; transistorized; fast speed (microsecond access simultaneous tape read- compute, write-compute, read-write operations. Unique system advantages: Ability to perform realtime operations with modification; fast tape speeds; ability to perform binary operations through its special binary instruction codes. The RCA 501 Computer System is the only one in its price class and currently available which satisfies the on-line, real-time requirements of the NPP workload. The tape speeds can accommodate 15,000 data points per second for NPP's real-time applications. Scott Air Force Base Adopted procedures for magnetic tape labelling, storage, shipping, and protection from humidity, temperature and physical, electrical, fire, or other damage. All magnetic tapes are assigned an inventory number and are labeled with its content. A current inventory card is maintained reflecting current and previous content, reuseable date and labeling information. Each program is so designed to check the label of each tape used to insure that proper tapes are mounted for use. Tapes are stored in a separate room, under the same temperature and humidity controls as the computer. Mitchel Air Force Base Outstanding features include transistor design, plug-in assemblies, printed wiring, modularized components, building- block construction, simplified automatic control, complete variable data recording, and tape reading/writing is possible in both forward and reverse directions. Unique system advantages include four-character parallel transfer, increased data transfer rates, and addressable registers. Built-in and programmed accuracy controls, checking correct transfer of data in peripheral devices, into and out of the computer, and within the computer proper; additional controls ascertain correct arithmetic operations. Time-shared electronics, permitting simultaneous operation of input-output devices with computer functions. Complete range of computer instructions; 47 basic, wired-in, two-address instructions for input-output (12) data - handling (13), arithmetic (11) sad decision and control (11 .
BRL 1961, RCA 501, start page 0800
Magnetic tape labelling is done. Storage for magnetic tapes is provided in the computer room and each tape is in a dust proof clear plastic container. The containers are stored in metal cabinets. In addition, Master Personnel tapes (The 2 most recent "as of" dates) are maintained in a separate vault (approximately 3001 and 2 firewalls away from computer, but in same building). Because of presence of operating personnel and technicians on 24 hours basis, no special warning devices or controls to indicate humidity, temperatures, electrical or other damage. We have not shipped magnetic tapes but are studying means of protection for use at later date when we will be shipping tapes to other installations. Fidelity-Philadelphia Trust Company Outstanding features include building block principle, transistorized, and low unit cost. Unique system advantages include a completely variable word length. Adopted procedures for magnetic tape labelling, storage, shipping, and protection from humidity, temperature and physical, electrical, fire, or other damage include duplicate tapes stored in vaults, tapes labelled internally as well as externally, and a 40-Ton air conditioner serves as back up. General Tire and Rubber Company Outstanding features include variability of field size. Adopted procedures for magnetic tape labelling, storage, shipping, and protection from humidity, temperature and physical, electrical, fire, or other damage, include normal computer room procedures and restrictions. State Farm Life Insurance Company Unique system advantages include daily cycle policy record updating. Adopted procedures for magnetic tape labelling, storage, shipping, and protection from humidity, temperature and physical., electrical, fire, or other damage, all. of these procedures considered as "normal" for e.d.p. Electronic Data Processing Division, RCA Outstanding features include reading magnetic tape in both directions, complete flexibility of the console, and easy matching color decor. RCA Electronic Systems Center Other outstanding features include complete transistorization throughout system. Expandability in core memory-tape stations and configuration of peripheral equipment. Unique system advantages include complete service routine package-memory serial (re-programming not necessary with additional memory). Adopted procedures for magnetic tape labelling, storage, shipping, and protection from humidity, temperature and physical, electrical, fire, or other damage include blank label for customer preference, metal cabinet in air conditioned room for storage, and no special fireproofing or protection. RCA Service Company - E D P Sales Dept. Outstanding features include completely transistorized; high processing speeds at low costs; operates with completely variable length data items automatically controls up to 62 magnetic tape trunks; automatically controls random access drum storage (expansible in steps of 1 1/2 million characters); simultaneous on line print/read, write or compute; simultaneous magnetic tape read-compute, writecompute, read-write; reads magnetic tape in forward or backward motion; permits programming methods which can save 30'% to 50%, program storage space; and transfers 1 or 4 alpha-numeric characters in 15 microseconds. The RCA 501 Electronic Data Processing System is a general- purpose system using transistor logic. The design employs the "building-blocko principle which results in an expandable, highly flexible, integrated data processing system. Because of this "building-block" principle, the System can be tailored to present needs and can be expanded to meet future requirements. Adopted procedures for magnetic tape labelling, storage, shipping, and protection from humidity, temperature and physical, electrical, fire, or other damage are separately zoned air conditioning for computer room with temperature of 720 - 80o with variance of only t 20 over 6 hour period. Humidity control maintained at 20% - 65'% with variation of only 5'% over 6 hours. Dew point maintained at 54oF. Complete automatic fire alarm and extinguishing system for all areas with central control panel indicators. RCA Astro Electronics Division Truly variable processing. Equipment is ideally suited for intelligence type data processing. The Random Access File is well suited for scientific problems. The Random Access File is EXTREMELY useful due to its independent searching capabilities in language translation, general non numeric information retrieval. system, and engineering table look up work. Procedures have been adopted for magnetic tape labelling, storage, shipping, and protection from humidity, temperature and pbysical, electrical, fire, or other damage. Initial experience in using this equipment for scientific research has been eminently successful. Ordnance Weapons Command Adopted procedures for magnetic tape labelling, storage, shipping, and protection from humidity, temperature and pbysical, electrical, fire, or other damage includes putting visible labels on reels and tape labels at beginning of tape. An alarm bell set for 4 degree rise in temperature. An alternate storage site is used for one previous generation of reference, transaction and program library tapes. Tape station substitution between Off & On-Line is a few minutes, which minimizes down time due to tape station malfunction. Air-conditioning is for the area with no direct ductwork to the equipment. Alarm permits sufficient time to dump memory prior to shutting down equipment. An eight degree rise in temperature over a brief period will cause the computer to malfunction. Atlantic City Electric Company Outstanding features include fast memory access time, solid state construction, variable format, punched paper tape output, high speed paper tape input, dual recording in magnetic tape and self checking circuits. Unique system advantages include complete elimination of punched cards, printing of address side of utility bill simultaneously with billing information side, after which bill is folded and heat-sealed into postcard weight form. Automative reentry of cash through optical scanning of heat-sealed stubs with results punched into paper tape. Adopted procedures for magnetic tape labelling and storage include tapes stored vertically in racks in partitioned area with n,33 humidity and temperature control. Self-adhesive color- coded labels for identification.
BRL 1961, RCA 501, start page 0801
Raytheon Company - Missile Systems Division Outstanding features include true variable item length, which decreases tape passing time, low startatop time (3.5 mil sec) which decreases tape passing time, dual recording which eliminates r/w errors, an octal numbering system, which conserves memory, and forward/backward read on tape. Unique system advantages include a fully transistorized system, built-in modifiers (T), building block concept allowing future expansion of system, read/write and read or write/compute simultaneously feature, built-in controls (parity checks, arithmetic checks, etc), and forward/backward read. Adopted procedures for magnetic tape labelling, storage, shipping, and protection from humidity, temperature and physical, electrical, fire, or other damage include a C02 foam automatic fire detection and extinguishing system, a humidity control with sir conditioner, and all magnetic tape storage in a separate "tape room". FUTURE PLANS U. S. Naval Propellant Plant It is proposed that when the cost of overtime operations exceeds the rental fee of an on-line high-speed printer, a printer will be rented. Additional tape stations may be added to accommodate additional applications. Scott Air Force Base At the present time, we plan to put the reporting and accounting system for Commercial Service Authorizations on this system by 15 June 1960. Mitchel Air Force Base Short Range Plans. Acquisition of tape switching unit Model 547-6. This is a manually controlled switching device. It is capable of switching from one to six predetermined tape station trunks to from one to six predetermined machine trunks by means of relay switching. Re-engineering of systems design and programs for greater machine efficiency. New applications. Using the data in the Master Personnel Tape, qualitative selection of personnel for specific assignments is being studied. As a corollary to a computer selection would also be determination as to type of military order required and production of the order via computer. Possible acquisition of a small computer which would replace present off line printer as well as provide for faster data input to 501 System via magnetic tape. Elimination of card transcriber and reliance upon paper tape input for all transactions against the Master Personnel File. Long Range Plans. Possible acquisition of character recognition equipment. This equipment would "read" documents and the data would be placed on magnetic tape ready for processing by the computer. Increased use of the computer to act as a personnel clerk making determination as to personnel actions (orders, reassignments, discharges, etc.) to a larger extent than is presently being done. Use of the computer as an aid in performing operations research programs for management decisions. We envision the computer to be used in the areas of work measurement and the establishment of work standards, the analysis of present and projected personnel actions, particularly in the area of manpower requirements and assignments, etc. Inclusion of our data processing system into the USAF combat logistics network (COMLOGNET). Fidelity-Philadelphia Trust Company On 1 February 1961, we will add 2 Burroughs MICR Sorters plus a converter from the sorters to the computer. After the Regular Checking Accounts are fully converted, plans will be made to convert Trust Department Accounting, Savings Accounts, Payroll, Commercial and Collateral Loans and Mortgages from Punched Card Systems to the Computer. State Farm Life Insurance Company Programming of all printing being arranged for ease in moving to off-line printer. "System" designed for "bi-product" production of input paper tape in remote regional offices--but will be pioneered with all input tapes produced in Home Office. Ultimately plan to move all present punched card work to RCA 501 eliminating all punched card equipment. RCA Service Company - E D P Sales Dept. Present plans call for installation within one year of a 2nd basic RCA 501 or advanced system together with additional off- line equipment. There will also be available complete system design and programming services available on a contract basis, with and without computer operation. RCA Astro Electronics Division Additional tape stations and verification equipment, and additional modules of memory equipment for expanded applications will be required. Ordnance Weapons Command Investigating possibility of substituting an RCA301 for off-line equipment. Complement to include a card reader, card punch, printer and two (2) tape stations. This should result in a rental savings of approximately $1+,000 per month. This would serve to reduce main computer time since sorting could be done on the 301. It would also provide random access for special interrogations, precluding interruption of main frame production operations to satisfy the interrogations. No conclusive decisions have yet been reached, however. Additional tape stations (T) will be added when production requires. (Approximately 1 year) A modification of the paper tape reader will permit reading of eight (8) channel paper tape in addition to the present seven (T) channel. Future applications to be programmed using RCA's Common Business Oriented Language. This will materially reduce both programming and debugging time. Atlantic City Electric Company It is anticipated that the RCA 501 equipment will be adequate for present applications and expected growth for at least the next ten years. Future applications may be continuing Property Records, Meter and Pole History Records, Personnel History Records and Engineering Studies. Raytheon Company - Missile Systems Division Planned applications include: Inventory control for raw material, finished parts, max-min items and peculiar parts, covering initial inventory, cycle counts, required orders, and P. 0. receipts, S. 0. receipts, issues, adjustments, and transfers in order to provide transaction costs, in-process cost, stock status, and order analysis. Shop order system covering process sheet preparation, material and labor explosion, and shop order initiation in order to provide S. 0. progress reports and labor and material status reports.
BRL 1961, RCA 501, start page 0802
Financial control of labor, material, and overhead in order to provide payroll and labor distribution, contract status reports, indirect labor expense, cost of work in process, and miscellaneous accounting reports. When capacity is reached, the on-line printer will be changed for off-line equipment. New equipment for future growth might include a 301 system for off-line card and tab effort. INSTALLATIONS U. S. Naval Propellant Plant Indian Head, Maryland AACS DCS/Compt/Stat Services Division Scott Air Force Base, Illinois Air Reserve Records Center 3800 York Street Denver 5, Colorado Ordnance Weapons Command Rock Island, Illinois Ordnance Ammunition Command Joliet, Illinois Atlantic City Electric Company 1600 Pacific Avenue Atlantic City, New Jersey EDPD - New York Electronics System Center 45 Wall Street New York, N. Y. Fidelity-Philadelphia Trust Company 135 S. Broad Street Philadelphia, Pennsylvania General Tire and Rubber Company 1708 Englewood Avenue Akron 9, Ohio Raytheon Company Missile Systems Division Haverhill Street Andover, Massachusetts RCA Astro Electronics Division P. 0. Box 800 Princeton, New Jersey RCA Electronic Data Processing Division Camden, New Jersey RCA Electronic Systems Center Cherry Hill Plant Rte 38 & Haddonfield Road Merchantville, New Jersey RCA Service Company EDP Administration, Cherry Hill Camden 8, New Jersey RCA Service Company Electronic Data Processing Sales Department Cherry Hill, Camden 8, New Jersey State Farm Life Insurance Company 112 East Washington Street Bloomington, Illinois Bureau of Naval Weapons 18th & Constitution Avenue, N. W. Washington 25, D. C. Chase Manhattan Bank 57 William Street, Room 200 New York, N. Y. Educational Testing Service 20 Nassau Street Princeton, New Jersey (Installation Rosedale)
BRL 1961, RCA 501, start page 0803

BRL 1961, RCA 601, start page 0804

RCA 601

Radio Corporation of America 601 MANUFACTURER Radio Corporation of America Electronic Data Processing Division APPLICATIONS The computer is a general-purpose, stored program, digital device utilizing transistor and diode circuitry. It provides high- speed storage, processing, and on-line input-output device control capabilities. The 601 System is able to handle simultaneous routines. The number of such routines is not fixed but is a function of the speed- weight of any peripheral devices involved and the complexity of the individual routines. In general, minimum storage capacity and complexity is required in external buffers due to maximum use of the internal memory under control of programmed routines. This permits flexible and economical input-output buffering to be achieved. Computers may also be coupled together. This permits various multi-computer configurations to be obtained. Each computer may be oriented to some particular function, such as input-output processing, or may be completely general purpose in nature. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary, Binary Coded Decimal Alphanumeric Binary digits/word 6, 8, 12, 16 or Variable Binary digits/instruc- Variable 24 to 144 tion Instructions per word Variable size instructions from 1/2 word to 3 words each Instructions decoded Variable over 120 Arithmetic system Flo point dec and bin (optional) Fix point dec and bin (optional) Variable word length Operands limited by memory size Instruction type Number of address is variable. One, two, three address at programmer's option. Number range Depends on memory size Instruction word format Binary digit count +---+---+------+---------+---------+--------+----+---+-----+-------+---+-------+-------+ | 1 | 3 | 6 | 3 | 3 | 9 | 3 | 1 | 3 | 4 | 1 | 16 | 3 | +---+---+------+---------+---------+--------+----+---+-----+-------+---+-------+-------+ | P | T | Op | D In- | ACD As- | Count | C1 | P | T | Ad- | I | Half | Char | | A | A | Code | terrupt | sumed | Sym | | A | A | dress | N | Word | Add | | R | G | | Set- | Address | Regis- | | R | G | Mod. | D | Add. | | | | | | Sense | | ter No | | | | | | | | | | | | Tags | | | | | | | | | | +---+---+------+---------+---------+--------+----+---+-----+-------+---+-------+-------+ Automatic built-in subroutines are available. For example, automatic servicing of que table for inputoutput instructions. Calculation of weight-load of input-output devices. Sortable preparation of criteria address list as data is read in. Several operation codes have the effect of a subroutine, i.e., code convert provides conversion from one bit structure to another. Automatic coding includes Automatic Assembler, RCA Narrator (COBOL), and RCA ALGOL. Registers and B-boxes include 8 address modifiers. 1/2 word 1/2 word Address Modifier This modifies the Address Modifier Additional op codes can be added by the programmer since the elemental operations of the op code are available to him. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Operation Microsec Microsec Add 9.75 6 (fixed word 11+11 char) Mult 13.75 10 (fixed word 11x11 char) Div 28.75 25 (fixed word 11=11 char) Arithmetic speed is variable depending on arith- metic unit andinstruction control units ordered. Construction Quantities of transistors, diodes, and magnetic cores used in the arith- metic unit depend on particular unit used. No vacuum tubes are used. Arithmetic mode Serial for variable length arithmetic Parallel for fixed length arithmetic Timing Asynchronous Operation Concurrent STORAGE No. of No. of Access Media Words Digits Microsec Magnetic Core 32,768 523,288-3 bit digit 0.9-1.5 Variable 393,216-4 bit digit 262,144-6 bit digit 196,608-8 bit digit Number of bits per digit is optional with programmer (3, 4, 6 or 8 ) Memory is in modules of 8,192 words. Use of more than one module permits overlap reducing access time to 0.9 microsec. Word length is also completely variable if desired. All magnetic tape units (2210, 33K, 66K) available with the 501 System are also available with the 601 in addition to that described here. Eight bit code is Field at a 3. Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 64 Units No. of characters/linear inch 800 Chars/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 10 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record 0.9 Inches Tape speed 150 Inches/sec Transfer rate 120,000/180,000 Chars/sec Start time 6 Millisec Stop time 6 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel of tape 45 Seconds
BRL 1961, RCA 601, start page 0805
Physical properties of tape Width 3/4 Inches Length of reel 2,400 Feet Composition Mylar Hamming code check bits provide data reconstruction on each character on magnetic tape. INPUT Media Speed Paper Tape 1000 char/sec Cards 600 cards/min Magnetic Tape 120,000/180,000 22,222; 33,333; 66,666 char/sec Teletype line Up to 50 lines/min Optional time scanning unit available. Same magnetic tapes available on the RCA 501 are also available on the RCA 601. 22K and 33K tapes are interchangeable between RCA 601, 501, 301.. 66K tapes are interchangeable between RCA 601 and 501. OUTPUT Media Speed Paper Tape 100 or 300 char/sec Cards 100 cards/min Magnetic Tape 120,000/180,000 22,222; 33,333; 66,666 char/sec Printer 600 lines/min Up to 6 magnetic tapes may be read simultaneously and up to 8 magnetic tapes may be written out Simultaneously. Up to 8 card readers may be operated simultaneously. Up to 8 card punches may be operated simultaneously. Up to 6 printers may be operated simultaneously. On-line card readers, card punches and printers may be operated independently of program being run. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Transistors 3696 2N1495 3696A 2N1289 3697 2N581 3697A Diodes 8945076-B1 8512070-A5 8989190-B2 Quantity depends on system. The system consists of modules which are assembled in accordance with the requirements of the operation. For example the instruction control unit for floating point calculations and the high speed arithmetic unit are not normally included in a data processing configuration but could be if the customer required the additional speed. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Personnel requirements vary in accordance with the complexity of the problem and the configuration of equipment. Training courses made available by the manufacturer include systems analysis courses, programming courses, special purpose courses, and operators training. CHECKING FEATURES Accuracy control is accomplished in the RCA 601 system by the following methods: General Provision is made for utilization of error correcting code at points of higher error probability. Extensive checking and indicating equipment is utilized at key points in the system to detect and facilitate rapid diagnosis of system error. Error indication is made available to the program to permit self diagnosis and attempted correction of alarm conditions. A large variety of programmed checking procedures are facilitated with features such as data tagging and real-time clock interruption. Use of Error Correcting Code It is generally recognized that electro-mechanical equipment is inherently more prone to error than completely electronic equipment. For this reason RCA 601 high-performance magnetic tapes are provided with the option of an error correcting code. An alpha-numeric character is then represented on tape by ten parallel bits. Six of these define a character. The remaining four bits are utilized to provide automatic correction of an error detected while reading a character from tape. In the computer it is possible to utilize the two tag digits associated with each word as a six-bit word correction digit. This feature is particularly effective when applied to micro- instruction routines stored in the highspeed memory. Error Correction An automatic half-word parity check is made at key points in the RCA 601 Computer during each data transfer. Some of the points checked are the input and output paths of the high-speed memory, arithmetic operand registers, output buffers, etc. The check points are selected to facilitate error diagnosis either manually or by program. In addition to the above, a number of special error detecting circuits have been incorporated. These circuits may be divided into three classes. Circuits which detect alarm conditions caused by the program. Those which detect an error condition which may have been caused by either program or component malfunction. Circuits that detect an error which could only be due to a component failure. Alarm Indication An alarm condition may be detected by the above checking circuits or by the program itself. In either case, an appropriate indicator is set upon detection of the alarm condition. Three alternatives are available when an indicator is set: An immediate shut-down can occur The indicator can be ignored Automatic transfer of control to an auxiliary routine can be initiated. In the latter case, the auxiliary routine can be used to analyze the alarm condition and: Attempt correction by re-running the portion of the program in error, or Bypass the alarm condition by means of an alternative program path, if available, or
BRL 1961, RCA 601, start page 0806
Initiate a shut down if the alarm condition can neither be alleviated nor by-passed. On-Line Considerations Operating equipment on-line results in several advantages regarding system accuracy control: More powerful, automatic, diagnostic techniques may be utilized by the computer than by most test equipment. Time sharing the computer electronics results in less special-purpose hardware in which a failure can occur. Alternate program paths can often be provided to permit equipment which is malfunctioning to be automatically by-passed. Full advantage can be taken of the above on-line system characteristics in the RCA 601 System. If, for example, an operable alarm occurs upon connection to an on-line device, control can be automatically transferred to an auxiliary program. Sufficient information is supplied to this routine so that an existent alternative path may be determined. Accuracy control on specific components include: Computer - Model No. 603 and No. 604 Special error detecting circuits provide machine malfunction alarms. In addition, a real-time clock, memory lock-out facilities, and other checking features permit the detection of a wide range of programming errors. Magnetic Tape Transfer Channel - Model No. 610 Parity is checked or generated on all data which is received by or transmitted from the buffers. The 22K and 33K tape stations have dual track reading and recording. The 66K tape station has dual track reading and recording plus read after write. The 120/180K tape station has data reconstruction with 6 data bits and 4 check bits for each "character" position. Magnetic Tape Transfer Channel - Model No. 611 Six bit characters in the write buffer are converted to 10 bit self-correcting code for recording on tape. When reading from tape, the 10 bit characters are converted back into six bit code for accumulation in the buffer storage. Special circuits provide automaatic error correction for characters read from tape. A read-after write check is automatically executed when writing data into tape. Parity is checked or generated on all data which is received or transmitted by the sub units. Card Transfer Channel - Model No. 613 Read -- Each column of the card is read by two sensing stations, and the outputs of these stations are transmitted to the Card Transfer Channel where they are compared. Punch -- Read after punch returns are checked against the information previously transmitted to the Card Punch. Inquire Transfer Channel - Model No. 617 Parity is checked or generated on all half words received from or transmitted to the computer. Parity is checked on all characters received from the Inquiry Console. Inquiry Console - Model No. 607 Indicators on the control panel indicate when criteria may be introduced-4sto the system, when the computer is searching for the data, and when all the data has been typed. Card Reader - Model No. 623 Each column on a card is read twice thereby facilitating a check of the reading operation by the computer. The Card Reader stops upon sensing a card jam, empty input hopper, f1,71 output hopper, or full reject hopper. Card Punch - Model No. 634 Each card is read after it is punched, thereby facilitating a check by the computer on the punching operation. The Card Punch automatically halts when either the card supply is exhausted on the output hopper capacity is exceeded. Magnetic Tape Station - Model No. 681 Remote lockout Local lockout Inoperable indication to user equipment Tape station in local status Power off Servo off Capstan motor off Any transport mechanism interlock open Improper amount of tape in bins Automatic stopping of tape at end of reel Write lockout ' Read after write parity check. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE. PREPARATION Power, computer Approx. 45 Kw Approx. 58 KVA Power, air conditioner Depends on air conditioner used Approx. 13 Tons Volume, computer 275 cu ft Area, computer 60 sq ft Room size 1,000 sq ft, computer 400 sq ft, service area ------ 1,400 sq ft, Total Floor loading 100 lbs/sq ft Capacity, air conditioner, computer 13 Tons Weight, computer Approx 1,900 lbs System input must be supplied from a Y connected grounded neutral 3-phase source of 208 volts +_ 10% at 60 cycles + 1/2 cycle/sec. False flooring is desirable for cable connections only. All power, cooling and space requirements are subject to change and will vary from system to system due to the highly modular concept of the equipment. PRODUCTION RECORD A prototype is under construction. Time required for delivery 18 Months First deliveries will be in July 1961 ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Flexibility of configuration and application by options in speed, size and op code. Data and program security are enhanced when multiple programs are run. Multiple computer systems can share memory. COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Components of basic system Model Quantity Data Processing System Cost Monthly Rental 603 1 Computer with 8,192 words of memory $ 839,700 $ 19,500 (65,536 alpha or 98,304 numeric Char), console and power supply 610 1 Tape Transfer Channel 26,100 580 640 2 Tape Switch 31,800 700 582 10 Tape station (66,666 char/sec) 432,600 8,750 632 1 On-Line Printer 32,200 700 612 1 Print Transfer Channel 23,600 515 623 1 Card Reader 15,850 350 613 1 Card Transfer Channel 11,300 250 TOTAL $ 1,443,150 $31,345 Scientific System 604 1 Computer with 8,192 words (98 304 $ 998,600 $ 22,300 numeric or 65,536 alpha chars] high speed arithmetic, console and power supply 661 1 Additional high speed storage (8192 words 314,200 6,980 610 1 Tape Transfer Channel 26,100 580 640 1 Tape Switch 15,900 350 580 6 Tape stations (22,222 char/sec) 151,140 2,790 632 1 One-Line Printer (600 lines/min) 32,200 700 612 1 Print Transfer Channel 23,600 515 621 1 Paper Tape Reader 11,200 260 TOTAL 1,573,640 $ 34,475 Additional components Model 681 Tape Station 120,000/180,000 char/sec $ 56,300 $ 1,080 580 Tape Station 22,222 char/sec 25,190 465 581 Tape Station 33,333 char/sec 29,700 550 611 Tape Transfer Channel for 681 (mar. of 48 76,800 1,670 tape stations per channel) 641 Electronic Tape Switch (mar. of 6 Tape 36,100 785 stations per switch) for 681 614 DaSpan Coupler 13,200 290 615 Extensor scanner 25,500 565 616 Extensor 1,580 35 607 Inquiry Console 12,600 280 617 Inquiry Transfer Channel 11,700 260 634 Card Punch (100 cards/min) 8,900 200
Photo by Radio Corporation of America
BRL 1961, READIX, start page 0808

READIX

Readix General Purpose Computer MANUFACTURER Idaho Maryland Mines Corporation Magnetics Division
Photo by Magnetics Division, Idaho Maryland Mines Corporation APPLICATIONS Manufacturer System is designed and used for scientific computation, commercial data processing, record keeping, and data reduction. USAF Aerospace Technical Intelligence Center Located in Building 828, Area A, at W-PAFB, Ohio, the system is used for performance calculations for aircraft and guided missiles. U.S.-Air Force Flight Test Center Located at 125 South Grand Avenue, Pasadena, California, the system is used for the calibration of bombing range instrumentation including Askania Cinetheodolites, Mitchel and Bowen-Knapp Cameras, Fairchild Ballistic Cameras, and impact geophones and sound microphones; for the space positioning of military aircraft for performance studies and evasive tactics studies; and for the space positioning of bombs, and air-to-ground and air-to-air missiles; and for ballistic studies. Science Research Associates, Inc. Located at 104 Pearl Street, McHenry, Illinois, the system is used for score conversions and statistical correlations. Universal Research and Testing Laboratories Located at 1733 Flower Street, Glendale, California, the READIX II is used for engineering applications, including control and timing of test set-up's (with the use of an Analog-Digital Converter), for scientific and engineering problems, and for numberical analysis. The business applications include anticipated usage for accounting problems, production control, and for a Service Bureau. Applications include digital techniques in statistical analysis of experiments, feedback control system design considerations, and selection of method of synthesis for feedback controls. Feedback system compensation applications include design criteria and techniques, compensating components: D-C Systems, compensating networks: A-C Systems, and open-closed loop control. Studies of measurement of noise, system response to noise, system design in the presence of noise, and random variable concepts have also been made. Applications also include general nonlinear system problems, control and timing of test net-ups, analysis of general sys
BRL 1961, READIX, start page 0809
Photo by Universal Research and Testing Laboratories tems, designing for reliability, component characteristics, and transistor circuits. Other applications include Facility Requirements Physical Installation Personal Requirements Accounting Applications Design of Business Systems Inventory and Scheduling Application Inventory Control Aircraft Production Scheduling Scientific and Engineering Applications Simultaneous Linear Algebraic Equations Characteristic Roots and Vectors Linear Programming . Differential Equations Statistical Analysis Techniques for Reliability Summary of Operating and Design Techniques System Design Circuit Design Maintenance Logical Design Algebraic Techniques of Logical Design Preliminary Design Considerations Detailed Logical Design Arithmetic and Control Elements System Considerations Binary Operations Decimal. Operations Control Elements Random Variables and Distribution Operations Research Operations Research and Mathematical Mod is Data for Testing Controlling the Solution Numerical Analysis Interpolation, Curve Fitting, Differentiation, and Integration Inversion and Simultaneous Linear Equations Digital Techniques in Statistical Analysis of Experiments Ordinary Differential Equations Partial Differential Equations PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Coded Decimal Decimal digits/word Ten plus sign Decimal digits/instruction 5 Arithmetic system Floating point Add, subtract, multiply and divide Fixed point Add, subtract, multiply, divide, and square root
BRL 1961, READIX, start page 0810
Photo by U. S. Air Force Flight Test Center, Edwards AFB Instruction type One address Stored Program Number range Fixed +- (1010 - 1) Floating +- (10+49|-50 - 1) Instruction word format 1 2 -3 5 6 7 8 10 Operation AddressOperation Address Automatic built-in subroutines include square root. Registers and B-boxes include 4 One-word arithmetic registers (S, T, U, and V) and a B-box with automatic address modification. ARITHMETIC UNIT Operation Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 440 440 Mult 25,000 16,000 DIV 40,000 24,000 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Vacuum-Tubes 80 (5687) Condenser-Diodes 1200 (1N116 Hughes) Germanium Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Asynchronous Operation Sequential
BRL 1961, READIX, start page 0811
Photo by U.S. Air Force Flight Test Center, Edwards AFB STORAGE Manufacturer No. of No. of Access Media Words Digits Microsec Magnetic Drum 4,000 40,000 8,000 avg Magnetic Drum 160 1,600 4,000 avg Register 5 50 220 avg Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 10 Units No. of chars/linear inch of tape 500 Chars/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 5 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record 1 Inch Tape speed 60 Inches/sec Transfer rate 1,000 Chars/sec Start time 7 Millisec Stop time 7 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel of tape 30 Seconds Physical properties of tape Width 0.5 Inches Length of reel 2,400 Feet Composition Red oxide USAF ATIC No. of No. of Access Medium Words Digits Microsec Drum 4,000 x+0,000 17,000 Access time to working storage (160 words) is 1,700 microsec. USAF AFFTC Magnetic Drum 4,000 10 decimal 4,250 Quick Access Magnetic Drum 160 10 decimal 1,063 Science Research Associates, Inc. Magnetic Drum 4,000 40,000 440 There are 40 words/channel and 100 channels. Universal Research and Testing Laboratories Magnetic Drum 4,160. 41,600 ' 4,000 Magnetic Tape There are 150,,000 words/reel or 1,500,000 digits reel. The magnetic tape is used as intermediate storage of digitized information from the analog to digital converter to the READIX computer.
BRL 1961, READIX, start page 0812
INPUT Manufacturer Media Speed Flexowriter 10 char/sec Paper Tape 60 char/sec Cards (IBM) 100 cards/min Magnetic Tape 1,000 char/sec USAF ATIC IBM Card Reader 100 cards/min Flexowriter 10 digits/sec USAF AFFTC Keyboard (Flexowriter) Manual Paper Tape (Flexowriter) 10 char/sec Paper Tape Teletype) 60 char/sec Science Research Associates, Inc. Cards- 100 or 33.3 cards/min Paper Tape (Flexowriter)75 10-digit words/min Universal Research and Testing Laboratories Keyboard (Flexowriter) Manual Paper Tape (Flexowriter)12 char/sec Cards (IBM) 100 cards/min OUTPUT Manufacturer Media Speed Flexowriter Keyboard 10 char/sec Paper Tape 60 char/sec Cards (IBM) 100 cards/min Magnetic Tape 1,000 char/sec USAF ATIC IBM Card Punch100 cards/min Flexowriter10 digits/sec USAF AFFTC Printed Page (Flexowriter) 10 char/sec Paper Tape (Flexowriter)10 char/sec Paper Tape (Teletype)60 chars/sec Science Research Associates, Inc. Cards 100 or 33.3 cards/min Paper Tape (Flexowriter)75 10-digit words/min Universal Research and Testing Laboratories Paper Tape (Flexowriter)12 char/sec Cards (IBM) 100 cards/min CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Manufacturer Type Quantity Tubes 5687 200 5963 38 6U8 14 6350 11 Diodes (Germanium) IN116 3,050 849 1,010 1N100 15 CHECKING FEATURES Manufacturer Checking features include overflow, non- existent number (all decimal), non-existent instruction, nonexistent address, and double decision. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE. PREPARATION Manufacturer Power, computer 8 Kw Volume, computer 68 cu ft Area, computer 14 sq ft Room size 14 ft x 14 ft Weight, computer 1,750 lbs Site requirements include a 100V, AC, 100 AMP Line. Ambient temperature should be no higher than 800 F. USAF ATIC Power, computer 5 Kw Power, air conditioner 3 Kw Volume, computer 180 cu ft Volume, air conditioner65 cu ft Area, computer 40 sq ft Area, air conditioner8 sq ft Room size 650 sq ft Capacity, air conditioner5 Tons Weight, computer 1,750 lbs Weight, air conditioner400 lbs System is mounted on a false floor. A central power box is installed. No special ducting for air conditioner is required. USAF AFFTC Power, computer 3.2 Kw 3.0 KVA 0.88 pf Power, air condition 3.8 Kw 2 - 1 1/2 ton window type Volume, computer 1,373 cu ft Volume, air conditioner 12 cu ft Area, computer 78 sq ft Area, air conditioner 12 sq ft Room size 14 ft x 22 ft Floor loading 18 lbs/sq ft Weight, computer 1,400 lbs Weight, air conditioner 250 lbs The ceiling has been sound proofed with acoustical tile and a 7 1/2 KVA 3 phase and single phase power line was installed. No structural modifications were made. Universal Research and Testing Laboratories Power, computer 7.5 Kw Volume, computer 156 cu ft Area, computer 22 sq ft Room size 14 ft x 14 ft Floor loading 100 lbs/sq ft 300 lbs concen max Weight, computer 2,200 lbs 100 Amps at 115 Volts, AC, single phase line required. No other modifications were required. PRODUCTION RECORD Manufacturer Number produced to date 6 Number in current operation 6 Number in current production 1 Number on order 1 Anticipated production rates One/month Time required for delivery 3 Months
BRL 1961, READIX, start page 0813
COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Manufacturer Monthly Cost Rental READIX Computer (all decimal $70,000 $2,400 w/both fixed and floating point); 4,000 word drum; 107 instructions; desk console; Flexowriter, power supply; ventilation system; compo- nent tester. IBM Converter 20,000 600 Magnetic Tape 25,000 800 Service Costs Engineer at Installation $12,000 per year On Call Service $100 per call plus traveling expenses USAF ATIC Basic machine (power, logic, console) cost $55,000. A Punch Card Converter cost $17,500. $12,500 per annum for a full time maintenance man. USAF AFFTC Computer main frame, console including in t-output units, and power supply, total cost is 80,000. In shop maintenance and service contract back-up, total approximate cost is $7,900 per annum. Universal Research and Testing Laboratories Basic system $70,000 Punched card converter at $20,000 Rental contracting and rates for basic system $50 per hour, including engineering assistance. Rental rates for additional equipment $30 per hour, including engineering assistance. Maintenance is by on call service from manufacturer. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Manufacturer Training made available by manufacturer to user includes programming and maintenance. USAF ATIC One 8-Hour Shift Supervisors 1 Analysts 1 Programmers 2 Coders 0 Clerks 0 Librarians 0 Operators 1 Engineers 1 Technicians 0 In-Out Oper 0 Tape Handlers 0 Operation tends toward open shop. Methods of training includes on-the-job training. READIX is used in support of a BURROUGHS 205. USAF AFFTC one 8-Hour shift Used Recommended. Supervisors 1 1 Analysts 1 Programmers 1 1 Coders 1 Clerks 1 1 Technicians 1 2 One supervisor and one technician is assigned exclusively to the computer. Other personnel used are drawn from other areas as necessary. Operation tends toward open shop. Methods of training used includes classroom lectures and individual training in programming and operation. Science Research Associates, Inc. TWO 8-Hour shifts Supervisors 2 Programmers 2 Operators 2 Technicians 1 Operation tends toward open shop.. Universal Research and Testing Laboratories One 8-Hour Shift UsedRecommended Analysts 1 1 Programmers 1 1 Operators 1 Methods of training used included a normal two week course from manufacturer. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Manufacturer All perishable components are mounted on plug-in boards (ease of replacement). As standard equipment the REA= contains two internal test panels which check the only six types of plug-in boards used in the logic and arithmetic sections. Average uptime in the field is over 90'%. Two READIX computers have been in the field for over five years and are still computing successfully. USAF ATIC Good time30 Hours /Week (Averaged Attempted to run time35 Hours/Week Average; Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) o.85 Above figures based on period Jul 59 to Mar 60 Passed Customer Acceptance Test Feb 56 Tim is not available for rent to outside organiza- tions. USAF AFFTC Average error-free running period 6.0 Hours Good time35.0 Hours/Week (Average Attempted to run time41.9 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to rim time) 0.835 Above figures based on period1 May 59 to 27 Apr 60 Passed Customer Acceptance Test 15 Feb 57 Time is not available for rent to outside organiza- tions. Science Research Associates, Ins. Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to rim time) 0.95 Time is available for rent to qualified outside organizations. Universal Research and Testing Laboratories Good time32 HOurs/Week (Average) ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Manufacturer The READIX medium general purpose computer, with 107 commands, is easy to learn and to program. Unique system advantages include ease of maintenance. The READIX is most suited for scientific problems. USAF ATIC System is considered to be an excellent machine for small problems. USAF AFFTC Outstanding features include built-in floating point arithmetic, 9 external switches, program checked, and static and dynamic test equipment built into the computer. Manual procedures only for temperature, humidity and fire control have been adopted for the safeguarding of magnetic tapes.
BRL 1961, READIX, start page 0814
Maintenance and spare parts provided locally. Science Research Associates, Inc. Outstanding features include large capacity memory. Universal Research and Testing Laboratories Outstanding features include floating point and fixed point, all decimal, large memory and large command list. Unique system advantages include ease of programming, operating, and maintaining. FUTURE PLANS Manufacturer Transistorizing flip flops and memory plug-ins would make the READIX a solid state machine. Changing the working storage (160 words) to core would speed the READIX 2 to 5 times. 600 cards/minute input. Condense the size of READIX to the size of a desk. USAF ATIC By December 1960 ATIC will be operating a large 7090 system for both engineering and information storage problems and the READIX system will be phased out. USAF AFFTC Additional components planned are a punched card converter and associated card handling equipment. INSTALLATIONS United States Air Force Air Technical. Intelligence Center Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio Data Reduction Section Air Force Flight Test Center 125 South Grand Avenue Pasadena, California General Electric Cater 13430 No. Black Canyon Highway Phoenix, Arizona Science Research Associates, Inc.. 104 Pearl Street McHenry, Illinois Universal Research and Testing Laboratories 4310 San Fernando Road Glendale 4, California
BRL 1961, READIX, start page 0815

BRL 1961, RECOMP I CP 266, start page 0816

RECOMP I CP 266

Recomp Model I (Formerly designated CP 266) MANUFACTURER Autonetics Division North American Aviation, Incorporated
Photo by Autonetics Division, North American Aviation, Inc. APPLICATIONS Scientific computing and data processing for laboratory, field or mobile use. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits per word 40 Binary digits per instruction 20 Instructions per word 2 Instructions decoded 34 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type One address Number range - (2-39 - 1) to + (239 - 1) Three commands are provided in order to simplify "floating point" operation. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 2,000 1,000 Milt 21,000 20,000 Div 21,500 20, 500 Construction Transistors Rapid access word registers 4 Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Computer clock pulses are recorded on magnetic memory disc. Operation Sequential Access time above is based on minimum access time. Transistors are used throughout. No vacuum tubes or magnetic amplifiers are employed.
BRL 1961, RECOMP I CP 266, start page 0817
Photo by Autonetics Division, North American Aviation, Inc. STORAGE No. of No. of Access Media Words Digits Microsec Magnetic Disk 2,048 40 1,000-32,500 Magnetic Disk 16 40 1,000- 2,500 The 2,500 microsecond maximum access time for the high speed loop occurs on a read operation. The computer memory is of the rotating magnetic disk. A special air bearing maintains an extremely close spacing between the rotating disc and the optically precise headplate. The air gap sensed by the magnetic circuit is about 100 microinches wide. This highly efficient recording system has permitted pulse densities of 300 pulses per inch with write currents of 15 milliamperes. INPUT Media Speed Paper Tape Reader 37 char/sec Decimal. Keyboard Manual Electric Typewriter Manual Conversion of decimal mixed numbers to binary is wired in. Input process is automatically checked when the "verify" feature of computer is used. OUTPUT Media Speed Paper Tape Punch 10 char/sec Decimal Readout Panel 66 millisec/dig Electric Typewriter Manual All output errors are automatically detected using "echo" checking feature of computer. Up to 15 decimal digits plus sign may be displayed on the Decimal Read-Out Panel. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Crystal diodes 7,000 Transistors 1,600 Standardized etched (printed) circuit cards. CHECKING FEATURES Fixed System contains self-checking features designed to eliminate input-output errors. System has an "inputverify" feature and an "output-echo" checking feature.
BRL 1961, RECOMP I CP 266, start page 0818
Photo by Autonetics Division, North American Aviation, Inc. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE. PREPARATION Power, computer 0.3 Kw 0.3 KVA Power, air conditioner 0.3 Kw 0.3 KVA Volume, computer 5.7 cu ft, including air conditioner Size, computer 19.5 in x 23.5 in x 21.5 in, excluding typewriter and paper tape units Weight, computer 200 lbs Power requirement figures exclude typewriter and paper tape units. Air conditioner is built into computer package. Voltage regulated power supply is included. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 1 Number in current operation 1 PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS One operator per shift is required. Computer is designed for simple operation. Inherent reliability and test equipment make computer easy to checkout and maintain. RELIABILITY. OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY All circuits and components used are designed to meet environmental conditions of the field, including continuous operation in 1200 F ambient, vibration, humidity, etc. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS A checkout console is plugged into the computer, which makes it possible to rapidly check the complete computer system and its plug-in components. Outstanding features include small size, weight and power requirements for efficient use in office, laboratory or field. It is compact and rugged. System was developed by Reconnaissance Charting Branch, Intelligence Laboratory, Rome Air Development Center, under contract with Autonetics Division of North American Aviation, Incorporated.
BRL 1961, RECOMP I CP 266, start page 0819

BRL 1961, RECOMP II, start page 0820

RECOMP II

Autonetics Recomp Computer MANUFACTURER North American Aviation, Incorporated Autonetics Division
Photo by Autometric Corporation, Operations Division APPLICATIONS Manufacturer RECOMP II is an all-transistorized general- purpose digital computer. This desk size computer does computations in mathematics, data reduction and analyses, optical engineering, photogrammetric calculations, operations research, and other civil engineering and scientific applications. U.S.A. Combat Development Experimentation Center Located in Building 2871, Fort Ord, California, the system is used for the analysis of field data from Combat Development Experimentation Center experiments and for the calculation of fire effects. USASS ADDS OD Located in Building 621, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, the system is used by the Officers Department, ADPS Committee, U.S. Army Signal School, for the preparation of demonstration programs to illustrate the military applications of computer systems. These demonstrations include logistics and personnel accounting, radioactive decay calculations and fire control calculations. It is also used for the train ing of programmers. USASS CO NARC Briefing Team On tour, the system is used by the USCONARC ADDS Briefing Team, U.S. Army Signal School, to demon- strate military applications of a digital computer to military audiences throughout the United States. USASS Special Training Department Located at Myer Hall, Dept. of Special Training, U.S. Arrmyy Signal School, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, the RECOMP II in many respects is similar to the BASICPAC, a member of Army's FIELDATA family. For this reason, it can be and is being used for simulation for programmer training. It also demonstrates capabilities, limitations and applications during FIELDATA programmer, operator and maintenance training. Offutt AFB Located at the Offutt AFB, 544th Reconnaissance Technical Group, Analysis Center, the system is used for Geodesy (datum conversions; coordinate transformations range and azimuths; geodetic position computations and Photogrammetry (analytical triangulation; photo orientation and rectification).
BRL 1961, RECOMP II, start page 0821
Photo by North American Aviation, Inc., Autonetics Division Turner AFB System is used in Geodetic Positioning, and Hiran distance computations. It is presently used to inverse, and position points and adjust these points to a most probable position. It is being programmed to do Hiran distance reduction computations. W - P AFB Located at the Institute of Technology (Air University), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, the system is used for training USAF officers in use of computers. It is used also for student and faculty research on problems of interest to the U.S. Air Force. Autometric Corporation System is used primarily to solve geodetic equations in aerial mapping and other branches of photogrammetry. Melpar, Inc. Located at 11 Galen Street, Watertown, Massachusetts, the system is used for radar calculations, information theory problems, character recognition, and considerable matrix work (eigenvalues, etc). PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Manufacturer Internal number system Binary For output Binary Coded Decimal Binary digits/word 39 + sign Binary digits/instruction 20 Instructions per word 2 Instructions decoded Will hold over 8,000 at onetime (49 different plus 5 input-output variants Arithmetic system Floating point Fixed point Instruction type One address (Single) Number range Fixed 2(239- 1); Floating (1 - 239). 2 (237- 1) or 10+-Forty billion
BRL 1961, RECOMP II, start page 0822
Photo by North American Aviation Inc., Autonetics Division Instruction word format +------+----+---------+------+----+---------+------+ | Sign | OP | Address | Sign | OP | Address | | +------+----+---------+------+----+---------+------+ | 1 | 6 | 13 | 1 | 6 | 13 | Bits | +------+----+---------+------+----+---------+------+ Automatic built-in subroutines include trapping on negative instructions, floating point operations, and fixed and floating square root. Assemblies and compilers are available. There are four registers, designated A, R, C and B. ARITHMETIC UNIT Manufacturer Exclud Stor Access Microsec Fixed point Fixed point Add 540 1,350 Mult 10,800 12,400 Div 11,300 12,700 Arithmetic unit is constructed of transistors. Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential STORAGE Manufacturer Medium No. of Words No. of Decimal Digits Magnetic Disk 4,096 49,000 Average access time'is 9,000 microseconds for main memory and 900 microseconds for high speed memory. There are two high speed loops of 8 words each. Melpar, Inc. High-speed storage can hold 32 commands or 4 floating point numbers and 16 commands, etc. An additional 16 or 32 words of high-speed storage would be help- ful in allowing more data to be contained in the high-speed loops at one time. INPUT Manufacturer Media Speed Paper Tape (Photoelectric) 400 char/sec Control Console Keyboard Electric Typewriter Other methods are under development. Melpar, Inc. An off-line paper tape preparation unit should be used to avoid wasting computer time during keying operations. An off-line Flexowriter, with compatible code for this purpose, has been ordered.
BRL 1961, RECOMP II, start page 0823
Photo by North American Aviation, Inc., Autonetics Division OUTPUT Manufacturer Media Speed Paper Tape Punch20 char/sec Electric Typewriter10 char/sec Console Visual Readout (Nixie) Other methods are under development. Machine operates in binary, but accepts decimal or alphanumeric input. Melpar, Inc. High-speed punch to be added in order to speed up output operations. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Manufacturer Type Approximate Quantity Diodes 10,000 Transistors 2,000 CHECKING FEATURES Manufacturer All output is checked by echo signal to ensure accuracy. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Manufacturer Power, computer 0.5 Kw Volume, computer 4.7 cu ft Area, computer 45 sq ft Floor loading 80 lbs/sq ft Weight, computer 197 lbs 115V, AC, outlet is required. USA CDEC Voltage regulation installed on 110V line. USASS ADDS OD Power, computer 0.4 Kw Excluding typewriter and paper tape unit Room size 3 ft x 5 ft Weight, computer, includ- 400 lbs ing Input-Output No special site preparation is required. Power source may need a constant voltage regulator installed
BRL 1961, RECOMP II, start page 0824
Photo by U.S. Army Combat Development and Experimental Center, Fort Ord to minimize line transients effect on computer. USASS Special Training Dept. Room size 25 ft a 29 ft Capacity, air conditioner Approx 5 Tons No special site preparation required. Offutt AFB Room size 10 ft x 10 ft including filing & maint equip AC Voltage Regulator is the only necessary prep" tion. Turner AFB Power, computer 0.5 Kw Approx 0.5 KVA > 0,95 Pf Roam size 10 ft x 10 ft Floor loading 45 lbs/sq ft 45 lbs concen -- Weight, computerApprox 400 lbs No site preparation is required. Machine operates on standard 115V outlet. Installation time is approx. 2 hours. Air conditioner is not required.. W - P AFB Air conditioner is not necessary. Desk size computer-loading etc., is negligible. No site preparation is required. Autometric Corporation Room size 45 sq ft No special site preparation or air conditioner is required. Power outlet is 115V, 60 cycle, single phase. Melpar, Inc. Room size 7 ft x 10 ft Normal building sir conditioner is used. PRODUCTION RECORD Manufacturer Time required for delivery 3 months COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Manufacturer Monthly Price Rental Computer and memory, photo- $95,000 $3,000 electric tape reader, type- writer, tape punch, and. console Maintenance service included in rental. Purchaser service contract at 5,000 per year. USA CDEC Total cost of computing system $85,000. 2 Off-line Flexowriters cost $2,400 each. Total additional is $4,800. Maintenance/service contract is $6,000 per year.
BRL 1961, RECOMP II, start page 0825
Photo by U.S. Army Signal School, Fort Monmouth USASS ADPS OD Rental is $3,000 per month, including maintenance service. USASS Special paining Dept. Annual maintenance contract with manufacturer is approximately $5,000. Offutt AFB Computer and input-output devices - $92,000. Two magnetic tape unit' price is undetermined. Maintenance service contract is approximately $20,000 per year plus parts. Turner AFB System cost is $92,000. Autometric Corporation Maintenance contract is at rate of $5,000 per year for one shift operation. Additional shifts are 50% of first shift. Melpar, Inc. Off-line Flexowriter and high speed. punch cost $2,200. Computer, typewriter, console, paper-tape reader and punch rent at $3,000/month including maintenance service. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Manufacturer One supervisor and one programmer per 8 hour shift. System can be used by persons desiring a solution to a problem even if they have little or no computer experience. Complete operation training consisting of any or all of a 1 week familiarization course, a 2 week programming course, and/or a 1 week assembly and compiler course is made available by the manufacturer to the user. Maintenance course also available. USA CDEC One 8-Hour Shift Supervisors 1 Programmers 3 Clerks 1 Operation tends toward closed shop. Methods of training used includes individual instruction. USASS ADPS OD A machine supervisor is recommended. Ho formal operating procedures are necessary. Personnel familiar with the computer and programming may use the computer whenever they have the need on a first came basis. Operation tends toward open shop. Methods of training used includes manufacturer conducted on site courses lasting for periods of 1
BRL 1961, RECOMP II, start page 0826
Photo by U.S. Air Force 544th Reconnaissance Group, Offutt AFB week to 1 month. USASS CONARC Briefing Team One 8-Hour Shift Used Recommended Supervisors 1 1 Technicians 1 1 Operation tends toward open shop. Manufacturer conducted on site courses lasting for periods of 1 week to 1 month. Ho formal operating procedures are necessary. Personnel familiar with the computer and programming my use the computer whenever they have the need on a first come basis. USASS Special Training Dept. Programming and operating are performed by instructor personnel to meet their specific training requirements. Methods of training used includes training provided by manufacturer and on-the-job training Turner AFB One 8-Hour Shift Used Recommended Supervisors 1 1 Programmers 2 Operators 2 1 W - P APR Operation tends toward open shop. A 110-hour course, spread over ten weeks, is given. Each student has, in addition, 20 or more hours of machine time, and he carries a problem of appreciable magnitude through all its stages. Autometric Corporation One programmer, who usually does own operating, is used and recommended. Operation tends toward open shop. Manufacturer of system offers a three week programming/operating course free with purchase of system. A programmer so trained may in turn instruct others at the home installation in the use of the equipment. Offutt AFB One 8-Hour Shift Used Recommended Supervisors 1 1 Programmers 3 3 Technicians 1 1 Operation tends toward open shop. Methods of training used include Computer Programmers School (2 weeks), frequent classes conducted by the Field Engineer, and on-the-job training.
BRL 1961, RECOMP II, start page 0827
Melpar, Inc. One 8-Hour Shift Used Recommended Supervisors 1 1 Analysts 0 2 Programers 3 4 Coders 0.5 2 Operators 0.5 1 In-Output Oper 0.5 1 Operation tends toward open shop. Engineers were trained to use algebraic translator. (Some were trained to use machine code.) Programmers (all familiar with at least one other computer) taught themselves from the manual. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY USA CDEC Good time 33 Hours/Week Average Attempted to run time40 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.82 Above figures based on period 1 Jan 60 to 1 Jul 60 Passed Customer Acceptance Test 1 Oct 59 Time is not available for rent to outside organizations. USASS ADDS OD Good time 38 Hours/Week Average Attempted to run time40 Hours/Week (Average Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.95 Above figures based on period 1 Jul 59 to 1 Jul 60 Time is not available for rent to outside organizations. 2 hours/week required for preventive maintenance. USASS CONARC Briefing Team Good time 38 Hours/Week Average Attempted to run time40 Hours/Week (Average Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.95 Above figures based on period 1 Jul 59 to 1 Jul 60 Time is not available for rent to outside organiza- tions. 2 hours/week required for preventive maintenance. USASS Special Training Dept. Average error-free running period 129.3 Hours Good time 38 Hours/Week Average Attempted to run time40 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.95 Above figures based on period 28 Jun 60 to 10 Aug 60 Passed Customer Acceptance Test 28 Jun 60 Time is not available for rent to outside organizations Turner AFB Good time 30 Hours/Week Average Attempted to run time30 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 1.0 Above figures based on period 26 Jun 60 to 10 Aug 60 Passed Customer Acceptance Test 20 Jun 60 Time is not available for rent to outside organizations. Autometric Corporation Good time 29 Hours/Week Average Attempted to run time30 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0-9T Above figures based on period May 59 to Aug 60 Passed Customer Acceptance Test May 59 Time is not available for rent to outside organizations. Melpar, Inc. Average error-free running time 60-90 Hours Good time 60 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 44 out of 45 starts Above figures based on period 8 Mar 60 to 8 May 60 Time is available for rent to outside organizations. There has been only one computer failure to date: two burned out diodes in the power supply. There was difficulty with the typewriter and punch during the first month but they are both highly reliable now. The RECOMP II system replaced a larger system, and is far more reliable, with only 2 hours maintenance per week instead of 10-15. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Manufacturer Outstanding features - Rugged solid-state construc- tion; simplified programing; built-in floating point arithmetic and square root; fingertip control console with digital readout; hi -a r photoelec- tric tape reader (400 characters/sec); 49 commands; magnetic disk memory with 4,096 words, each of 40-bit length,. including 16 words in high-speed loops. USA CDEC Outstanding features includes built in floating point commands, and Baudot (teletype) input. Tape is stored in a fire proof safe file cabinet. System is input- output limited. USASS ADDS OD Outstanding features include compact large family of instructions, easy to use and understand, and console. It is more rugged than most commercial computers and may be moved easily with only normal household goods type care. USASS CONARC Briefing Team Shipment between presentations done by commercial movers or in a specially constructed shelter which has modified shock mountings and built in recesses and tie-down straps for fast packing. USASS Special Training Dept. Unique system advantage is that the RECOMP paper tape code andDATA 5 chan cods are the same. Transistorized, serial, binary, single address, internally stored program, general purpose, digital computer, with 49 instructions including 15 arithmetic instructions; 25 logical and transfer instructions; 9 input/output instructions. Among these are 9 built- in floating point instructions. Offutt AFB Outstanding features include two high speed rapid access loops, floating point arithmetic, completely transistorized, mall computer compactness, and economy of power. Turner AFB Outstanding features include small physical size, no site preparation, reliability, and ease of programming. W - P AFB Outstanding features include ease of communication with the system and simplicity of coding. Automeetric Corporation Outstanding features include Arabic numeric display under manual or program control and trapping mode (negative command actuated) .Following built-in advantages include preset stop mode, checking features, verification mode for input, decimal to binary. conversion on input, floating point, and three sense switches. Unique system advantages include no special site. preparation, no sir conditioning, the system is portable, and ease of programming and debugging.
BRL 1961, RECOMP II, start page 0828
Melpar, Inc. Outstanding features include reliability, automatic floating point, square root commands, and full. word floating point exponent. FUTURE PLANS Manufacturer Magnetic tape will be available in the near future, as soon as testing is completed. USASS Special Training Dept. As other equipment and components far this system became available and as they increase the effectiveness of the training offered, they will be added. Offutt AFB Two magnetic tape input-output units are to be installed in the near future. The computer will be sent back to Autonetics for modification. Anticipated time necessary for modification is between 30 and 90 days. Turner AFB Plan to add magnetic tape input- output system. Melpar, Inc. Modifications include off-line Flexowriter for input preparation and printing of results, a highspeed punch, a Melpar-built plotter using paper tape input, and a large-scale open shop training program. New applications expected are interference studies, satellite tracking, operations research and missile trajectories. INSTALLATIONS U. S. Army Combat Development Experimentation Center Fort Ord, California U. S. Army Signal School ADPS, Officers' Department Fort Monmouth, New Jersey U. S. Army Signal School CONARC Briefing Team Fort Monmouth, New Jersey U. S. Army Signal School Special Training Department Fort Monmouth, New Jersey 544-th Reconnaissance Technical Group Analysis Center Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska 1370th P. M. V. Turner Air Force Base, Georgia Institute of Technology (Air University) Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio Autometric Corporation 337- W. 44th Street New York 36, A. Y. Melpar, Inc. 11 Galen Street Watertown, Massachusetts
BRL 1961, RECOMP II, start page 0829

BRL 1961, REPAC, start page 0830

REPAC

REPAC MANUFACTURER North American Aviation, Inc. Autonetics Division APPLICATIONS System is designed for general purpose computing. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 40 including sign bit Binary digits/instruction 20 including sign bit Instructions/word 2 Arithmetic system Fixed and floating point Instruction type One address Number range +1 x 239 YO -1 x 239 Floating Point Exponent Range (+ or - 1 x 239) Instruction word format +-------------+------+----------------+--------------+------------+ | Instruction | Sign | Octal Digits | Octal Digits | Half-Word | | | Bit | Operation Code | Address | Indicator | | | | | | Bit | +-------------+------+----------------+--------------+------------+ | First |(1/0) | (XX) | (XXXX) | (1/0) | +-------------+------+----------------+--------------+------------+ | Second | Same as first instruction | +-------------+---------------------------------------------------+ Automatic built-in subroutines include automatic conversion from decimal to binary during input. Registers include: A - Accumulator register R - Remainder register B - Operand register X - Exponent register L - 8-word rapid access storage V - 8-word rapid access storage ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 1,980 540 Mult 22,240 10,800 Div 22,740 10,800 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors 1,500 Condenser-diodes 13,000 Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential STORAGE No. of No. of Dec Access Media Words Digits/Word Microsec Disk Memory (Main) 4,080 12 8,000 Disk Memory (Rapid) 16 12 540 Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 32 Units Channels or tracks on the tape 5 Tracks/tape Transfer rate 30,000 Char/sec Tape units have not yet been connected to the REPAC Computer at this time. INPUT Media Speed Paper Tape (Photoelectric) 400 char/sec 5 or 6 channel Typewriter Manual Keyboard on Console Manual Input can be either command format, alphanumeric information, or decimal numbers from paper tape and typewriter and command or decimal from keyboard on console. OUTPUT Media Speed Paper Tape 20 char/sec 5 or 6 channel Typewriter 10 char/sec Nixie Tubes on Console 0.54 millisec/Nixie Output can be either command format, alphanumeric information, or decimal numbers to paper tape and typewriter and command or decimal to Nixie tubes on console. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Diodes 02289 10,000 Other 2,000 Transistors All types 1,500 CHECKING FEATURES Echo checking on punch and typewriter. Verify mode on tape input. POWER. SPACE. WEIGHT. AND SITE. PREPARATION Power, computer o.6 Kw 5.4 KVA Volume, computer 6 cu ft Area, computer 4 sq ft Room size, computer One-man office Floor loading 50 lbs/sq ft Weight, computer 205 lbs PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 1 Number in current operation 1 Not in production PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour Shift Shifts Shifts Programmers 1 1 2 Coders 1 2 3 Training made available by the manufacturer includes Service Engineer Training School and Programer Training School.
BRL 1961, REPAC, start page 0831
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features include comprehensive control console with digital display, built in floating point, high-speed reader, and magnetic-disk memory. This computer has been further developed into RECOMP II, which is produced in quantity. INSTALLATIONS North American Aviation, Inc. Autonetics Division 9150 East Imperial Highway Downey, California

BRL 1961, RICE UNIVERSITY, start page 0832

RICE UNIVERSITY

Rice University Computer MANUFACTURER Rice University 8,192 Word Electrostatic Memory
Photo by Bel Air - Rice University APPLICATIONS General purpose computing, primarily scientific applications. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Number of binary digits per word 54 Number of instructions per word 1 Total number of instructions decoded 213 Approx. Arithmetic system Fixed and floating point Instruction type One address Two short addresses, initial fetch and final store or index arithmetic unit are possible. Number range Fixed point 0 to 1 - 2-47 Floating point n = +- c (28)+-e 0 <= c <= 1 - 2-47 0 <= e <= 31
BRL 1961, RICE UNIVERSITY, start page 0833
Instruction word format +---------------+-----------+-------+-------------+---------+ | 6 | 15 | 6 | 12 | 15 | +---------------+-----------+-------+-------------+---------+ | Initial Fetch | Operation | Final | Index Mod- | Address | | w/Inflections | Code | Store | ification, | | | | | | Inflections | | +---------------+-----------+-------+-------------+---------+ Automatic codingAssembly system, algebraic coding system being written, general compiling system being designed. Registers and B-Boxes Arithmetic registers (54 bits): U,R,S, four temporary stores. Control registers (15 bits): Eight index registers, including control counter and pathfinder; Eight special purpose registers. ARITHMETIC UNIT Operation Incl. Stor. Excl. Stor. Microseconds Access Access Add 50 40 Mult 85 75 Div 85 75 Operation times are for floating point. Construction (Arithmetic Unit Only) 1000 Vacuum tubes 60 Transistors 5000 Diodes Arithmetic mode Parallel Timing Asynchronous Operation Sequential STORAGE Access Media Words Digits Microsec. Electrostatic tubes 8,192 8,192x54 10 Fast Flip-flop Registers 4 4x54 1 Magnetic Tape Maximum number of units that can 4 Units be connected to the system Maximum number of characters per *430 Char/in. linear inch of tape Channels or tracks on the tape 10 Track/tape Tape speed 75 In/sec Transfer rate *32,000 Char/sec. Start time 6 Millisec. Stop time 6 Millisec. Average time for experienced *60 Seconds operator to change reel of tape Physical properties of tape Width 3/4 Inches Length of reel 2,400 Feet INPUT Media Speed Paper Tape 300 char/sec Magnetic Tape 4,000 words/sec OUTPUT Media Speed Paper Tape 60 char/sec Printer 600 lines/min Magnetic Tape 108 char/line 4,000 words/sec CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Type Quantity Tubes 5965 3,000 1858 256 6147 300 Diodes T3G 13,000 Transistors 2N585 500 2N393 1,000 2N598 400 The above figures are for the final machine 32Kword memory. The 1858 tubes are used in the RADECHON fast storage unit. CHECKING FEATURES An error correcting code for l error/word operates with fast memory and magnetic tape. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 20 K.W. Space, computer 400 sq. ft. Space, air conditioner 5 ft. x 10 ft., blower Capacity, air conditioner 13 tons All equipment installed in an ordinary 50 ft. x 50 ft. room. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 1 Number in current operation 1 COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES The computer is being built with financial support by the Atomic Energy Commission at a cost of approximately $400.000. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS For One 8-hour shift during the construction phase: Programmers 4 Engineers 3 Technicians 2 Secretary 1 INSTALLATIONS Rice University Houston 1, Texas FUTURE PLANS Memory capacity will be expanded to 32,768 words.
BRL 1961, RPC 4000, start page 0834

RPC 4000

Royal Precision Computer Model 4000 MANUFACTURER Royal McBee Corporation Librascope, Incorporated
Photo by Royal McBee Corporation APPLICATIONS Systems are located at Port Chester, Hew York and Burbank, California. Typical examples of applications include engineering, e.g. flight simulation, thermal distribution, motor fuel blending, heat exchanger design, highway design, water network calculations, electrical power loadflow calculations, optical ray trace, and reduction of wind tunnel test data; and business data processing, e.g. production control, payroll, accounts receivable, order analysis, financial statements, job costing, sales analysis, quality control, and operations research. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 32 Binary digits/instruction 32 Instructions per word 1 Instructions decoded 42 Arithmetic system Fixed point Floating point can be simulated Instruction type Two address (one over one) Number range 9 decimal digits Instruction word format +------+---------+---------+------------------+-------+ | Sign | Command | Operand | Next Instruction | Index | | | | Address | Address | Tag | +------+---------+---------+------------------+-------+ | S | 1 4 | 5 17 | 18 30 | 31 | +------+---------+---------+------------------+-------+ Automatic coding includes, compilers, assemblers, and interpretative systems.
BRL 1961, RPC 4000, start page 0835
Registers include upper accumulator, lower accumulator, instruction, index, and 8008 memory registers. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 500 250 Malt 17,000 17,000 Div 17,000 17,000 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors and diodes are employed as the circuitry of the 4000. Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous OperationNext instruction designated STORAGE Average No. of No. of Access Medium Words Binary Digits Microsec Magnetic Drum 8,008 32 8,500 INPUT Media Speed Paper Tape (Photo Electric 500 char/sec Reader Paper Tape (Tape Typewriter 60 char/sec Reader) Punched Card Reader Magnetic Tape OUTPUT Media speed Paper Tape (High speed 300 char/sec Punch) Paper Tape (Tape Typewriter 30 char/sec Punch) Tape Typewriter Print 12 char/sec CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Transistors and diodes are used in the circuitry of the RPC- 4000. CHECKING FEATURES Parity checks are included. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 0.725 Kw Volume, computer 25.4 cu ft Area, computer 8.8 sq ft Roam sizeDepends upon equipment configuration Floor loading 78.2 lbs/sq ft 600 lbs concen max Length, computer 46 3/4 in Width, computer 27 in Depth, computer 34 3/4 in Weight, computer 600 lbs Normal office power required. COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Cost of basic system Computer (including one Tape Typewriter) $87,500 Additional. equipment Photo Electric Reader 15,000 High Speed Punch 20,000 Tape Typewriter (off line) 5,000 Rental for basic system Computer (including one Tape Typewriter) $1,750 Rental additional equipment Photo Electric Reader 300 High Speed Punch 400 Tape Typewriter (off line) 150 Maintenance included in rental; service contract available for purchasers. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Personnel requirements will vary according to the applications under consideration and the size of the system. The basic system, i.e., computer and tape typewriter, tends towards an open shop type operation; however, since the system is modular and up to 17 input-output units (up to 60 with minor modifications) may be employed on-line at any time, the system as a data processing system would tend towards a closed shop type operation. Training provided by the manufacturer includes programming schools for users at no extra cost, local assistance by applications analysts at no cost, and maintenance schools for users at a nominal additional cost. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS System is fully transistorized, large memory-8008 words, programming flexibility, high operating speeds, Index Register for automatic high speed address modification, repeat execution feature, complete memory search of 8,000 words in 2 1/2 to 4 seconds, high speed input and output, up to 17 input-output devices (or up to 60 with minor modifications), parity checking on input, dual access and high speed tracks, utilizes UQL120 volt "house current". INSTALLATIONS Royal McBee Corporation Port Chester, New York Royal McBee Corporation Burbank, California PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 10 Number in current operation 2 Number in current production 10 Number on order 75 Anticipated production rate 10 per month Time required for delivery 4-6 months
BRL 1961, RPC 9000, start page 0836

RPC 9000

Royal Precision Computer Model 9000 MANUFACTURER Royal McBee Corporation Librascope, Incorporated
Photo by Royal McBee Corporation APPLICATIONS Located in Port Chester, Hew York and Burbank, California, system is designed for all typical businesstype data processing and engineering type activities. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary coded decimal Decimal digits/word 12 Decimal digits/instruction 2 Instructions per word 6 Instructions decoded 43 Arithmetic system Fixed point Floating point can be simulated. Instruction type One address Number range 12 decimal digits Instruction word format Single Character Command., Single Character Address: e.g. the command may be F, the address may be P. Automatic coding includes compilers, and assemblers. Registers and B-boxes include 3 - Arithmetic Regis- ters, 1 - Command Register, and 1 - Address Register. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Average Microsec Microsec Add 110 230 Mult 2,860 1,980 Div 3,520 3,520 Access times are not optimized. Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors and diodes are employed in the cir- cuitry of the RPC-9000. Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential STORAGE No. of No. of Access Media Words Digits Microsec Magaetostrictive 77 864 0.880 Delay Lines Magnetic Tape 80,000 960,000 1,785,000 (per unit) magnetic tape access is average for a reel. INPUT Media Speed Paper Tape 500 char/sec Cards 400 cards/min Paper Tape (Punch and 60 char/ sec Reader) Tape Typewriter System OUTPUT Media Speed High Speed Paper Tape 300 char/sec Punch Punched Card Punch 100 cards/min High Speed On-line 667 or 1,000 lines/min Printer Paper Tape Punch and 30 char/see Reader In addition, there is a slower speed line printer at 150 lines per minute and the typewriter at 12 characters per second available as output. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Transistors and diodes are used, in the circuitry of the RFC- 9000.
BRL 1961, RPC 9000, start page 0837
CHECKING FEATURES Parity checks are included. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 0.2 Kw Vole, computer 43.4 cu ft Area, computer 12.4 sq ft Floor loading 24.2 lbs/sq ft 300 lbs concen max Weight, computer 300 lbs Normal office power required. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 10 Number in current operation 4 Number in current production 25-30 Number on order 50 Anitcipated production rates 6 per month Time required for delivery 9 months COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Cost of basic system Computer $60,000 Tape Typewriter System 5,000 Magnetic Tape Storage Unit 50,000 32 word-expandable Memory Units 5,000 Cost of additional equipment Photo Electric Reader $15,000 High Speed Punch 20,000 Punch and. Reader 2,500 Punched Card Reader 20,000 Punched Card Punch 25,000 Line Printer (150 lpm) 50,000 Line Printer (1,000 lpm) 175,000 Auxiliary Magnetic Tape Storage Unit 20,000 Rental for basic system Computer $1,200 Tape Typewriter System 150 Magnetic Tape Storage Unit 1,000 32 word expandable memory Unit 100 Rental additional equipment Photo Electric Reader 300 High Speed Punch 400 Punch and Reader 75 Punched Card Reader 400 Punched Card Punch 450 Line Printer (150 lpm) 1,000 Line Printer (1,000 lpm) 3,500 Auxiliary Magnetic Tape Unit 400 Maintenance included in rental; service contract available for purchasers. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Personnel requirements will vary according to the applications under consideration and the size of the system. Methods of training made available by the manu. facturer are programming schools for users at no cost, maintenance schools for users at a nominal additional cost, and local assistance by applications analysts at no cost to user. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Fully transistorized, random in-line processing, extremely high speed processing, compatible with any alphabetic or numeric "account number" system, complete file search - every record inspected on every cycle, data parity checked, all data in decimal form, internally stored program, tape cartridges easily interchanged, up to 30 input-output devices operating simultaneously, overlapped functions, modular construction throughout, efficient program storage-2 characters per instruction, fully automatic operation. INSTALLATIONS Royal McBee Corporation Port Chester, New York Royal McBee Corporation Burbank, California
BRL 1961, RW 300, start page 0838

RW 300

Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Computers Company Model RW 300 MANUFACTURER Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Computers Company
Photo by Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Computers Company APPLICATIONS Manufacturer Automatic, on-line, real-time uses include industrial process control, process data logging, pilot plant operation, quality control testing, electronic or electromechanical systems checkout, test stand data acquisition and data reduction. Off-line uses include general purpose computing. System has built-in analog-digital conversion logic. Programming is not required to store analog data in memory. System has built-in digital-analog conversion logic. Program is required only to change the output values. National Aviation Facilities Experimental Station Located at the NAFEC, Federal Aviation Agency, Atlantic City, New Jersey, the system is used for air traffic control simulation, and terminal area sequencing control for the Idlewild area. Twenty sim- ulators via analog tieup are connected to the 300 for input and digital displays are connected for output. With these, a simulation of aircraft in the terminal area and the IFR Room are produced for testing manmachine automization of air traffic control. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Manufacturer Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 17 bits plus 1 sign bit Binary digits/instruction 36 (2 words) Instructions per word one-half Instructions decoded 21 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type Two address (one plus one)
BRL 1961, RW 300, start page 0839
National Aviation Facilities Experimental Station (FAA) Photo by Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Computers Company Number range +- (218 - 1) Instruction word format WORD ONE 2 WORDS WORD TWO +-----------+---------+ +-----------+------------------+ | 18 14 | 13 1 | | 18 14 | 13 1 | +-----------+---------+ +-----------+------------------+ | Execution | Operand | | Operation | Next Instruction | | Code | Address | | | Address | +-----------+---------+ +-----------+------------------+ Automatic built-in subroutines include a program loader. Automatic coding features include "OPUS", a routine for compiling optimum-coded computer program from sequential, symbolic listing, and "SAFARI", an assembly and interpretive program for scientific problems. Registers include an A register (accumulator), a B register (lower accumulator), 3 one-word control registers, and an output-buffer register (18 bits). ARITHMETIC UNIT Manufacturer Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 780 780 Mult 2,990 2,990 Div 3,120 3,120 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors approx. 580 Diodes approx. 4,000 Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential Zero access for optimum coding 8,330 microsec avg. access for sequential coding
BRL 1961, RW 300, start page 0840
STORAGE Manufacturer No. of No. of Access Media Words Binary Digits Microsec Magnetic Drum 7,936 or 18 x 7,936 or 8,330 avg. 15,520 18 x 15,520 Magnetic drum contains 32 words of fast-access memory; 2,080 microsec avg. The 8,330 microsec average access is for general storage only. Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 8 Units No. of chars/linear inch of tape 240 Char/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 8 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record 0.5 Inches Tape speed 75 Inches/sec Transfer rate 2,560 Words/sec Start time less than 5 Millisec Stop time less than 5 Millisec Physical properties of tape Width 0.5 Inches Length of reel 2,400 Feet The magnetic tape system is available in 150 and 240 lines per inch models; the figures above are for the 240 lines/in model. The tape system can be purchased compatible with both RW 300 and IBM 709 equipment. National Aviation Facilities Experimental Station Access Microsec Media No. of Words Average Drum 7,936 830 Core Buffer 128 215/128 words INPUT Manufacturer Media Speed Paper Tape 10 char/sec 60 char/sec optional Digital On-off Signals Up to 5 0 bits available Analog Continuous Up to 1,920 sam- ples/sec and 1,024 channels of input National Aviation Facilities Experimental Station Keyboard (Flexowriter) 9 char/sec Paper Tape (Ferranti) 60 char/sec Magnetic Tape 1,920 words/sec Analog 128 10 bit words Digital 700 microsec Paper tape is 8 level. Analog output is updated every 2.1 seconds. The digital output is up to 18 bits at a time. OUTPUT Manufacturer Media Speed Automatic Typewriter 10 char/sec Several typewriters can be operated simultaneously. Paper Tape Punch 10 char/sec 60 char/sec punch optional Analog Continuous up to 128 Digital On-off SignalsUp to 540 bits available The RW 300 is unique in that the input-output, buffering, selection, and analog-digital conversion equipment are an integral part of the computer and operate completely independently of the program. The RW 300 can therefore be connected directly to measuring instruments and control devices. National Aviation Facilities Experimental Station Media Speed Typed Page (Flexowriter)9 char/sec Paper Tape (Flexowriter)9 char/sec Paper Tape Teletype)60 char/sec Magnetic Tape 1,920 words/sec Digital 700 microsec Paper tape is 8 level. Digital output is up to 18 bits at a time. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Manufacturer Type Quantity Tubes 13 Diodes 4,000 Transistors 580 Magnetic Cores 2,304 The tubes are used only in the power supply. The magnetic cores are used in the tape-to-computer buffer storage. The diode and transistor quantities are approximate. CHECKING FEATURES Manufacturer There is an optional parity bit on the Flexowriter input/output. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Manufacturer Power, computer 0.5 Kw 120 Volts 60 cps Volume, computer 33.5 cu ft Area, computer 11.2 sq ft Room size Small Weight, computer 600 lbs Volume figure does not include input-output equipment. National Aviation Facilities Experimental Station Power, computer 1 KW Volume, computer 72 cu ft Area, computer 18 sq ft Room size 8 ft x 10 ft Floor loading 4o lbs/sq ft 90 lbs concen max Weight, computer 700 lbs Room is kept below 86oF by building sir conditioning. False floors for cable runs is installed. Humidity and temperature is controlled at 72oF and 50% relative humidity. PRODUCTION RECORD Manufacturer Number in current operation 18 Anticipated production rates 4 per month Time required for delivery 6 months
BRL 1961, RW 300, start page 0841
COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Manufacturer Price of basic computer (includes automatic typewriter and paper tape punch) is $98,000. Price of input-output system (Analog), optional equipment, control console, and magnetic tape units, is available on request. On-call maintenance contract and full-time maintenance contract are available. National Aviation Facilities Experimental Station The price of the basic computer, a Ferranti High Speed Punch, an input-output distribution panel, a real time clock, one analog to digital-digital to analog converter and & magnetic tape units cost $212, 920. Two data flow systems, 64 analog input channels, 36 analog output channels, 504 digital outputs, and 288 digital inputs cost an additional $90,673. Rentals for these are $5,962 and $2,589 per month, respectively. Maintenance/service contract is $3,000/month. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Manufacturer After installation, the system is designed to operate 24 hrs/day, 365 days/year, with no direct supervision. For 3 - 8 hour shifts, 3 operators and 1 technician are needed. Training made available by the manufacturer to the user includes Programming course (2 weeks to 4 weeks), a Theory of Operation course (3 weeks), and a Maintenance course (4 weeks). Operators are trained on site. All but maintenance course are free of charge at Beverly Hills facility. National Aviation Facilities Experimental Station One 8-Hour Shift Programmers 6 Coders 2 Clerks 1 Librarians 1 Operation tends toward open shop. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Manufacturer The system is designed and built for continuous (24 hrs/day, 365 days/yr) operation under normal environmental conditions in process plant control roams. It is completely transistorized except for the power supply. Less than 1% unscheduled down time experience in the majority of installations. These remarks are based on approximately 48 operating months in actual control installations. National Aviation Facilities Experimental Station Average error-free running period 40 Hours Good time 40.0 Hours/Week Average Attempted to run time 40.5 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.98 Above figures based on period Nov 59 to Apr 60 Passed Customer Acceptance Test Nov 59 Time is not available for rent to outside organiza- tions. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Manufacturer Outstanding features include integration of analog digital conversion equipment in one package, high reliability, and compact size. Unique system advantages are that one system can measure process conditions, compute proper settings for optimum process operation, and automatically control process variables. A typical RW 300 reactor monitoring system includes an RW 300 Digital Control Computer as the central unit; the required analog and digital input-output equipment; standard measuring and sensing instruments such as compensated and uncompensated ion chambers and scintillometers, and pressure, temperature, and flow sensors; indicating devices; and, where desirable, control devices actuated by the computer. In operation, the RW 300 continuously scans the instruments connected to it, converts analog and other readings to binary digital form, calculates corrections for measured values where necessary, compares these values against predetermined limits, actuates alarm and warning devices when limits are exceeded, and prints out measured and calculated data. To insure that the protection of continuous monitoring is available without interruption, two RW 300 computers can operate in parallel (as is the case in two nuclear power station installations in France), with both machines receiving all input data and making all calculations. Only one of the computers operates the automatic typewriters, the alarm devices, and the other output devices. If that computer stops or makes a mistake, the other computer automatically takes over the output device communications. Alternatively, the first computer might have the single function of alarm scanning, with the second computer and the tape unit used for computations, statistical correlations and trend analyses, data logging, processing of historical data read into the computer from the tape, and control of reactor and power plant variables, as well as backing up the alarm scanning computer. National Aviation Facilities Experimental Station The RW 300 is unique in that the input-output, buffering, selection, and analog to digital conversion equipment has been made an intergal part of the computer. Magnetic tapes are stored in metal cabinets in the computer room with temperature and humidity controls. INSTALLATIONS National Aviation Facilities Experimental Station Federal Aviation Agency Atlantic City, New Jersey
BRL 1961, RW 400, start page 0842

RW 400

Polymorphic Data Processing Systems Model RW 400 MANUFACTURER Ramo Wooldridge Division Thompson Ramo Wooldridge Division
Photo by Ramo Wooldridge Division, Thompson Ramo Wooldridge, Inc. APPLICATIONS General or special purpose data processing and realtime, on-line, instrumentation, data processing. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 26 + 2 parity Binary digits/instruction 26 Instructions per word 1 Instructions decoded 38 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type Two address System has some 3-address capability, due to special instructions. Instruction word format +---------+---------------+------------------+ | 26 21 | 20 11 | 10 1 | +---------+---------------+------------------+ | Op Code | First Operand | Second Operand & | | | Address | Result Address | +---------+---------------+------------------+ Registers include an exchange register, an instruction register, a program counter, accumulator (A), accumulator extension (B), and a sense register. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Microsec Add 36 (555555+555555) Mult 80 (555555x5555) Div 128 (3086108025/5555) Arithmetic unit is constructed of transistors. Arithmetic mode Parallel Timing Synchronous Operation Concurrent
BRL 1961, RW 400, start page 0843
STORAGE Access Media No. of Words Microsec Magnetic Core Variable; 7 char/word 10 Magnetic Drum 8,192 each; 7 char/word 8,500 Modules A variable number of drums and core units may be added. The characters are numeric. Magnetic Tape Modules No. of units that can be connected 64 Units No. of alpha chars/linear inch 400 chars inch No. of numeric chars/linear inch 700 Chars/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 16 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record 1.25 Inches Tape speed 150 Inches/sec Transfer rate 105,000 Chars/sec Start time 1.5 Millisec Stop time 1.5 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel 30 Seconds Physical properties of tape Width 1 Inch Length of reel 2,400 Feet Composition Mylar INPUT Media Speed Peripheral Buffer 8,192 words (Drum) 3,600 rpm - 8.5 ms av. access Up to 32 input/output devices may be connected to a peripheral buffer Incl. flexowriters, consoles, card readers, etc. Central Exchange 35 microsec connect speed For direct connect of input devices to system, card read, tape read, flexo, etc. Cards 2,000 cards/min Variable read format is utilized. OUTPUT Media Speed Typed Page Flexowriter 10 char/sec Paper Ta Flexowriter 10 char/sec Printer (Analex) 900 lines/min Plotter lines # 25 increments/min symbols - 50/min Card Punch --etc. The Flexowriter is modified for edge-punched cards and 7 level paper tape, read and punch. 32 may be connected to one peripheral buffer. Additional input/output devices include a display and analysis console and a data communication console. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE. PREPARATION Size, weight and power requirements for same typical RW 400 modules. A false floor for cabling is recommended. Mechanical Blower Heat Dimensions Weight Power (KW) Capacity Dissipation Item (feet) (lbs) Requirements cu ft/min BTU/min L. W. H. Computer Module 8 2 7 1,800 2.665 1,866 152 Buffer Module 6 2 7 1,450 2.545 1,474 145 Tape Module 2 2 7 1,000 1.460 392 83 Tape Adapter 2 2 7 1,000 1.200 392 68 Central Exchange (large) 8 2 7 2,000 4.445 1,866 255 Central Exchange (small) 6 2 7 1,450 2.755 1,474 160 Drum Module 2 2 7 1,000 0.460 392 26 Printer, Elec. (large) 8 2 7 1,900 Printer, Mich. 2.5 3.5 2 300 9.635 1,866 550 Peripheral Buffer 8 2 7 1,800 3.925 1,866 225 Display Buffer 4 2 7 1,100 0.540 784 31 Flexowriter Small 100 0.250 - - 15 Plotter 6 4 3 1,500 1.000 - - 57 PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 4 Number in current operation 3 Number in current production 2 Number on order 4 Time required for delivery 9 months COST, PRICE AND RENTAL. RATES Price on a per module basis is available on request. Maintenance/service contracting is available.
BRL 1961, RW 400, start page 0843
RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY The RW 1100 was designed as the AN/FSQ 27 and meets the required Military Specifications in construction and reliability. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features include a multiple inputoutput capability, full parallel processing capability, limited only by size of the particular installation and a distributed memory and control. Unique system advantages include expandability and flexibility. System can be a small tailored installation and then be expanded by addition of related modules to meet new or more stringent requirements. Expansion does not necessitate reprogramming. Programming Convenience. The natural format of the two- address instruction logic, augmented by three arithmetic modes (replace, hold and store), makes powerful concise programming easy. The 38 basic instructions are readily learned, and easily applied. They are sufficiently generalized and varied to permit expansion in accordance with the programming situations. A programmer is thus able to employ the full. power of the computer to every problem rather than that defined by his own subset of an overly long and randomly evolved instruction list. The direct access of computer instructions, via the indirect addressing and address incrementing feature, to data in a connected buffer's storage minimizes data transferral housekeeping. The buffer's self- instruction ability maximizes computer utility by providing parallel data acquisition while computing is taking place. Programmed control over the computer's response to externally initiated "alert" signals permits nondisruptive handling of system interrupt requests. The generalized inputoutput instructions make man-machine communication devices operable as integral parts of the RW 400 system. For this type of programming the computation system provides a mnemonic compiler system, necessary input-output routines, basic scientific subroutines, and diagnostic routines such as selective output, trace, and dump. Types of service routines include: "Dump" routines enable the programmer to obtain printed listings of the contents of computer and buffer core storage. Drum and magnetic tape dumps. Magnetic tape editing routine. Program analyzer routine. Tracing routine. Types of scientific subroutines include: Fixed point elementary functions - trigonometric, logarithmic, and exponential. Fixed point numerical integration. Binary to binary coded decimal conversion. Interpretive multiprecision floating point abstraction. Many other routines are being written to provide a complete service package. The RW 400 is a unique data processing system which permits many new programming techniques. For example, many computations divide naturally into independent but related parts. These independent parts may be programmed for separate computers within the RW 400 system. The separate computations may proceed simultaneously with resultant low execution time. New programming techniques are developing methods of employing more than one computer for economical high-speed solution of problems which do not separate naturally into independent parts. RW 400 Module Descriptions Central Exchange CX-400 and Interim Exchange IX-400 The IX-400 or CX 400 provides all of the communication paths between modules of the system. Its size is dependent upon the number of required paths. The interim exchange, a transistor- diode device, is adequate for small systems; for large systems the central exchange, a transfluxor device, is available. Features of the exchanges are as follows: The exchange function at electronic speeds. The exchange is controlled by both computer and buffer modules. All transmission formats are standard. Unidirectional transmission is employed. Each exchange itself can be increased in capacity by adding more channels. The RW 400 central or interim exchange performs a function similar to a telephone exchange. On request, it will set up a communication path between modules of the system. Several communication paths between different pairs of modules can exist at any given time; however, a request for connection to a module in use wilt result in a "busy" signal. It is convenient to think of the central exchange as a rectangular array of crosspoints, having computers and buffers positioned along one axis, and devices to which they can connect along the other axis. Only CM 400's and BM 400's can request connections; hence these are the executive elements. RW 400 modules communicate in a standard format, and can be connected into the central exchange in an arbitrary poisiton; however, since buffers and computers must communicate, each buffer has a position on both axes of the crosspoint array.
BRL 1961, RW 400, start page 0845
In its implementation the central exchange bears little resemblance to the telephone exchange. A conversation path actually consists of 37 lines in parallel, and the information rate through the exchange can be as high as 400,000 bits per second per line. Connections are made at electronic speeds. Computer Module, CM 400 The CM 400 is a high-speed, general-purpose digital computer which is housed in a four-bay cabinet approximately 7 feet high, 8 feet wide, and 2 feet deep. The characteristics and capabilities of the CM 100 are described in the following paragraphs: High-Speed Operations: There are 38 internal instructions for arithmetic and logical operations. The CM 400 is a parallel binary computer. The computer instruction word is 26 bits long and has two 10-bit addresses and a 6-bit operation code. A typical instruction line, including both memory accesses, is 40 microseconds, an add operation is performed in 35 microseconds, and a multiply operation is performed in 80 microseconds. Five general external (input-output instructions are provided. The computer instructions have two addresses. The set of arithmetic instructions has been chosen in a manner to effectively provide three-address efficiency in many cases. Each of the arithmetic operations-addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, square root of a sum, occur in three modes: replace, hold and store. In the replace mode, a division operation, for example, calls out two operands - the divisor and dividend - from the addresses specified by the instruction. After completion of the operation, the quotient is stored in one of the operand locations. In the hold mode, the same process occurs except the quotient is held in the accumulator and is not stored in memory. In the store mode of division, the divisor is obtained from any address in memory but the dividend is taken as the number retained in the accumulator at the end of the preceding instruction. The quotient is then stored in the location specified by the second address of the instruction. These three modes provide practically all of the one and two address combinations desired for arithmetic operations. Special interpretation is made of addresses containing all zeros or all ones - the latter providing access to operands or result locations in the memory of a connected buffer module. Memory. The CM 400 has a 1,024-word random access magnetic core memory. The read-write cycle time is 10 microseconds. Stored words are 28 bits long - 26 bits of information and 2 parity bits. Interrupt Capability. Automatic interrupt of a CM 400 is controlled by the masking action of an internal sense register which is under program control. Interrupts may be due to "master" computer intervention, alerting signals from external system modules, and internal conditions such as overflow. An interrupted CM 400 may be programmed to process the condition that caused. the interrupt. It then returns to its normal sequence of operations at the point of interruption. In more detail, each computer has a 20-bit sense register which permits program-controlled interruptions. Each flip-flop of this register senses an alert signal. If an alert signal becomes true and the sensing flip-flop is also true, then a program interrupt occurs. Interruption causes the computer program to next take the instruction stored in address zero. This instruction causes the program to jump to an "interrupt" subroutine. Conventional instructions are used to save the contents of the arithmetic registers and tyre address at which to reenter the interrupted program. Thirteen of the twenty alert conditions can be arbitrarily assigned from external sources. The remaining conditions arise from internal sources such as overflow, "ready" or other status signals received during standard. communication. Switching Capability. A CM 400 may connect itself through the central exchange to any available buffer module, tape module, tape adapter, drum module, printer module, peripheral buffer, or display buffer. Connections are made within the central exchange: All modules communicate over identical standard cables. The system network of alert signals of the RW 400 is required in multiple cotter systems to permit one computer to control the operation of other computers. It allows the system to efficiently accept infrequently occurring asynchronous input signals, and can be used to implement the timing of certain kinds of computer operation. Alert signals are extremely useful for indication of operator requests, causing prompt response to queries or modifications of console displays. If two or more occur simultaneously, the resulting interrupts are processed in a specifiable order or priority. FUTURE PLANS Plans include a new 32,000 word memory, word length up to 48 bits, optional, and automatic floating point.


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