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BRL 1961, OARAC, start page 0726


Office of Air Research Automatic Computer MANUFACTURER General Electric Company APPLICATIONS Scientific computation and analysis. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary coded decimal Decimal digits/word 10 + sign Decimal digits/instruction 7 Instructions/word 1 Instructions decoded 21 Instructions used 21 Arithmetic system Variable fixed decimal point loca- tion, can be set to any of 11 dig- it positions initially. It must remain at this location during any given sequence of operations, in order to obtain consistent results. Instruction type Two address (The machine originally was a one address machine). The modification to a two address ma- chine facilitated access to stor- age and permitted execution of special instructions with signifi- cant savings in time. Number range Variable + (1010 - 1) Number system used is the 2*-4-2-1 system. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 400-17,000 91 Mult 10,000-26,000 800 Div 10,000-26,000 1,200 Construction Vacuum tubes 400 Diodes 2,500 Basic pulse repetition rate 150 Kc/sec Arithmetic mode Serial by character Parallel by bits Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential STORAGE No. of No. of Access Media Words Digits Microsec Magnetic Drum 10,000 110,000 1,000-17,000 Magnetic Tape 7,200 per 1,200 ft.tape INPUT Media Speed Magnetic Tape 1,000 words/min Keyboard Manual Keyboard is located on main control panel. OUTPUT Medium Speed Magnetic Tape 1,000 words/min Contents of tape translated by an off-line code transcriber and typewriter. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Tubes 1,200 Tube types 12 Crystal diodes 7,000 Separate cabinets 2 Computer is housed in one cabinet and the magnetic drum is housed in another cabinet. CHECKING FEATURES Exceed capacity Unprogrammed stop Wrong combination Synchronized tape Divide by zero Product exceed capacity Tape runout, power and cooling failure fault checks. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE. PREPARATION Power, computer 23 KVA Volume, computer 600 cu ft Area, computer 80 sq ft Weight, computer 6,000 lbs Capacity, air conditioner 10 Tons The two cabinets measure 15 by 2.5 by 7 ft. and 4 by 5 by 6 ft. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced 1 This system was developed on a research and development contract for the Air Force. COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Approximate cost of basic system $185,000. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Average error-free running period 15 Hours Good time 13,686 Hours Attempted to run time 16,733 Hours Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.82 Above figures based on period from Apr 53 to Apr 56 Passed Customer Acceptance Test Apr 53
BRL 1961, OARAC, start page 0727
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS The OARAC has been improved. The improved version reportedly uses the same codes and commands as OARAC in order that problems may be run without difficulty. The problem exists with most computer installations that a considerable amount of machine time is required for checking out problems and it is planned to compensate for this by using the new machine, which is faster than the old OARAC, for running checked- out problems only. The new machine is supposed to have a 10,000 word core memory, and is supposed to be able to perform additions in 65 microseconds, excluding access time or in 130 microseconds, including access time and playback of the next instruction, multiply in 2.6 milliseconds and divide on an average of 6 milliseconds. This is supposed to result in an operating time savings of approximately 25 to 1 for most programs. INSTALLATIONS Aeronautical Research Laboratory Wright Air Development Center Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio
BRL 1961, OKLAHOMA UNIV, start page 0728


Oklahoma University Computer 1066 MANUFACTURER University of Oklahoma Computer Laboratory APPLICATIONS Located in the Merrick Building, North Campus, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, the system is used for general purpose scientific and engineering computation. This computer is a copy of the Rice University computer. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 54 Binary digits/instruction 54 Instructions per word 1 Instructions decoded Approx. 2500 (Micro Programmed) Arithmetic system Floating point Base 28; Exponent has sign plus 5 bits; Man., sign plus 47. Instruction type One address With limited three-address options. Number range Floating Pt: 2-295 < |n| < 2+248 Fixed Pt: - 1 < n < 1 Instruction word format +-----------------+------------+------------+----+-----+---------+ | 6 | 15 | 6 | 4 | 8 | 15 | +-----------------+------------+------------+----+-----+---------+ | 4 Bit Address | Operation | Auxiliary | 15 Bit Address | | of One Operand; | Field | Red-Tape | plus B Modifiers; | | Sign Modifies- | | Operation | Indirect Address | | tion | | | Option; Sign Mod- | | | | | ification | +-----------------+------------+------------+--------------------+ Automatic built-in subroutines Provision for an entire class of these. Initially will have none. Tests for tags and certain arithmetic conditions are done automatically in the "Trapping Mode" of operation. Automatic coding ALGOL Compiler Registers and B-boxes 7 rapid access 54-bit registers (4 listed also as fast access storage).8 B-boxes - Instruction uses any combination and gives sum of contents as modifier 1 Fictitious "zero" register. 8 special purpose 15 bit registers. Number of binary digits per word or instruction is 56 in memory, 2 of which are tags which can be tested when bringing from memory. About 2,500 combinations in the operation field alone, with room for expansion. One operand is taken from any of the 16 standard registers; a result from the operation can be stored back into any of the 16 or a B-box can be modified as a final auxiliary operation. Two of the B-boxes have special designations as Control Counter and Pathfinder; respectively these contain the address of the next instruction, and an address from a previous transfer. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 7 to 16 3 to 4 Mult 108 100 Div 108 100 Times are estimated. Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Vacuum-tubes 900 Transistors 60 Diodes 5,600 Arithmetic mode Parallel Timing Asynchronous Operation Sequential STORAGE No. of No. of Bin Access Media Words Dig/Word Microsec Flip-Flop Register 4 54 < 1 Electrostatic (CRT) 8,192 (present) 63 8(avg) Diode-Capacitor 4 63 Buffers Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 8 Units No. of char/linear inch of tape 500 Char/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 10 Tracks/tape Tape speed 75 Inches/sec Start time 7 Millisec Stop time 10 Millisec Physical properties of tape Width 0.75 Inches The flip-flop registers are located in the arithmetic unit and listed there also. Barrier Grid type CRT is used. .63 bits include 54 word, 2 tags, 6 error correction code, and 1 parity. Diode- Capacitor registers are buffers to and from magnetic tapes. INPUT Media Speed Paper Tape 400 hexads/sec 44 words/sec Ferranti T.R. 5 (Photoelectric) Magnetic Tape 2 to 4 words/millisec Typewriter Manual (IBM Input-Output Writer) Switches Manual (Can set 4 Special-Purpose Registers) Operator can type to or from any register. Sense, Mode, Trapping, Indicator Registers. OUTPUT Media Speed Line Printer 20 lines/sec (numeric) 10 lines/sec (alphanumeric) Paper Tape Punch 100 codes/sec 6 levels plus control Typewriter 10 octal dig/sec Magnetic Tape Printer mechanism is Anelex 56-160. Punch is Teletype BRPE 11 Paper Tape preparation is by off-line Flexowriter.
BRL 1961, OKLAHOMA UNIV, start page 0729
CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Tubes 5965 About 1,500 6197 About 300 S11E12 About 20 A high quality British power pentode. 2D21 About 120 To drive printer hammer solenoids. 1858 63 Barrier-grid storage tube. Total approx. 2,000 Diodes OMC-537 SG211 Other miscellaneous About 16,000 total (estimate) The majority of these are OMC-537 which is a Gold Bonded Germanium Diode Transistors 2N585 2N598 2N393 SB101 Others Total 2,000 - 3,000(estimate) mostly the first two types Primary uses: instruction decoding and gates, per- ipheral equipment, and memory preamplifier. Magnetic Cores 700 Used for pulse transformers The above quanities include some rather gross estimates for the control unit which is only partially completed. CHECKING FEATURES Six bit error correction code plus parity on electrostatic storage and magnetic tape. Corrects singlyoccurring bit failures. Exponent, mantissa overflow indicators which can be automatically checked as a trap condition. Provision for marginal. checking of circuits. Rounding is optional on results of certain arithmetic operations. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE. PREPARATION Power, computer 12 Kw (estimated) Capacity, air conditioner 15 Tons PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 0 Number in current operation Sections only, not en- tire system Number in current production 1 System operation anticipated in 1961. COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Locally produced. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS On any instruction the address can be modified by any combination of the 8 index registers (B registers), the control counter as a B register allows easy relative addressing of subroutines. Large exponent base for faster floating point operations, extra long mantissa to minize loss of significance by shifts of 8. Provision for repeating the same instruction in a 1-word loop. Result of any arithmetic or logic can be returned to memory as a general "add-to-memory" with a block transfer option. Interchange options allow integer arithmetic, where the4, fixed point number range can be considered as +-247 Two tag bits in memory on either words or instructions. A special register of "Mode Lights" allow special modes of machine operation: trapping made where certain tests are made during the instruction execution; repeat mode for repeating the same instruction) rounding on multiplication and floating point addition and subtraction is optional by "Rounding Mode", There is provision for using two magnetic tape units concurrent with normal program, execution. The designation 1066 refers to the Battle of Hastings, in as mush as the computer is located at Norman. This computer is s copy of the Rice University Computer, see that description for further comments that are applicable as of 1960-1961. FUTURE PLANS Memory size to be increased to full. 32,000 word capacity after the system is running. INSTALLATIONS University of Oklahoma Computer Laboratory Merrick Building - North Campus Norman, Oklahoma

BRL 1961, ORACLE, start page 0730


Oak Ridge Automatic Computer and Logical Engine MANUFACTURER Oak Ridge National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory, Jointly
Photo by Oak Ridge National Laboratory APPLICATIONS Located at X-10 site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, use and application has been primarily as a research and development tool for numerical analysis, programming techniques, and problems in physics, chemistry, engineering and biology. Methods have been developed for solving linear equations, matrix inversions, computing eigenvalues and vectors of matrices, solution of reactor problems involving ordinary and partial differential equations. Monte Carlo techniques have been designed and applied to problems in health physics and shielding. Many "one of a kind" problems are solved which involve methods mentioned above as well as function evaluation, interpolation and statistical analysis. In the last few years much effort has gone into data processing, data handling and reduction. System is a large scale and general purpose computer. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 40 Binary digits/instruction 8 Instructions/word 2 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type One address Number range -1 to + (1 - 2-39) Instruction word format +------------+---------+---------------+ | Order | Break | Address | | | Point | | +------------+---------+---------------+ | 8 | 1 | 11 | +------------+---------+---------------+ Registers Accumulator, quotient and storage registers
BRL 1961, ORACLE, start page 0731
Photo by Oak Ridge National Laboratory ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl. Stor. Access Exclud. Stor. Access Microsec Microsec Add 70 8 Mult 370-590 Slightly less Div 590 Slightly less Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Arithmetic unit is constructed of vacuum tubes, transistors, and diodes. Type 2N43 transistors and type 1N68 and 1N191 diodes are used. Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous in storage and asynchronous in arithmetic Operation Sequential Concurrent in magnetic tape hunting operations STORAGE No. of Access Media Words Microseconds Cathode Ray Tube 2,048 18 Magnetic Tape 3 x 106 50,000/block Four handlers 128 words/block No. of units that can be connected 4 Units No. of chars/linear inch 170 Chars/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 42 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record 1 Inch Tape Speed 47 Inches/sec Transfer rate 8000 chars/sec Start time 5 Millisec Stop time 5 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel 30 seconds Physical properties of tape Width 2 Inches Length of reel 1,000 Feet Composition .003" Mylar base .001" Oxide coating INPUT Medium Speed Paper Tape (Ferranti) 200 char/sec OUTPUT Media Speed Photographic Curve 2000 char/sec Plotter Used for point plotting also Characters are series of points Console Typewriter 10 char/sec Not normally used for output
BRL 1961, ORACLE, start page 0732
Paper Tape 60 char/sec Teletype BRPE-2 Magnetic Tape 1000 char/sec Printed on typewriter at 10 char/sec Output magnetic tape is run at 60 in/sec on ORACLE and slowed to 0.6-in/sec for printing on typewriter (IBM). CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Tubes 5844 5965 7044 6211 3633 6BC7 6AL5 6AK5 6AH6 12AT7 12AU7 12AX7 Total 5,000 Diodes 1N68 1N191 Total 200 Transistors 2N43 100 Magnetic Cores None CHECKING FEATURES Word parity on memory Word parity on magnetic tape Character parity on paper and magnetic tape POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE. PREPARATION Power, computer 75 Kw 0.9pf Room size 60 ft x 60 ft Capacity, air cond., computer 25 Tons Capacity, air cond., room 15 Tons A false floor consisting of four plenums covers 0.9 of room. Ducts under false floor and over roof seals in closed loop air conditioning. A separate 4400-volt power line transformer is used. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 1 Number in current operation 1 COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Arithmetic Unit Memory Unit Magnetic tape unit Input-Output and Console Total $250,000 PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Three 8-Hour Shifts Used Recommended Supervisors 2 Analysts 4 8 Programmers 40 Coders 2 8 Clerks 1 Librarians 1 Operators 5 Engineers 1 3 Technicians 6 Methods of training includes classes in basic coding and algebraic language coding. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Average error-free running time 4 hours Good time 3,869 hours Attempted to run time 4,252 hours Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run) 0.91 Figures based on period Jul 55 to Jul 56 Acceptance test 1 Sep 53 ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Two operating modes are possible in the ORACLE. Mode 1 is the 1024 word mode in which time multiplex is used between a pair of Williams tubes to determine the stored information for each bit. When either tube reads a dash signal, a dash is replenished to both. This method overcomes the common type of screen blemish which would prevent storage of a "1" (dot-dash). Mode 2 is the 2048 word mode in which each tube stores 1024 bits. The first tube is regenerated in the first half of a major cycle and the second tube in the second half. LAS type computer. INSTALLATIONS Oak Ridge National Laboratory P. 0. Box X Oak Ridge, Tennessee
BRL 1961, ORACLE, start page 0733

BRL 1961, ORDVAC, start page 0734


Ordnance Variable Automatic Computer MANUFACTURER University of Illinois U. S. Army
Photo APPLICATIONS Ballistic Research Laboratories Exterior ballistics problems such as high altitudes, solar and lunar trajectories, computation for the preparation of firing tables and guidance control data for Ordnance weapons, including free flight and guided missiles. Interior ballistic problems, including projectile, propellant and launcher behavior, e.g. physical characteristics of solid propellants, equilibrium composition and thermodynamic properties of rocket propellants, computation of detonation waves for reflected shock waves, vibration of gun barrels and the flow of fluids in porous media. Terminal ballistic problems, including nuclear, fragmentation and penetration effects in such areas as explosion kinetics, shaped charge behavior, ignition, and heat transfer. Ballistic measurement problems, including photogrammetric. ionospheric, and damping of satellite spin calculations, reduction of satellite doppler tracking data, and computation of satellite orbital elements. Weapon systems evaluation problems, including anti- aircraft and anti-missile evaluation, war game problems, linear programming for solution of Army logistical problems, probabilities of mine detona
BRL 1961, ORDVAC, start page 0735
Transistorized Arithmetic UnitU. S. Army Photo tions, and lethal area and kill probabilities of mine detonations, and lethal area and kill probability studies of missiles.] PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits per word 40 Instructions per word 2 Instruction type One Address Binary digits in operation code 6 or 9 Binary digits in address 12 or 10 Instructions used 55 or 72 Arithmetic system Fixed point Number range -1 < x < 1 Instruction word format +-------------------------------+-------------------------------+ | Left Instruction | Right Instruction | +--------+---------+------------+--------+---------+------------+ | 6 | 2 | 12 | 6 | 2 | 12 | | Order | unused* | Address | Order | unused* | Address | +--------+---------+------------+--------+---------+------------+ | 20 Bits | 20 Bits | +-------------------------------+-------------------------------+ *One bit will be used to differentiate floating point numbers from fix point numbers Rapid Access word registers - 3 Sexadecimal representation is used externally. Negative numbers are handled as 2 complements.
BRL 1961, ORDVAC, start page 0736
Magnetic Core Memory U. S. Army Photo Floating point operation may be programmed. Dual code - ORDVAC operates on a dual code basis. The codes are, on a two instructions per word basis, i.e. 20 digits per instruction: Code A - 1,024 words of storage: 9 digit, command 1 digit, spare 10 digit, address Code B - 4,096 words of storage: 6 digit, command 2 digit, spare 12 digit, address This system permits utilization of routines developed previous to the 4,096-word operation change over. ARITHMETIC UNIT Arithmetic mode Parallel Basic pulse rate Not pulse controlled Add time (Basic addition by arithmetic unit) 14 microsec Multiply time (exclud. stor. access) 700 microsec Divide time (exclud. stor. access) 700 microsec
BRL 1961, ORDVAC, start page 0737
Transistorized Channel Selector U. S. Army Photo The total add time, including transfer to final register, is 50 microseconds. None of the above figures include access to storage. Construction, Arithmetic unit only - Transistorized on printed circuit plug-in boards, using 1,000 Type 2N128 transistors. Timing Asynchronous Operation Parallel STORAGE Media Words Digits Access Magnetic core 4,096 163,840 bits 15 microsec Magnetic drum 10,032 401,280 bits 80,000 " /48 words Magnetic drum purchased from ERA Division of Sperry Rand, Incorporated. The track selector for the magnetic drum has been transistorized. Magnetic core storage unit purchased from Telemeter Magnetics, Incorporated. Both above storage units adapted to ORDVAC and installed by Ballistic Research Laboratories personnel.
BRL 1961, ORDVAC, start page 0738
INPUT Media Speed Teletype tape (5 hole) 2.5 words per sec Punched cards40 words per sec (bin) 8 words per sec (dec) Ferranti Hi-speed Paper Tape Reader20 words per sec (bin) Magnetic tape 300 words per sec The special purpose one inch wide magnetic tape system for transferring telemetered data to ORDVAC has 6 information tracks and 3 control tracks. OUTPUT Media Speed Teletype page printer 0.4 words per sec Teletype tape 0.4 words per sec Punched cards40 words per sec (bin) 8 words per sec (dec) Transistorized magnetic core contents display. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Tubes Type Quan Type Quan 5964 817 C6J 28 5687 420 6x5 4 2C51 568 OC3 4 5965 637 6SF5 4 6AL5 47 6AC7 4 6A67 2 12SN7 12 2D21 160 12AM 1 6080 21 6AH6 9 6AN5 13 6350 86 0B2 14 6829 2 7AK7 16 6216 2 5963 46 6x77 42 6AV6 13 6197 90 6L6 26 5998 72 12AX7 22 6336 27 6X4 6 350B 4 5651 12 OA2 3 6AQ5 1 Total 3,430 Transistors Type Quan Type Quan 2N126 20 2N1056 250 2N140 65 2N113 75 2N128 1300 2N426 25 2N109 346 2N425 _10 Total 2,091 Diodes Type Quan Type Quan IN91 418 IN63 15 1N93 162 1N58A 15 IN52 10 1N298 300 Total 915 POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power Consumption Computer 40 K.W. Core Memory 15 K. W. Magnetic Drum 6 K.W. Air Conditioning Computer 15 Tons Core Memory 7.5 Tons Magnetic Drum 3 Tons Space Computer 630 cu ft 80 sq ft Weight Computer 3,000 lbs PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 1 Number in current operation 1 COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Rental rates for additional equipment $648.57 per month The additional rentedequipment is: I.B.M. punch$ 83.32 per month I.B.M. reader $82.50 I.B.M. reproducer $122.50 I.B.M. tabulator $360.25 Approximate cost of basic system $600,000. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Typical Personnel Three 8-Hour Shifts Supervisors 6 Analysts 3 Programmers and Coders 14 Clerks 1 Engineers 1 Technicians 6 No engineers are assigned to the operation of toe machine, but are used for development and design of additions to the machine. The technicians consult the engineers when a total break-down occurs. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Average error-free running period Approx. 6 hours Good-time 7,475 hours Attempted to run time 8,760 hours/year Operating ratio 0.85 The above figures are based on the yearly average of the last 5 years. Approximately 2 hours per week are used for scheduled preventive maintenance and 10 hours per week are used for running computer test programs. The 1,286 hours difference above were used for testing, servicing, bad operating time, general improvement, and the incorporation of new components.
BRL 1961, ORDVAC, start page 0739
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS The ORDVAC belongs to the group of computers whose basic logic was developed by the Institute for Advanced Study and utilized in the IAS computer. This IAS family of computers is made up of such machines as the ILLIAC, ORACLE, AVIDAC, MANIAC, JOHNNIAC, MISTIC, and CYCLONE. The ORDVAC is a direct-coupled machine using threedimensional construction. A direct-coupled machine is one that connects the voltage level of one component directly to the input of the next, without voltage isolation between. This feature is very helpful in trouble-shooting the system. Threedimensional construction is sometimes called lowcapacitance wiring. In the ORDVAC, three-dimensional wiring is employed by placing the arithmetic unit and other controls on opposite sides, and interconnected wiring running across the open space between. The machine can be remotely controlled from commercial Teletype units. ORDVAC is equipped with the option of two different instruction codes. Code -9 (nine bits per instruction) makes 1,024 words of high speed core storage available to the operator while Code -6 (six bits per instruction) makes 4,096 words of high speed storage available. Each code shares a common ninebit decoder; however, when the code -6 option is used the instruction first passes through a code translator which translates the six bit instruction into its 9-bit equivalent. There is no loss of time while making the code translation. The translator uses the following number of circuit elements Transistors SB 100 135 2N 43 24 2N 140 12 Total 171 Crystal diodes 253 Resistors 305 Capacitors 23 The above components are mounted on 21 printed circuit boards. Power dissipation is approximately 5 watts. INSTALLATIONS Ballistic Research Laboratories Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland FUTURE PLANS The Floating Point unit for the ORDVAC will fully Transistorized, with a number range of 2 to 2-,using a seven bit biased exponent. Num- bers will be normalized automatically on transfer to storage. The mantissa of the normalized float- ing-point number will have a range of 1/2 > C > -1/2. -his system will require that an existing register be converted from a one-sided shifting register to a two-sided shifting register. Fully transistorized control circuitry for new indexing orders will be added in the near future. General purpose magnetic tape stations will be added to the ORDVAC shortly, with provisions for 8 stations. ORDVAC will control read, write, re- wind forward and backward, move tape forward and back N words, starting at A address of memory, transfer to B address of memory for next instruction, re- record N words, playback N words, check for parity error, transfer on error, and other functions. Circuit Elements, Entire System Magnetic Cores Quan OD ID Thick 172,032 100 70 30 mils 5376 375 260 125 mils

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