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BRL 1961, NAREC, start page 0676

NAREC

Naval Research Electronic Computer MANUFACTURER U. S. Naval Research Laboratory Official United States Navy Photo APPLICATIONS General purpose scientific calculation and data processing. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 48 Binary digits/instruction 24 Instructions/word 2 Instructions decoded 44 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type One address Number range -1 to +1 Instruction word format +------+------+------+------+-------+------+ | Address | order | +------+------+------+------+-------+------+ | 4 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 4 | 4 | +------+------+------+------+-------+------+ Half-word, six four-bit sexadecimal characters Automatic built-in subroutines include punched tape input and output routines and variable length data transfer instructions (2 address). Automatic coding includes floating point interpretive routines, containing standard mathematical subroutines as basic instructions. Registers: 7 - 48 bit parallel registers in arithmetic section, including one adder and one inverter of which two are directly programmable. 1 - 48 bit parallel register in control section 1 -16 bit parallel register in control section (program counter) 1 -48 bit serial - parallel output buffer register 2 -48 bit multiple use comparator registers 1 -48 bit core memory information register 1 -14 bit core memory address register 2 -48 bit and 1 - 16 bit manual switch registers ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl. Stor. Access Exclud. Stor. Access Microsec Microsec Add 22 6 Mult 300-600 same (approx range)=450 Div 575-725 same (approx range)=650 Division = 10 per digit (excluding access) for numerator = 0 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Type Quantity Vacuum tubes 5687 600 5670 600 6AN5 100 Total 1,300 Transistors O Crystal diodes 16,000 Arithmetic mode Parallel Timing Asynchronous Operation Sequential Input-output is partially concurrent
BRL 1961, NAREC, start page 0677
STORAGE No. of No. of Media Words Digits Magnetic core 16,384 786,432 Memory cycle time is 8 microseconds Magnetic drum 8,192 393,216 Maximum drum access is 33,333 microseconds Magnetic tape No. of units that can be connected 16 Units No. of chars/linear inch 600 Chars/inch Each line across the tape contains 2 characters of 8 bits each. Packing density = 300 lines/inch. Channels or tracks on the tape 16 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record .75 Inches Tape speed 120 Inches/sec Transfer rate 72 KC Chars/sec Start time 3 Millisec Stop time 2 Millisec Physical properties of tape Width 1 Inch Length of reel 2400-3600Feet Composition Mylar The above information on magnetic tape is preliminary only, as definite plans are now being formulated. The tape system should be installed in the NAREC by July 1961. INPUT Media Speed Magnetic Tape 120 in/sec Paper Tape 25-100 in/sec Dual speed photoelectric reader at 250 and 1000 char/sec using mylar-aluminum foil and paper tape. OUTPUT Media Speed Paper Tape 60-110 char/sec High and medium speed paper tape punches Magnetic Tape 120 in/sec Line Printer Line Printer will be installed by July 1961. Speed of 600-1200 lines/minute is anticipated. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Tubes 5687 600 5670 600 6AN5 100 ---- 1,300 Does not include electrostatic memory which is being replaced by magnetic core memroy. Diodes 1N89 16,000 SG22 1,800 DR211 7,000 1N690 4,000 650C5 250 Zener Diodes 651C0 350 (Texas Instruments) 651C7 600 ------ 30,000 1N89 used in arithmetic section. All others used in magnetic core memory. Transistors 2N1478 1,000 2N600 500 2N1122 3,000 2N123 300 ----- 4,800 All Philco transistors are used in Telemeter Magnetics Core Memory. Magnetic Cores .050 inch x .030 inch 900,000 Telemeter Magnetics 501-10 Capacitors 10,000(core memory) 3,000 (arith. section) ------ 13,000 Resistors 20,000 (core memory) 7,000 (arith. section) ------- 27,000 CHECKING FEATURES Automatic comparison bit by bit of all transfers between registers in arithmetic and control sections by means of 2 - 48 bit comparator registers. Magnetic tape system will have conventional parity checks and sense instructions. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 25 Kw Power, air conditioner 15 Kw Volume, computer 1,000 cu ft Area, computer 125 sq ft Room size, computer 30 ft x 80 ft Capacity, air conditioner 25 Tons Weight, computer 5,000-10,000 lbs Site preparation included concrete trenches in floor for power wiring and coaxial cables. Power includes both M-G sets and electronic power supplies. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 1 Number in current operation 1 COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Total system cost approximately $1,500,000. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS One 8-Hour Shift Two 8-Hour Shifts Supervisors 2 2 Programmers 10 20 Clerks 2 2 Engineers 1 2 Technicians 3 5 Operation tends toward semi-open shop. Includes programmers in central facility and in other groups of the Laboratory. Programmers above includes analysts and coders. The above does not provide for magnetic tape or printer operation. Technicians above includes operators. Training made available by manufacturer includes in-service programming courses by Research Computation Center for rest of the NRL. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Approximately 1 hour per shift is required for scheduled maintenance. Operating efficiency (ratio of good time to scheduled operating time) has averaged 85'% over the past four years (1956-196o) of full time operation. This is expected to improve considerably in the future due to the current replacement of electrostatic storage by magnetic core storage.
BRL 1961, NAREC, start page 0678
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features include a special console, which displays the contents of core memory address abd information registers and permits direct manual read and write to core memory locations. Unique system advantages include computation monitored from control console without loss of time to stop computer at desired location or instruction in many different ways in order to facilitate program and machine checking. Instruction code and layout is very simple to use and remember, yet is extremely powerful and flexible. Flexowriters are used in parallel to print results of several problems simultaneously. A centralized operating area consists of photoelectric tape readers, high speed punch, Flexowriter and core memory console adjacent to main control console. FUTURE PLANS Magnetic core memory installed in October 1960. Magnetic tape system and line printer will be installed by July 1961. INSTALLATIONS U. S. Naval Research Laboratory Washington 25, D. C.
BRL 1961, NAREC, start page 0679

BRL 1961, NATIONAL 102A, start page 0680

NATIONAL 102A

National Cash Register Company Model CRC 102A Built by former Computer Research Company MANUFACTURER National Cash Register Company
Photo by U. S. Army Chemical Center APPLICATIONS Manufacturer General purpose scientific applications Chemical Warfare Laboratories, U. S. Army Chemical Center Scientific U. S. Naval Ordnance Test Station (China Lake) Data reduction general purpose U. S. Naval Postgraduate School Located at Monterey, California, the system is used for scientific applications, including student and faculty research in practically all phases of the physical sciences, for data processing, including weather prediction, and for simulation, including electronics systems and games (business, industrial and military). Holloman Air Development Center (ARDC) Trajectory calculations, heat transfer problems, solution of various kinds of linear simultaneous equations and other algebraic equations.
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 102A, start page 0681
Photo by U.S. Naval Post Graduate School Official Photograph U.S. Navy U. S. Air Force School of Aviation Medicine Located at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, the system is used for matrix algebra (Covariance, symmetric and non-symmetric mult. and inversion programs, corr), factor analysis (Factoring the correlation matrix and rotating the factor vector), for general analysis statisticsvariance, and st. deviations; and analysis of variance), time series analysis (Circular serial correlation, autocorrelations, periodograms), and for Monte Carlo methods, generating pseudo random fractions (runs, means, frequency). PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Manufacturer Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word42 (One for timing) Binary digits/instruction 41 Instructions per word 1 Instructions decoded 27 Instructions used 27 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type Three address Number range -(1-2-36) to (1-2-36) ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 19,900 7,400 Mult 37,000 25,000 Div 38,500 25,800 Construction 300 Vacuum tubes 4,000 Diodes Rapid access word registers 8 Basic pulse repetition rate 100 Kc/sec Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential The speed can be increased by a factor of 8 when a buffer is used. STORAGE Media Words Microsec Access Magnetic Drum 1,024 12,500 (avg) Magnetic Tape 112,800/reel 6,000 Up to 7 tape units may beused with one computer. Magnetic drum rotates at 40 rev/sec.
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 102A, start page 0682
INPUT Manufacturer Media Speed Flexowriter Typing Speed Punched Paper Tape 10 char/sec Magnetic Tape 1.6 char/millsec U.S. Army Chemical Center Flexowriter Typing Speed Punched Paper Tape 10 char/sec Magnetic Tape 64 words/sec U.S. Naval Ordnance TestStation Punched Paper Tape 10 char/sec IBM Cards 523 modified) 50 cards/min U.S. Naval Post GraduateSchool Paper Tape 10 char/sec Cards 60 cards/min 240 words/min Magnetic Tape 60 words/sec School of Aviation Medicine Flexowriter Typing Speed Punched Paper Tape 10 char/sec IBM Cards 50 or 100 cards/min Magnetic Tape 1.6 char/millisec OUTPUT Manufacturer Media Speed Magnetic Tape 600 char/sec Flexowriter 10 char/sec Punched Paper Tape 10 char/sec U.S. Army Chemical Center Magnetic Tape 64 words/sec Flexowriter 10 char/sec Punched Paper Tape 10 char/sec U.S. Naval Ordnance TestStation Flexowriter 10 char/sec Punched Paper Tape 10 char/sec IBM Cards (523 modified)50 cards/min U. S. Naval Post GraduateSchool A digital point is used, which operates independent- ly of computer. No conversionis necessary for plotting. The plotter is manufactured by the Cali- fornia Computer Products Corporation. Paper Tape 10 char/sec Cards 60 cards/min Magnetic Tape 60 words/sec School of Aviation Medicine Flexowriter 10 char/sec Paper Tape 10 char/sec Cards 50 or 100 cards/min Magnetic Tape 600 char/sec CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Tubes 400 Tube types 12 Crystal diodes 8,000 U. S. Army Chemical Center Tube types used include 12AT7, 12BH7, 6BQ7, 5687, 5963, 6080, 5881, and 6AN5. System utilizes 265 tubes and 6,000 diodes and consists of operators console, computer proper, and magnetic tape unit. CHECKING FEATURES Duplicate recording on magnetic tape "Overflow" alarm" "No command" alarm POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE. PREPARATION Manufacturer Power, computer 7.7 Kw Weight, computer 2,700 lbs U.S. Army Chemical Center Computing system occupies 135 cu ft, air conditioner 48 cu ft. The computing system weighs 3,400 lbs, air conditioner weighs 12,000 lbs. The capacity of the air conditioner is 6 Tons. U.S. Naval Ordnance Station System operates a 230v 5% line, liberates 35,000 BTU/hour. Computer occupies 72 cu ft and 12 sq ft (Dimensions are 30 by 59 by 73 inches). U.S. Naval Post Graduate School Power, computer 5.5 Kw 7 7 KVA 0.71 Pf Volume, computer 108 cu ft Volume, air conditioner 360 cu ft Area, computer 18 sq ft Area, air conditioner 36 sq ft Room sizeApprox 2,800 sq ft Floor loading 200 lbs/sq ft 700 lbs concen max Capacity, air conditioner25 Tons Weight, computerApprox 2,000 lbs, total Lobby section of one of the school buildings was partitioned. False flooring, air conditioning and power were installed in the laboratory section which houses two computers (CDC 1604 and NCR-CRC-102A) and their associated peripheral equipment. School of Aviation Medicine Power, computer 5.5 Kw7.7 KVA 0.7 pf Volume, computer 72 cu ft Area, computer 12 sq ft Room size 20 ft x 12 ft Floor loading 225 lbs/sq ft 60 lbs concen max Capacity, air conditioner5 Tons Weight, computer 2,700 lbs Air conditioner central unit System required primary power source due to sensitivity to power fluctuations. PRODUCTION RECORD Manufacturer Produced 16 Operating 16 COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES U. S. Army Chemical Center Approximate cost of basic system $70,000 Approximate cost of additional equip- ment $25,000 Rental rates for basic system $ 2,400/month U. S. Naval Post Graduate School Computer, 2 tape drives, console, Flexowriter (paper tape reader and punch), point plotter cost approximately $100,000. Rental rates for additional equipment, to include the 2 IBM 523, IBM 402, IBM 082, and IBM 026 is $600 per month. Approximately $9,500 per year is paid to the National Cash Register Company for maintenance service. School of Aviation Medicine The 102A Computer cost approximately $80,000. The 126A Magnetic Tape Unit cost approximately $15,000. Two IBM Summary Punches (No. 523) rent at approximately $2,100 per year. Air Force personnel perform servicing of the system.
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 102A, start page 0683
PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS U. S. Army Chemical Center One 8-hour shift requires 1 engineer and 1 technician- operator. U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station One 8-hour shift requires 1 engineer, 2 programmers, and 1 "open shop" personnel. U. S. Naval Post Graduate School The computers are'available for student and faculty research 24 hours per day. Those students and faculty who have been checked- out on the operation of the computers and peripheral equipment are permitted outof-hours production runs on the computers. Potentially the school has approximately 1,000 programmeroperators under this system. At the present time the CDC 1604 operates approximately 14 hours per day and the NCR 102A 20 hours per day, T days per week. Course work is given in the Engineering School on programming, operation and applications. Seminars are given at the school. School of Aviation Medicine One 8-Hour Shift Analysts 1 Programmers 1 Operators 1 Engineers 1 Operation tends toward open shop. On-the-job training (OJT) is given. Gulf Research and Development Company Central computing section consists of 1 engineer, 1 operator, 1 secretary-librarian, and 5 administrative, numerical analysis and programming personnel, for slightly more than an 8-hour shift. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY U. S. Army Chemical Center Good time 3,380 hours Attempted to run time 5,200 hours Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.65 Figures based on a 2.5 year period Passed Acceptance Test Jun 54 U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station Average error-free running period 80 hours Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.90 Figures based on period 1 Jan 55 to 10 Nov 56 Passed Acceptance Test 1 Jun 54 U. S. Naval Post Graduate School Passed Acceptance TestSummer of 1953 Time is not available for rent to outside organiza- tions. Since August 1958, the NCR 102A has averaged in excess of 100 hours per week operating time and has averaged less than 2 hours per week of forced downtime due to equipment failure. .Each working day there is a two hour preventive maintenance period. School of Aviation Medicine Good time 36 Hour s/week (Average Attempted to run time40 Hours/week (Average Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.90 Above figures based on period from Fall 54 to 1 Jul 59 Time is not available for rent to outside organiza- tions. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Holloman Air Development Center (ARM ) Two systems have been in use since 1953. Additional input/output equipment includes 3 magnetic tape units (NCR 728), and 1 summary card punchIBM 523). U. S. Army Chemical Center The three-address system permits ease of programming and coding not present in one or two address systems. Additional features include: Bit positions available in the structure of commands for flagging internal addresses for automatic coding and repositioning of programmed routines. Logic designed such that. automatic links to and fro subroutines are accomplished easily. Large storage capacity and threeaddress commands. Tape unit searches independently of the computer, once the block address is set up. High speed paper tape input reader. A visual display of the control register while computing and when idle. All logical diodes accessible, diodes are of clip-in type, plug-in units replaceable for repair. U. S. Naval Post Graduate School The system is used primarily for the education of the officers in the Engineering School. Other computing time after normal training hours is used by government agencies in the Monterey area on a non-interference basis. The plotter output is considered to be a very valuable part of the system permitting rapid observation of results. The binary information is plotted directly on graph paper, thus avoiding the problem of converting to decimal. The plotter has three plotting symbols. Gulf Research and Development Company Auxiliary equipment consists of: 2 NCR 126 Magnetic Tape Units. Two Flexowriters, each capable of serving as the input- output device for the computer. A third Flexowriter, not modified, for input-output functions. One IBM 514 Reproducing Punch, modified for use as an output device. A photoelectric paper tape system based upon a Ferranti reader has been constructed. Two more one-word recirculating registers have been made addressable, making them correspond roughly to the accumulator and Q-register of a typical oneaddress. computer. INSTALLATIONS Holloman Air Development Center (ARDC) Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico School of Aviation Medicine Randolph Air Force Base, Texas Chemical Warfare Laboratories U. S. Army Chemical Center, Maryland U. S. Naval Ordnance Test Station China Lake, California U. S. Naval Post Graduate School Monterey, California A. V. Roe, Ltd. Malton, Ontario, Canada Great Lakes Pipe Line Company Kansas City, Missouri Gulf Research and Development P. 0. Drawer 2038 Pittsburgh 30, Pennsylvania Polytechnic Institute of Milan Milan, Italy Royal Canadian Air Force Edmunton, Alberta, Canada
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 102D, start page 0684

NATIONAL 102D

NCR CRC Model 102 D MANUFACTURER The National Cash Register Company
Photo by The National Cash Register Company APPLICATIONS Manufacturer General purpose scientific application Pitman-Dunn Laboratories The system is used for general scientific computing, to include trajectories, other differential equations, interior and exterior ballistics, fire control problems, curvefitting, solution of algebraic equations, simulations, etc. The National Cash Register Company Located at the Research and Development Division, The National Cash Register Company, Dayton, Ohio, the system is used to support the physical and chemical investigations of the Research and Development Division by processing experimental data originating in the research and engineering laboratories. Work in such fields as logical design, wiring diagrams for logical systems, cam design, and statistical analysis of data are typical of the applications made. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number systemBinary coded decimal Decimal digits/word9 plus 6 bin dig/word Binary digits/instruction 42 Instructions per word 1 Instructions decoded 27 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type Three address Number range -(1-10-9) to +(1-10-9) or -(1-2-36) to +(1-236)
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 102D, start page 0685
1 Computer, 2 Control Consol, 3 High Speed Paper Tape Reader, 4 Magnetic Tape Units, 5 High Speed Paper Tape Punch Photo by The National Cash Register Company ARITHMETIC UNIT Manufacturer Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 7,800 4,000 Mult 21,100-49,100 15,000 Div 21,100-53,200 15,500 Construction Vacuum tubes Rapid access word registers 8 Basic pulse repetition rate 100 Kc/sec Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential STORAGE Manufacturer Access Media Words Digits Microsec Magnetic Drum 1,024 43,008 12,500 avg Magnetic Tape 102,000/reel 918,000/reel Pitman-Dunn Laboratories No. of No. of Min Access Media Words Digits/Word Microsec Magnetic Drum 1,032 14 octal or 390 9 decimal Magnetic Tape 110,000 Same Magnetic tape searches approx. 90"sec., reads writes 15"sec. (approx. 59 words/sec) INPUT Manufacturer Media Speed Paper Tape (Flexowriter) 10 char/sec Paper Tape (Photoelectric) 200 char/sec Magnwtic Tape 600 char/sec Keyboard (Flexowriter) Manual Punched Cards 4,000 char/min Pitman-Dunn Laboratories Keyboard or Paper Tape 6 char/sec Hi-Speed Tape Reader 160 char/sec Magnetic Tape 59 words/sec IBM Card Reader 100 cards/min Six channel Flexowriter is used. Cards contain 4 words each.
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 102D, start page 0686
Photo by The Rational Cash Register Company OUTPUT Manufacturer Media Speed Paper Tape (Flexowriter) 10 char/sec High Speed Punch 60 char/sec Magnetic Tape 600 char/sec Punched Cards 4,000 char/min Pitman-Dunn Laboratories Typed Page 6 char/sec Paper Tape (High Speed) 60 char/sec Card (IBM) 100 cards/min CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Manufacturer Tubes 425 Tube types 15 Crystal diodes 8,500 CHECKING FEATURES Manufacturer Duplicate recording on magnetic tape "Overflow" alarm "No command" alarm POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE. PREPARATION Manufacturer Power, computer 7.7 Kw Area, computer 250 sq ft Weight, computer 2,700 lbs Pitman-Dunn Laboratories Power, computer 8.2 Kw 11.6 KVA 0.71 Pf Power, air conditioner 61.5 KVA Volume, computer 154.5 cu ft Volume, air conditioner 2,318 cu ft Area, computer 49 sq ft Area, sir conditioner 206.5 sq ft Room size, computer 19 ft x 39 ft Room size, air conditioner 11 ft x 25 ft Floor loading 84 lbs/sq ft 425 lbs concen max Capacity, air conditioner 60 Tons 720,000 BTU Weight, computer 4,110 lbs Weight, air conditioner 6,600 lbs Weight, cooling tower 2,500 lbs Power includes Input-Output systems. One 5 KVA and one 10 KVA Sol A transformers are used for voltage regulation. Power outlets for main computer and auxiliary equipment were installed. Air
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 102D, start page 0687
Photo by the Georgia Institute of Technology conditioner services personnel and an analog computer also. COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Manufacturer Approximate cost of basic system $65,000 Approximate cost of additional equipment Magnetic Tape Unit Model 126 $16,000 High Speed Reader Model 160 9,500 High Speed Punch Model 170 5,000 Flexowriter 2,900 Rental rates for basic system $2,400/month Rental rates for additional equipment High Speed Reader Model 160 275/month High Speed Punch Model 170 220/month Flexowriter 150/month Pitman-Dunn Laboratories Computer w/console, Flexowriter mag. tape unit, hispeed reader, hi speed punch, including transportation and installation cost $83,370. Off-line Flexowriter cost $2,900 additional. IBM equipment includes 2-523's, 2-026's, 1-082, 1-085, 1-514, and 1-402, which rents at $12,624/year. Maintenance for purchased equipment is $12,624/year. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Pitman-Dunn Laboratories One 8-Hour Shift Analysts 1 Programmers 2 Technicians 1 Operation tends toward closed shop. Methods of training includes basic programming course and use of the programming manuals. Programmers code and run their own problems. The National Cash Register Company One 8-Hour Shift Supervisors 1 Coders, Programmers & Analysts 3 Technicians 1 Operation tends toward open shop. Individuals may have programs entirely written by department personnel, written by themselves with assistance from department, or written entirely by thwmselves. Individuals desiring running time for a problem most commonly supply their own operator. Methods of training used includes on-the-,job training of department personnel, informal training of other research personnel. RELIABILITY. OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Pitman-Dunn Laboratories Average error-free running period 4 Hours Good time 26 Hours/Week (Average) Attempted to run time 39 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.67 Abovefigures based on period 1 Apr 59 to 30 Apr 60 Passed Customer Acceptance Test Jan 58 Time is not available for rent to outside organiza- tions. 4 hours of preventive maintenance is performed. The National Cash Register Company Good time 28.5 Hours/Week (Average) Attempted to run time 32 Hours/Week (Average)
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 102D, start page 0688
High Speed Reader Photo by The Rational Cash Register Company Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.89 Above figures based on period from Jul 59 to Aug 60 Time is not available for rent to outside organizations. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Pitman-Dunn laboratories Outstanding features include 3 address system, which is easy to use. FUTURE PLANS Pitman-Dunn Laboratories System expected to be replaced by second quarter Fiscal Year 61 with system comparable with BETATRON 205, IBM 650, or UNIVAC Solid State.
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 102D, start page 0689
High Speed Punch Photo by The National Cash Register Company INSTALLATIONS Dow Chemical Company Midland, Michigan Rice Electronic Computer Center Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia Research and Development Division The National Cash Register Company Dayton, Ohio The National Cash Register Company Hawthorne, California Pitman-Dunn Laboratories Frank ford Arsenal Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 107, start page 0690

NATIONAL 107

National Cash Register Corporation Model 107 MANUFACTURER National Cash Register Corporation
Photo by U. S. Naval Academy APPLICATIONS Located in Ward Hall, U. S. Naval Academy, the sys- tem is used to demonstrate to Naval Academy faculty and midshipmen, automatic calculations using a large data processing/scientific type digital computer. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary coded decimal Decimal digits/word 11 Decimal digits/instruction 2 Instructions/word 1 + sign Instructions decoded 22 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type Three address Number range -(1 - 10-9) <= x <= 1- The excess-three system of binary coded decimal notation is used. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Operation Time Microsec Add 15, 000 Mult 40,000 Div 40,000 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Vacuum-tubes 625 Diodes 2,040 Arithmetic mode Parallel Parallel by bit, serial by digit. Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 107, start page 0691
STORAGE No. of No. of Access Media Words Digits Microsec Drum 11,000 121,000 3,000 Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 99 Units No. of char/linear inch of tape 134 Char/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 10 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record 10 Inches Tape speed 15 Inches/sec Transfer rate 2,010 Char/sec Start time 3 Millisec Stop time 3 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel of tape 120 Seconds Physical properties of tape Width 1 Inch Length of reel 3,600 Feet Composition Mylar or Acetate All tape must initially be pre-clocked off-line.- INPUT Media Speed Card (IBM) 100 cards/min Magnetic Tape 15 in/sec, 121-char/in Paper Tape 120 char/min Keyboard (Flexowriter) Manual OUTPUT Media Speed High Speed Printer 600 lines/min, 120 char/line Magnetic Tape 15 in/sec, 721 char/in Cards (IBM) 100 cards/min Typewriter (Flexo) 720 char/min Paper Tape 120 char/min CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Tubes 800 Diodes 2,500 CHECKING FEATURES Unwanted Digit Command Check Overflow Conditional Halt POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE. PREPARATION Power, computer 208 Volts 3 phase 60 cps Power, sir cond 208 Volts 3 phase 60 cps Volume, computer 65,774 cu ft Vole, air conditioner 726 cu ft Area, computer 1,711 sq ft Area, sir conditioner 18 sq ft Room size, computer 1,800 sq ft Capacity, air conditioner 15 Tons Weight, computer 72,000 lbs Weight, air conditioner 1,000 lbs Building was modified for computer installation. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 1 Number in current operation 1 Produced for U. S. Navy Bureau of Aeronautics to their design specifications. COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Basic System Original cost, $1,000,000 to Navy BUAER (original owner). System consists of control console, arithmetic section, high speed printer, 8 magnetic tape units, and memory section. Additional Equipment For the IBM 514, IBM 523, IBM 024, the total rent is $108.00 per month (including educational discount 60%). PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS One 8-Hour Shift Supervisors 1 Operators 2 Technicians 3 Operation tends toward open shop. Methods of training used is classroom and on-the-job training. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Operating experience over four year period approximately 98% of scheduled production at previous location in Washington, D. C. (Navy Bureau of Weapons). ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features are block search on tape handles at rate of 600 words/sec, off-line preparation and verification of tape input, and large memory with maximum of 10 word access. FUTURE PLANS Addition of X-Y plotter and weapons system simulation for educational purposes. INSTALLATIONS U. S. Naval Academy Weapons Department Annapolis, Maryland
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 304, start page 0692

NATIONAL 304

National Cash Register 304 MANUFACTURER National Cash Register Company
Photo by National Cash Register Company APPLICATIONS Manufacturer The system is a general-purpose date. processing system for industrial, governmental and educational organizations. It is intended for commercial and scientific applications. All commonly-used inputs and outputs, a magnetic tape system with unique characteristics, and flexibility in system organization result in a powerful system with versatility of application. U.S. Marine Corps, Camp Lejeune Located on the base, the system is used for USMC personnel accounting. U. S. Marine Corps, Camp Pendleton Located at the U. S. Marine Corps, Camp Pendleton the system will be used to maintain current magnetic tape records on approximately one half the Active and Organized Reserve Establishments of the Marine Corps. Weekly, Changed Record Tapes will be forwarded to Headquarters, Marine Corps to overlay Headquarters' Tape Records. Headquarters will prepare personnel reports for itself, Navy Department, and Department of Defense from its Magnetic Tape Files. Meanwhile, this installation will prepare "Field Personnel Reports" for 14 major field commands in the western complex. (DPI, MCB, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina performs the same function for the eastern complex, i.e., the other half of the Marine Corps.) Implementation of the system is scheduled for August 1960. U.S. Marine Corps, Headquarters Located at the Arlington Navy Annex, the system is utilized for military personnel accounting. The three U. S. Marine Corps NCR 304 Data Processing Systems are utilized in an integrated Military Personnel Accounting and Reporting System. The systems located in California and North Carolina servicing the two major Marine Corps bases and reporting to the system located in Washington D. C.
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 304, start page 0693
Photo by National Cash Register Company American United Life Insurance Company Located at 30 W. Fall Creek Parkway, N. Dr. Indianapolis, Indiana, the system is used to maintain Master Tape Files of policyholders, agents, payroll, general ledger, mortgages, securities, update daily any transactions that affect any master record or file, compute commissions, ,journalize daily - Maintain accounting controls, balance books of account. Perform premium billing and policy conservation advices, control disbursements, bank reconciliations, and compute dividends, cash values, premiums, reserves, interest, etc. S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. Located at 1525 Howe Street, Racine, Wisconsin, the system is used for order processing, inventory control, accounts receivable, credit and collection, freight allocation, sales statistics, and allied financial reports. National Cash Register Company, Hawthorne Located at the National Cash Register's Electronics Division, Hawthorne, California, the system is used for electronic data processing service to business, industry and government. Complete facilities for handling customer created input - punched paper tape and cards. It is used for program check out for 304 customers. The system is used internally by the National Cash Register Company for programming research, automated logical design, and data processing. Back up support for other 304 systems is additional use. Bureau of Yards and Docks Located at the Bureau of Yards and Docks, Washington D. C., the system is used for the management of the Military Construction Program, the inventory of Automotive Equipment, the inventory of Construction Equipment, and for engineering applications. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Coded Decimal Alphanum char/word 10 Alphanum char/word 5 - 60 Words/instruction 1/2 - 6 Instructions decoded 83 one address 37 three address w/variations Arithmetic system Floating point MICROFLOW provides exponents in range of -50 to + 49 and automatic normalizing of result Fixed point Automatic alignment takes place Instruction typeOne address (MICROFLOW) (Scientific-type) Three address (Multi-address) (Business-type) Number range- (1 - 10-10) to + (1 - 10-10)
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 304, start page 0694
Photo by American United Life Insurance Company Instruction word format The command structure of the 304 system is unique in a number of aspects. The instructions are basically 3 address plus a number of other functions or capabilities that are built into the execution of the instruction. The basic instruction word format for arithmetical operations such as add, subtract, etc., is illustrated: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+ | Op | A | B | C | +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+ +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+ | V | M | S | R | A1 | Ar | Bl | Br | Cl | Cr | +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+ Op = Operation Code A =Address of Operand B =Address of Operand C = Putaway or Jump Address V = Variation.& Self-Linking designator M =Auto-monitor level S =Combinations of A, B, or C to be relative to Index Register R = Index Register A1, Ar = left and right field of A Address B1, Br = left and right field of B Address C1, Cr = left and right field of C Address The programmer in translating procedures for the 304 System will use the NEAT (National's Electronic Autocoding Technique) format. The programmer might write the following to add the Old Quantity on Hand to the Number Received to arrive at the New Quantity on Hand: ADD (V) (R) OQOH QREC NQOH The NEAT assembly process will translate the NEAT format into the necessary absolute machine language. It could be considered that all instructions in the basic 304 Command List are automatic built-in subroutines. There are a number of operation codes that were designed specifically for business data processing such as Edit, Merge, Move, Sift (or table look-up), and Summarize that are powerful instructions and in some cases are self-incrementing. As an example, the Merge instruction will serve to illustrate the nature of these business-type opera
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 304, start page 0695
Official Marine Corps Photo Camp Lejeune, N. C. tions. Specified in NEAT format would be the following mnemonic designators and parameters: Designate first word, first item, each string Number of items in each string Relative position of Major Key (if any), within item Relative position of Minor Key within item Number of keys (1 or 2) for the Merge Length of each item Specify three exits (Cutoff Merge only) NEAT (National's Electronic Autocoding Technique) was in operation before the first deliveries of the National 304 System. This system enables systematic organization in the approach to a problem, an assembly compiler and a complete library of generators, service programs, and subroutines. COBOL or COBOL-like language will become part of the system in a reasonable time. Each instruction may be relative to one of 10 Relative Index Registers. The particular Index Register and the portions of the instruction which are to be relative are specified within the instruction. ARITHMETIC UNIT Operation Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec MICRO-FLOW SINGLE ADDRESS MODE Add 120 60 Molt 1,320 1,260 Div 3,480 3,420 BUSINESS-TYPE THREE ADDRESS Add 60 (10+R+L) 60 (9+R+L) Mult 60 (17+R+L+X) 60 (16+R+L+X) Div 60 (14+R+L+2Q+Y) 60 (13+R+L+2Q+Y) R = 1 If relative to Index Register R = 0 If not L = 2 If self-linking occurs L = 0 If not X = Sum plus significant digits of multiplier Q = Number of digits in quotient Y = Sum of digits of the quotient Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Due to interlaced circuitry, number of elements are included in the total for the 304 Processor. Arithmetic mode Serial by word, parallel by character The adder is implemented with two diode-matrix half adders and one diode full adder. TimingSynchronous in Central Processor Asynchronous to or from peripheral units
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 304, start page 0696
Merge Flow Diagram Operation Sequential internally Concurrent with copy or search of magnetic tape or printing STORAGE Manufacturer No. of No. of Access Media Words Alpha-Numeric Microsec Magnetic Core 2400-4800 24,000-48,000 6/alphanum Magnetic Tape, 850,000 8,500,000 2 1/2 min per reel No. of units that can be connected 64 Units No. of chars/linear inch of tape 200 Chars/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 8 Tracks/tape (including parity and markers) Blank tape separating each record None Tape speed 150 Inches/sec Transfer rate (alpha-numeric 30,000 Chars/sec characters) Start time 3.5 Millisec Stop time 3.5 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel 30 Seconds Physical properties of tape Width 1/2 Inch Length of reel 3,600 Feet Composition 1 mil mylar, laminated The unique 304 magnetic tape system is composed of sub- systems of National 330 Controllers and National 332 Magnetic Tape Handlers. The Central 304 Processor may handle up to eight 330 Controllers, and each Controller may handle up to eight Handlers to provide an upper limit of 64 Handlers available. A record on magnetic tape may contain 10 or more words. Multiple variable-length records may be written onto magnetic tape with a single acceleration. The contents of one magnetic tape may be read and simultaneously written onto another tape unit until a desired record is reached. The copying may be spar-i with computing, printing, input or output. Several copy operations may be in progress simultaneously. All conditions which may arise during magnetic file operations are automatically detected and identified by the Processor without programmed testing. Then a standard routine, called STEP (Standard Tape Executive Program), will perform all tape management
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 304, start page 0697
Production Photo by National Cash Register Company operations including: Repeat in case of error, write "Skip" record after proper number of tries Repeat, or ,jump, on busy Handler or Controller Indicate attempt to use locked-out tape Alternate Tape Units at end of tape Tape identification, and label-checking Memory dump, and rescue points Log of tape operations Executive control over sequencing from one program to the next, or overlays The time-sharing ability of magnetic tape copy allows for convenient file- splitting, or multi-programming of different ,jobs where reference to the file is for less than every record. Thus, completely independent programs can be written and checked out, then tied together with the timing interlace being performed by the equipment. In order to improve the efficiency of Magnetic File Operations, any quantity of numeric information may be packed from 6-bit code to 4-bit code with a sin gle instruction. Thus, utilization of tape storage, and transport speed, will both be increased by 50'% for numeric information. When the packed information is brought into memory, a single instruction will reverse the transformation. Only that information requiring arithmetic operation need be unpacked; sorting, table lookup, and all other logical operations, can be performed on packed information. U.S. Marine Corps, Camp Lejeune Access Medium No. of Words No. of Digits Microsec Core Memory 2400 10 60/word time U.S. Marine Corps, Camp Pendleton Magnetic Core 2400 U.S Marine Corps, Headquarters Magnetic Core 2400 Magnetic Tape 864,000 American United Life Insurance Company Magnetic Core 4800 Magnetic Tape 850,000
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 304, start page 0698
Official Marine Corps Photo Camp Pendleton, California S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. Access Medium No. of Words No. of Digits Microsec Magnetic Core 2400 10 National Cash Register Company, Hawthorne Magnetic Core 4800 6/alpha- num char Magnetic Tape 1.08 million word/reel 3 min (10 char/word) Bureau of Yards and Docks Magnetic Core 4800 48,000 60 Magnetic Tape may be considered as storage medium. INPUT Manufacturer Media Speed Punched Cards 2000 cards/min Photo-electric Punched Paper Tape 1800 char/sec Photo-electric Magnetic Tape 30 Kc alpha-numeric Punched Cards and Punched Paper Tape may be handled on- line with the 304 Processor or converted to magnetic tape with the 320 Multi-Purpose Converter. U. S. Marine Corps, Camp Lejeune Media Speed Magnetic Tape Punched Cards Flexowriter typing Flexowriter Paper Tape U.S. Marine Corps, Camp Pendleton Magnetic Tape Punched Cards Console Typewriter U. S. Marine Corps, Headquarters Magnetic Tape Punched Cards Punched Paper Tape Flexowriter American United Life Insurance Company Paper Tape Reader2,000 char/sec Optical Reader - choice of 3 codes Punched Card Reader2,500 cards/min 90 column cards - read optically Magnetic Tape30,000 char/sec 200 char/in - 3,600' reels Console Typewriter10 char/sec Modified Flexowriter
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 304, start page 0699
Official Marine Corps Photo S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. Media Speed Magnetic Tape 30,000 char/sec Punched Paper Tape 1,800 char/sec Punched Cards 2,000 cards/min Console Flexowriter 10 char/sec National Cash Register Company, Hawthorne NCR 380 Card Reader 2,000 cards/min NCR 360 Paper Tape Reader 1,800 char/sec Console 10 char/sec Magnetic Tape 30,000 char/sec The Paper Tape Reader can handle 6 codes. Three core matrices are on the unit. Bureau of Yards and Docks Magnetic Tape 6 30,000 char/sec 3600 ft = 8.5 x 10 char Paper Tape 1,800 char/sec 3 code option, 10 char/in Punched Cards2,000 cards/min 1 card = 80 chars Console Typewriter10 char/sec max. Manual type-in or paper tape read OUTPUT Manufacturer Media Speed Punched Paper Tape 60 char/sec Line Printer 850-1200 printing 850 alpha numeric 5040 spacing 1200 numeric Punched Cards 100 cards/min (lines/min) Magnetic Tape 30,000 char/sec ThePaper Tape Punch or the High Speed Line Printer may be controlled on-line by the 304 Processor or off- line by the 320 Multi-Purpose Converter. The Line Printer may also be controlled off-line by the 322 Printer Converter. Punched cards can be produced off-line using an IBM 523 with source information on magnetic tape and under control of the 320 Converter. U.S. Marine Corps, Camp Lejeune Magnetic Tape Flexowriter typing & punching Punch Cards Printer IBM Type 523 as IRK card output media
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 304, start page 0700
Official Marine Corps Photo Camp Pendleton, California U.S. Marine Corps, Camp Pendleton Media Speed Printer Punched Cards Magnetic Tape Console Typewriter U.S. Marine Corps, Headquarters Magnetic Tape Printed Reports Punched Cards (IBM 523) Flexowriter Punched card output is always off-line. Magnetic tape speed is effective speed as there is no gap between records. American United Life Insurance Company *High Speed Printer 600 lines/min alpha-numeric 900 lines/min numeric (1) Paper Tape Punch 60 char/sec Magnetic Tape 30,000 char/sec Post reads all write Console Typewriter 10 char/sec * Interconnecting device permits both on-line and off-line capability. Slews at 4,200 lines/minute. S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. Media Speed Magnetic Tape 30,000 char/sec Punched Paper Tape 60 char/sec Console Flexowriter 10 char/sec High Speed Printer 600 lines/min National Cash Register Company, Hawthorne NCR 340 High Speed Line 600-900 lines/min Printer NCR 370 Punch Paper Tape 60 char/sec IBM 514 Card Punch 100 cards/min Magnetic Tape 30,000 char/sec Card punch is used off line with the 320 Converter. Bureau of Yards and Docks Magnetic Tape 30,000 char/sec 3600 ft = 8.5 x 106to char. Paper Tape 120 char/sec 2 code option, 10 char/in. High Speed Printer 600-1200 lines/min Console Typewriter 10 char/sec max. Machine typeout or paper tape punch The speed of the High Speed Printer varies and depends on the amount of alphanumerical information to be printed.
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 304, start page 0701
Official Marine Corps Photo Camp Pendleton, California CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Diodes 8,000 Transistors 4,000 Magnetic Cores 158,400 - 316,800 24,000 to 48,000 Alpha-numeric characters The above data applies to the Central Processor only. CHECKING FEATURES FIXED Processor All transmission of data between the Processor and peripheral units is checked for parity by character, plus echo check for correct number of characters. All transmission of data in and out of the magnetic core memory is verified by a check character with each word. Magnetic File Operations All recording on magnetic tape is immediately checked by re-reading at a check head placed immedi- ately behind the write head. Checks are made for parity on each character, longitudinal parity check over each record, character count on each record, proper bounding of each record, and timing check. These are separate, independent checks with any conceivable out of the ordinary occurrence being detected by at least 2 of these checks. These same checks are in effect when reading and while the tape to tape transfer (off-line copy is in progress. High Speed Paper Tape Reader Duplicate photo-electric reading, duplicate trans- lation, error halt on inadmissable characters, are fixed checking features as well as automatic detec- tion of paper tape slippage, undue drifting on stops, and broken tape detection - distinguished from end of tape. High Speed Card Reader The fixed checking features are duplicate photo- electric reading and duplicate translation, error halt on inadmissable characters, and also automatic verification of clocking and column count, and de- tection of out-of-registration or slippage. High Speed Line Printer Automatic check for non data characters, correct
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 304, start page 0702
Official Marine Corps Photo Camp Pendleton, California number of characters, correct number printed, and each hammer must fire one and only once per line. Continuous check on the integrity of information stored in the printer buffer during printing, each buffer position printed once and only once-also each hammer. Continuous magnetic reading of special track on print cylinder so that printer electronics "knows" the position of the cylinder with answer-back to printer buffer verifying that the print cylinder position at the moment each hammer is fired is the same as the character stored in the corresponding buffer position. There are two complete individual sets of circuits operating at different voltages-one from buffer positions to activate corresponding hammers and one activated by hammer action back to buffer position. This answer-back verifies not only correct character printed but also that the hammer was fired at the precise instant to print the character clearly and with proper alignment. The vertical format loop will halt the printer if it is parted. Also, all control configurations (15 possible in the vertical format loop must have even parity, continuously checked. High Speed Paper Tape Punch Fixed checking features include echo check off punch dies to verify actual character punched and detection of paper tape exhausted or broken. OPTIONAL The Paper Tape Reader and Paper Tape Punch check for character parity on codes that are checkable. Certain peripheral units contain sequence-controlled circuitry to test for proper operation and insure proper electronic functioning. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE. PREPARATION Manufacturer Power, computer, basic system 38.5 Kw 48.1 KVA 0.8 pf Power, air condi, package 12 Kw 15 KVA 0.8 pf Volume, computer 630.2 cu ft Area, computer 133.2 sq ft Room size 1,200 sq ft Above includes basic system with Tape Controller, six Tape Handlers, a Line Printer and a Card Reader. Vole, air conditioner 400 cu ft Area, air conditioner 50 sq ft Room size, computer 120 sq ft
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 304, start page 0703
Capacity,. air conditioner 15 Tons Weight, computer 10,850 lbs Weight, Air conditioner 2,000 lbs Floor loading 110 lbs/sq ft Weight is distributed around perimeter of frames. Site preparation requirements The specific site preparation requirements will vary from installation to installation, depending on available facilities, "show case" considerations, and policy. General requirements for physical environment include air conditioning, humidity control, and provisions for maintenance of equipment. There can be flexibility in construction as pertains to the use of false flooring, ceilings, or conduits. It is usually recommended that false flooring be used, as the area under the false floor serves the dual purpose of protecting cables and eliminates supply ducts for conditioned air. A false ceiling eliminates the need for return ducts. The power specifications call for 120208 volts, three-phase, four wire, 60 cycles. U.S. Marine Corps, Camp Lejeune Power, computer 43-76 Kw 54.7 KVA 0.8 Pf 400 N Power 18.24 Kw 22.8 KVA Power, air cond 11.0 Kw 12.2 KVA Volume, computer 630 cu ft Volume, air conditioner 32,630 cu ft Area, computer 147 sq ft Area, air conditioner 2,190 sq ft Capacity, air conditioner 27 Tons Weight, computer 15,000 lbs Weight, sir conditioner 5,000 lbs Air conditioning space partitioned off from existing warehouse. False ceiling and new raised-floor designed expressly for computer installation was provided. A remote installation including compressors, sir handling units, and evaporative condenser was installed. A new electrical service including 225 KVA transformers capacity installed. U.S. Marine Corps, Camp Pendleton Power, computer 35.5 Kw 44.4 KVA 0.8 pi Power, sir condi 32.2 Kw 4o.4 KVA 0.8 pf Vole, computer 635.2 cu ft Volume, sir conditioner 455 cu ft* Area, computer 147.0 sq ft Area, sir conditioner 51 sq ft* Roam size, computer 1,860 sq ft Room size, air conditioner350 sq ft Floor loading 96 lbs/sq ft (Avg) 155 lbs concen max Capacity, air conditioner 25 Tons Weight, computer 13,150 lbs Weight, air conditioner 7,200 *Does not include air filtering equipment or input output plenums. Site is located in a warehouse building. False ceiling, false flooring, air conditioning, power substation installed. Data Processing Installation covers 14,000 sq ft and includes EAM equipment, office space, card and paper storage space, rest rooms, as well as NCR 304 EDP Equipment. Total cost $175,000. U.S. Marine Corps, Headquarters Power, computer46.48 Kw 58.1 KVA o.8 pf 6o cps and 400 cps. Power, air condi 28 Kw 35 KVA 0.8 pf Volume, computer 15,200 cu ft Vole, air conditioner3,360 cu ft Area, computer 1,900 sq ft area, air conditioner 280 sq ft Room sizeBetween 1600 and 2000 sq ft Floor loading 250 lbs/sq ft Floor loading, computer100 lbs/sq ft Capacity 25 Tons Weight, computer 12,950 lbs Site was installed in a brick building with con- crete floors. Completely, overhead air conditioning delivery concealed by false ceiling. Raised false flooring far concealment of power and logic cables. American United Life Insurance Company Power, computer 38.5 Kw 48.1 KVA 0.8 pf (basic system) Volume, computer 650 cu ft Volume, air conditioner600 cu ft Area, computer 150 sq ft Area, sir conditioner 200 sq ft Room size, computer 2,000 sq ft Roam size, air conditioner600 sq ft Floor loading 110 lbs/sq ft Capacity, air conditioner30 Tons Weight, computer 11,000 lbs Weight, air conditioner3,000 lbs Site preparation requirements Due to the physical structure of the existing building, the location of the computer area within the building, and the requirement for a separate airconditioning system, the following additions and modifications were made at this site. A 30 ton airconditioning and air handling system was installed composed of three ten ton chilled-water coolers and an air handling system capable of moving 9,000 cubic feet of sir per minute. This system provided for automatic temperature and humidity controls geared to control the computer room to 40% relative humidity. and 74oF temperature. The control system was built around Johnson Controls with Bristol seven-day recording devices. Air was delivered directly under the raised floor with dampered registers around the periphery of the room to properly distribute the incoming conditioned air. Return air was vented through the ceiling in registers into an air plenum between the false ceiling and the existing ceiling and returned to the air-conditioning equipment. The raised floor was set ten inches above the concrete slab. The false ceiling was installed eight and one-half feet above the raised floor, and in the location selected was twenty inches below the previously existing ceiling. A masonry wall was contructed two feet inside the existing brick and masonry walls of the building and supplemented by movable steel and glass partitions where the room was divided away from exterior walls. The raised floor is of cast aluminum in sections eighteen inches square with a vinyl floor covering. Power and water were delivered to the equipment room from existing central supply within the building itself. The computer area itself has been equipped with Muzak installation and an intercommunicating system utilizing the existing speakers. S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. Power, computer 70 KVA Power, sir conditioner20 KVA Volume, computer 740 cu ft Area, computer 160 sq ft Area, air conditioner300 sq ft Room size, computer1,300 sq ft Room size, air conditioner 700 sq ft Capacity, air conditioner20 Tons Site preparation included trenching of floor to provide ducts and cable to equipment.
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 304, start page 0704
National Cash Register Company, Hawthorne Power, computer 44 Kw 55 KVA 0.8 Pf Power, air condition 24 Kw 30 KVA 0.8 pf Vole, computer 790 cu ft Volume, air conditioner 800 cu ft Area, computer 166 sq ft Area, air conditioner 100 sq ft Room size, computer 1,800 sq ft Room size, air conditioner 240 sq ft Floor loading 110 lbs/sq ft Capacity, air conditioner 30 Tons Weight, computer 13,560 lbs Weight, air conditioner4,000 lbs Site included along with construction of new building in 1956. False flooring has been installed to support a 304, 320, 330, 9- 332x, 340, 360,370, 380, and 514. Bureau of Yards and Docks Power, computer 32.0 Kw 40 KVA 70% min pf Volume, computer 10,440 cu ft Volume, air conditioner 4,536 cu ft Area, computer 1,305 sq ft Area, sir conditioner 432 sq ft Room size, computer 59 ft 4 in long 22 ft 0 in wide 8 ft 0 in high Room size, air conditioner 12 ft 4 in wide 35 ft 0 in long 10 ft 5 in high Floor loading 250 lbs/sq ft Capacity, air conditioner 30 Tons Weight, computer 12,950 lbs New cinder block building of 2,556 square feet was built to house the data processor. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 6 Number in current operation 6 Number in current production 14 Number on order 23 Anticipated production rates 2 per month Time required for delivery18 months COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Manufacturer Model Monthly Purchase No. Component Rental Price 304 Data Processor includ- $5,730 $366,600 ing Control Console (2,000 Word Memo plus 400 Special Words 304 Data Processor includ- 6,560 420,000 ing Control Console (4,000 Word Memo plus 800 Special Words 304-2 Data Processor includ- 6,240 399,200 ing Control Console (2,000 Word Memo plus 400 Special Words; with Micro-Flow, Magnetic Char- acter Input, & Multiple Printer Output 304-2 Data Processor- including 7,070 452,600 Control Console (4,000 Word Memory plus 800 Special Words); with Micro- Flow, Magnetic Character Input, & Multiple Printer output 320 Universal Off-line $1,970 $126,000 Converter 322 Off-line Printer Converter 710 45,000 330 Magnetic Tape Controller - 1,740 111,000 30 KC 332 Magnetic Tape Handler-30 KC 415 26,300 340 High-Speed Line Printer 1,940 124,300 340-2 High-Speed Line Printer 1,970 126,225 351 Typewriter Printer (Extra) 70 3,400 354-2 Card Punch Buffer 600 28,800 355-2 Sorter Buffer 700 33,550 360 High-Speed Paper Tape 510 32,800 Reader 370 High-Speed Paper Tape Punch 280 17,800 380 High-Speed Punched Card 490 31,100 Reader 402-1 Magnetic Character Sorter1,700 62,000 Maintenance/Service Contracting Maintenance and service will be furnished to suit the individual needs and schedules of each installation. On lease arrangements, the cost of maintenance is included in the rental rates. Where the equip ment is purchased, a maintenance contract is available. U.S. Marine Corps, Camp Lejeune Basic System Components Monthly Rental 1 Jul6o - 30Jun 61 304 Data Processor includ- $5,730 ing Console (2400 word memory) 320 Universal Converter 1,970 340 High Speed Printer 1,940 330 Magnetic Tape Controller 1,740 380 High Speed Punched Card 490 Reader 332 Magnetic Tape Handler at $520.00 each at $415.00 each 2,075 --------- $13,945 Additional Equipment Type 523 Summary Punch $ 75 Maintenance and service provided by contractor at no additional charge when renting. U. S. Marine Corps, Camp Pendleton Rental contracting and rates for basic system Monthly rental rate effective 1 July 1960 - $13,945. 304 Data Processor (1) $5730 - 330 Mag Tape Controller (1) $1740 - 340 Printer $1940 - 320 Converter (1) $1970 - 332 Mag Tape Handler (5) $2075 - 380 Card Reader $490. Additional equipment IBM 523 Card Punch - $88 per month. Maintenance performed by NCR personnel; cost included in monthly rental. U. S. Marine Corps, Headquarters Eff 1 Jul 60 304 Data Processor including $5,730 Console (2400 word memory) 320 Universal Converter 1,970 340 High Speed Printer 1,940 330 Magnetic Tape Controller 1,740 332 Magnetic Tape Handler, 8 at 3,320 $415.00 each 380 High Speed Punched Card Reader 490 523 IBM Gang Summary Punch 85 Total monthly rental for 176 $15,275 hours usage Maintenance and service contracting included in rental costs.
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 304, start page 0705
S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. Component Price 304 Processor including Console $356,800 330 Controller 111,000 340 Printer 109,400 322 Printer Controller 37,300 332 Magnetic Tape Unit (9) 204,300 360 Paper Tape Reader 19,600 370 Paper Tape Punch 15,700 National Cash Register Company, Hawthorne Monthly rental contracting and rates for basic system are 304 Processor (4800 words) $6560 - 320 Multi Purpose Converter $1970 - 330 Mag. Tape Controller $1740 - 370 Paper Tape Punch $280 - 380 Punched Card Reader $490 - Nine (9) Mag. Tape Handlers at $415 each $3735 - 340 High Speed Line Printer $1940 and a 360 Paper Tape Reader $510. Additional equipment includes a Universal Interconnecting Device and a Paper Tape Rewinder and Splicer. Bureau of Yards and Docks Monthly Rental Data Processor $6,560 Magnetic Tape Controller - 30 Kc 1,740 Magnetic Tape Handler - 30 Kc2,905 High Speed Line Printer 1,940 Add. Typewriter Printer 70 High Speed Paper Tape Reader 510 High Speed Paper Tape Punch 280 High Speed Punched Card Reader490 Total Approximate Monthly Rent $14,495 PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Manufacturer Since the National 304 System is a new system with the first installation in November, 1959, at the present writing it is difficult to determine normal personnel requirements. It is anticipated that the advanced solid-state design and overall system fabrication will result in most favorable operating experience. The early performance of the initial systems has borne this out. It is expected that a typical 304 System can be maintained by 3 or 4 engineer-technicians. Two and three shift operation will require some increase. Training made available by manufacturer to users includes initial and turnover replacement training and executive orientation. These are provided at no cost to the user at mutually agreeable locations. U.S. Marine Corps, CampLejeune one 8-Hour shift Used Recommended Supervisors 1 1 Programmers 3 5 Librarians 2 2 Operators 3 4 Engineers 6 6 Tape Handlers 2 2 Contractor provides Programmer School periodically. Contractor provides representative to assist in initial stages of implementation. U.S. Marine Corps, Camp Pendleton One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour Shift Shifts Shifts Used Recomm Recommended Recommended Supervisors * ** ** Analysts 1 1* Programmers 3 3 3-Prim only 3-Prim only Librarians 2 2 1 per shift 1 per shift Operators 3 3 2-Prim; 1-2d 1 per shift Tape Handlers 2 2 1 per shift 1 per shift All of our programmers, operators, and tape handlers are equally proficient at programming and operating and we intend to perpetuate this versatility. Librarians are trained on the job for programmer/ operator work. * - Officer-in-charge and Supervisor on Prime Shift. ** - Senior Enlisted Programmer/Operator present is Shift Supervisor. *** - Requires increase in T/0 of one person. Operation tends toward closed shop. Methods of training used includes formal training by manufacturer and on-the-job training at the site. U.S. Marine Corps, Headquarters One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour Shift Shifts Shifts Used Recom Recommended Recommended Supervisors 1 1 1 1 Librarians 1 1 Operators 1 1 1 1 Engineers 7 7 0 In-Output Oper 1 1 1 1 Tape Handler 2 2 2 2 Above personnel requirements are shown for Computer System operating personnel only. The number of analysts programmers, coders and clerks is dependent on the peculiarities of the accounting or reporting system to be placed on the computer. The number of engineers presently being used to operate one shift would stay the same if the operating period was expanded to two shifts. For a three shift operation engineers would be on an "on-call" basis for the third shift. Operation tends toward open shop. Methods of training used includes Equipment Manufacturers School and on-the-,job training for operating personnel. American United Life Insurance Company One 8-Hour Shift Supervisors 1 Analysts, Prog. & Coders 7 Clerks 1 Librarians 1 Operators 2 Engineers NCR Technicians NCR In-Output Oper 24 Tape Handlers 2 Since the equipment was installed only on 2 May 60, and because it has been used primarily for program testing, it is impossible to make intelligent personnel distributions. Since production operating time is required for information of this type it will be some time before valid figures can be accumulated. Operation tends toward open shop. Methods of training used include two methods, a formalized programming school, instruction for which was provided by The National Cash Register Company, and on-the-,job training for the additional personnel
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 304, start page 0706
required. The training of operating personnel was handled by the user with the advice of the manufacturer as required. S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Shift Shifts Supervisors 1 1 Librarians 1 2 Operators 1 2 In-Output Oper 1 2 Tape Handlers 1 2 Operation tends toward open shop. Methods of training includes on-the-,job training and a Programming School. The above pertains to requirements for operations. Systems and Programming Staff for maintenance of existing system and future applications consists of 1 Program Supervisor, 4 Programmers, 1 System Planning Coordinator, and 2 Systems Men. National Cash Register Company, Hawthorne One 8-Hour Shift Supervisors 1 Programmers- Analysts - Coders 15 Clerks 2 Operators 2 Engineers-Technicians 6 In-Output Oper 1 Operation tends toward closed shop. Methods of training used includes programing courses and on-the-,job training. Bureau of Yards and Docks One 8-Hour Shift UsedRecommended Supervisors 4 Analysts 7 8 Programers 7 12 Clerks 1 Librarians 1 Operators 1 4 Operation tends toward closed shop. Training classes have been held on site. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Manufacturer Reliability and optimum operating experience were basic design objectives with the 304 System. The latest electronic developments and solid state devices have been used throughout. Design tolerances are set beyond those of"worst case" conditions of heat, voltage fluctuation and aging. Standardized plug-in cards are used throughout as well as etched circuit back panels to replace wiring harnesses and cables. Units are separately powered and contain circuitry which performs a sequence of automatic reliability tests to insure proper operation or to isolate for replacement of circuit cards. Individual units have extensive features to insure reliability as stated in Checking Features. The High Speed Paper Tape Reader and the High Speed Paper Tape Punch which can handle different codes by switch selection, have a programmable check on the proper code. A mode of the Test instruction can insure that the proper switch is set. U. S. Marine Corps, Camp Lejeune Good time45.6 Hours/Week Average Attempted to run time52.2 Hours/Week Average; Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.87 Above figures based on period 1 Apr 60 to 29 Apr 60 Passed Customer Acceptance Test 4 Mar 60 Time is not available for rent to outside organiza- tions. During period measured above the system was not afforded perfect temperature and humidity environment due to air conditioning equipment deficiency. Break-down of Computer time - April 1960 Primary Shift 241.0 Hrs Production (*) 182.5 Hrs Down 10.8 Hrs Idle 22.1 Hrs Re-run 25.6 Hrs * Production total breaks down as follows: Operational Use Time for Rental Purpose 161.3 Hrs Lunch Time Opr, not subject to rental 7.4 Hrs Set-up Time, not subject to rental 13.8 Hrs U. S. Marine Corps, Camp Pendleton Average error-free running period 39.48 Hours Good time36.5 Hours/Week Average Attempted to run time.48 Hours/Week Average; Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 76 to 1 Above figures based on period1 Feb 60 to 30 Apr 60 Passed Customer Acceptance Test 14 Jan 60 Time on 2d and 3d shifts is available for rental to outside organizations. U.S. Marine Corps, Headquarters Time will be made available to other government agencies only and on a pro-rated cost basis. Time will be on an "as available" basis. System was turned over for Marine Corps use on 12 May 60. American United Life Insurance Company Average error-free running period 2 weeks + Good time 79.3 Haws/Week (Average Attempted to run time 80 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.991 Above figures based on period2 May 60 to 25 May 60 Passed Customer Acceptance Test 2 May 60 Time is not available for rent to outside organiza- tions. The amount of time available for the accumulation of the information requested is too short to prove of much validity. The experience to date has shown that the system is surprisingly solid and that a high ratio of operating time can be expected. S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. Passed Customer Acceptance Test 10 Jun 60 Time is available for rent to outside organizations. Bureau of Yards and Docks Good time 294 Hours Attempted to run time 302 Hours Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.9733 Above figures based on period 11 Jul 60 to 9 Aug 60 Passed Customer Acceptance Test 11 Aug 60 Time is not available for rent to outside organiza- tions.
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 304, start page 0707
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Manufacturer Outstanding features include a magnetic tape system which is gapless, with timesharing of off-line tapeto-tape transfer (copy) while searching. High InputsPaper Tape - 1800 cps. Punched cards fed at 2000 cpm. Command structure is powerful for ease of coding and debugging. The 304 System has complete off-line conversion facilities - for input and output transcribing. However, the input speeds of 1800 characters per second for paper tape and 2000 punched cards per minute are so favorable that many businesses will find it unnecessary to go through off-line input conversion. For example, 30,000 transactions of 30 characters each would require only eight and one-half minutes of processing time when reading paper tape on-line. Transcribed transactions could be read from magnetic tape by the Processor in about one half a minute. So the off-line input conversion would not save more than eight minutes a day. An extensive library of programs were accomplished and ready for use with the installation of the first 304 System. National's Electronic Autocoding Technique --NEAT-- was developed to reduce coding costs and to simplify programming. The purpose of NEAT is to simplify the transition from flow chart to machine code without losing any of the flexibility and power of the actual 304 instructions. It enables systematic organization to a problem. Coding in NEAT can be thought of as the translation of a 304 flow chart into pseudo instructions, employing mnemonic addressing. The result of processing NEAT on a 304 computer, is a completed machine code, which may be produced on magnetic tape, punched cards, or punched paper tape. In the course of the computer run, automatic code checking is done for obvious inconsistencies. COBOL or COBOL-like language is being added to the NEAT process. STEP, the program which takes advantage of the internal logic to handle magnetic file housekeeping, is also in operation. Other programs that are available are a Sort Generator, Librarian, monitoring, tracing, and programs to facilitate program check-out. Procedures for magnetic tape labelling, storing, shipping, and protection from humidity, temperature, electrical, fire, or other damage are the normal procedures and care that are customary for mylar-magnetic tape. U. S. Marine Corps, Camp Lejeune Outstanding features include off-line copy operation for simultaneous processing and read/write, maximum storage of data per reel of tape, and high speed card reading. Unique system advantages include ease of operation by means of a console, which gives system control and components with a minimum number of controls, a 320 Multipurpose Converter for off-line operations, NEAT - a coding technique, which simplifies programming, and a monitor feature which simplifies codechecking. Tape labelling is performed by means of STEP, (Standard Tape Executive Program), which labels tape and checks obsolescence of tapes before use. U. S. Marine Corps, Camp Pendleton Outstanding features are high speed card reader, high speed printer, and transistorized solid state computer. Unique system advantages are no inter record gap on magnetic tape and a built-in business command structure. Procedures have been adopted for magnetic tape labelling, storage, shipping, and protection from humidity, temperature and physical, electrical, fire, or other damage. Two labels are used; one containing permanent identification, and the other containing information of a temporary nature. Tape is stored in a library which is temperature and humidity controlled. A semi- automatic C02 system has been installed for fire protection. Afire proof safe will be used to house Historical Tapes. U.S. Marine Corps, Headquarters Outstanding features include no inter-record gaps on tape. This allows an effective read-write speed of 30 K per second, and the ability to address any character or number of characters of a word in storage. Unique system advantages include transistorized components, which bring about low power and air conditioning requirements, and thereby reduces installation costs. Procedures have been adopted for magnetic tape labelling, storage, shipping, and protection from himidity, temperature and physical, electrical, fire, or other damage. Tapes are stored in an air conditioned area. Shipment of tape is made in "netic" containers. Any two of three installations can reconstruct tapes of the third. Both outside labelling on reel and writing on tape for positive identification of all records is performed. American United Life Insurance Company The NCR 304 System features matched cabinets, console simplicity, input-output computing compatibility, operating ease, transistorized construction, interchangeable components, and up-to-date design philosophy. The system features variable record length, dual search capability, absence of inter-record gaps, read-back of write magnetic tape, built-in magnetic tape executive routines, mnemonic autocoding techniques, and full checking devices for input, output, and computing. Procedures have been adopted for magnetic tape labelling, storage, shipping, and protection from humidity, temperature and physical, electrical, fire, or other damage. These procedures defy brief description but are available for those interested upon request. The general design and philosophy of the NCR 304 System is based upon the known and proven requirements of business and industry. The philosophy of the system and the compatibility of input, output, and computing make it possible to obtain the maxim amount of flexibility in the operating procedures of the using organization. National Cash Register Company, Hawthorne Outstanding features include high input speeds, ease of programming, console designed for operator, and a magnetic tape system. Unique system advantages include a gap-less magnetic tape system, off line copy, automatic read back after write. STEP- combination of circuitry and programming to handle magnetic tape housekeeping. NEAT Autocoding System - COBOL being incorporated. Emphasis on reliability and checking of data movements. Normal procedures for properly handling mylar magnetic tape have been adopted. This was the first in operation of the several National Data Processing Centers. There is a 304 Center in New York City and a Center in Dayton, Ohio.
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 304, start page 0708
Bureau of Yards and Docks Outstanding features include ease of programming and program testing. A procedure for labelling, storage, temperature and humidity protection and fire has been adopted. FUTURE PLANS Manufacturer While retaining all of the previous features and specifications of the initial 304, an improved model will be available starting in the Fall of 1960. The Central Processor has been designated as the 304-2, and will have MICRO-FLOW, Magnetic Character Input, and allow multiple high speed line printing as output MICRO-FLOW is a new mode of single-address operation that essentially expands the instruction repertoire from 37 to 104 instructions. This new mode of operation does not in any way supplant the powerful, business-type instructions. MICRO-FLAW is designed for scientific computation, permitting fixed or floating point arithmetic, and for areas of operation when the single- address mode might be faster or more efficient. The single-address MICRO-FLOW and the three-address business-type instructions may be intermixed within a single program, switching from one to the other to provide the most efficiency. Magnetic Character Input can be provided with the use of the 304-2 Central Processor in conjunction with the National 402-1 Magnetic Character Sorter. Checks or documents encoded with magnetic ink characters may be read at the rate of 750 documents per minute. There will be input of the information into the Processor memory, control over pocket selection, and ,jump table control for unusual situations. The Magnetic Character Sorter can be used off-line to sort documents as controlled by a panel on the Sorter. For high-volume output operations, the 304-2 Central Processor will enable multiple printers on-line, up to four National 340 High Speed Line Printers. Buffering and Busy Jumps will enable a maximum of timesharing. U.S. Marine Corps, Camp Pendleton It is proposed that the number of NCR 332 Magnetic Tape Handlers be increased from 5 to 8, that the NCR 304 Memory Size be increased from 2,400 to 4,800 words, i.e., 24,000 to 48,000 characters, and that the number of computer applications be increased from Personnel Accounting only, to that of Fiscal Accounting (including Disbursing functions) and local Supply Accounting. American United Life Insurance Company Future plans with regard to this system include the possibility, at the proper time, of expanding the existing system to include additional magnetic tape units, and perhaps another high speed printer. Procedurally new applications will be added as desired. We are looking forward to performing operations on research, market analysis, and a more thorough analysis of sales and determining standards of sales performance. INSTALLATIONS U. S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina U. S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California U. S. Marine Corps, Headquarters Washington 25, D. C. Bureau of Yards and Docks Department of the Navy Washington 25, D. C. American United Life Insurance Company Indianapolis, Indiana The National Cash Register Company Hawthorne, California S. C. Johnson & Son, Inc. Racine, Wisconsin U. S. Navy New York Naval Ship d Brooklyn 1, New York (Proposed) U. S. Air Force, Headquarters, Strategic Air Command Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 304, start page 0709

BRL 1961, NATIONAL 315, start page 0710

NATIONAL 315

NATIONAL 315 MANUFACTURER The National Cash Register Company
Photo by the National Cash Register Company APPLICATIONS The National 315 System has broad application in all types of business and scientific data processing. Modular assembly of components permits a wide range of system organization from low-cost systems up to large-scale capabilities. New design concepts and features provide maximum versatility and flexibility in application. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary coded decimal Decimal digits/word 3 (or 2 alphanumeric characters Decimal digits/instruction 6 Words/instruction 2 or 4 Instructions decoded 90 plus variations Arithmetic system Fixed point (Field lengths up to 24 digits) Instruction type One-address-roughly 1/3 of instruction list Two address- roughly 2/3 of instruction list Number range positive: 24 digits negative: 23 digits Specimen of single-stage instruction (two words): +-----------+-------+---+-------+-----------+ | Op | V | L | X | A | +-----------+-------+---+-------+-----------+ | A D D | M | 3 | 2 3 | 1 0 0 | +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ ADD TO MEMORY:Memory address is "100" + (contents of index register 23). Field length is 3 words. Op, V, L, X are condensed by bit-wise coding into one word. A forms the second word. Specimen of single-stage instruction using a "literal" +-----------+-------+---+-------+-----------+ | Op | V | L | X | A | +-----------+-------+---+-------+-----------+ | A D D | | | D | 2 0 0 | +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ ADD TO ACCUMULATOR the digit-field "200". +-----------+-------+---+-------+-----------+ | Op | V | | X/Y | A/B | +-----------+-------+---+-------+-----------+ | L D | | | 1 2 | 9 9 9 | +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ | | | | 1 5 | 0 0 6 | +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ LOAD six Index Registers, starting with R15; two words into each register.
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 315, start page 0711
Photo by the National Cash Register Company R15 loaded from memory address "999" + (contents of R12 ) Rl6 loaded from memory address "1001" + (contents of R12). --etc- OP, V, X, Y are condensed by bit-wise coding into first and third words. A forms the second word. B forma the third word. Specimen of double-stage instruction using a "literal" +-----------+-------+---+-------+-----------+ | Op | V | | X/Y | A/B | +-----------+-------+---+-------+-----------+ | S L D | R | | D | 0 0 0 | +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ | | | | 1 0 | 0 2 0 | +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ SPREAD-LOAD 20 Index Registers, starting with R10 Load zeros into every register from R10 through R29. Automatic built-in subroutines include Scan, Move, etc. Load, Spread-load, Store, Move, Augment, Spreadaugment: multiple registers. Automatic coding using COBOL will be available for use with delivery of the first system. In addition, an intermediate language - NEAT assembler-compiler is available for direct coding, and for optimization of object program after COBOL translation. Registers and B-boxes include 32 Index Registers of 5 digits each and 32 Jump Registers of 5 digits each. This includes automatic storage of 3 different link addresses. The Sequence Control Register (Instruction Counter) is completely addressible. Automatic input-output tallies are used. The entire system capable of any degree of polysynchronous operation, wherein any designated collection of peripheral units may each Demand program attention whenever appropriate. Demand interrupt is subject to a simple, flexible system of priorities, and to master control which may forbid interrupt altogether whenever desired. Automatic program-tracing facilities for code checking are included. Paper Tape and Punched Card input share all time except actual transmission of each character. Paper Tape, Punched Card and Printer output do the same. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl. Stor. Access Exclud. Stor. Access Microsec Microsec Add 42 36 Mult 294 minimum Div 1,044 minim Arithmetic mode 3 digits parallel Timing Asynchronous Operation Concurrent and Polysynchronous Peripheral units operate asynchronously with processor STORAGE No. of No. of Media Words Digits Microsec Magnetic Cores 2,000 to 6,000 to 6 per word 40,000 120,000 Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 8 Units No. of chars/linear inch 200, 333 & 500 Chars/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 7 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record 3/4 Inch Tape speed 120 Inches/sec Transfer rate 24K, 40K, 60K Chars/sec Start time 3 Millisec Stop time 3 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel 20 Seconds Physical properties of tape Width 1/2 Inch Length of reel 3,600 Feet Compositionmylar, 1 mil, laminated
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 315, start page 0712
INPUT Media Speed Paper Tape 1,000 char/sec Any codes whatever, without limit. Inter-character time is sharable. Punched Cards 400 cards/min Any possible codes, including binary. Inter-char- acter and inter-card time is sharable, with Demand Interrupt Magnetic Character Reader 750 documents/min Polysynchronous, with Demand Interrupt Buffered Inquiry Units 333 KC alphanumeric Each Inquiry Unit may be multiplexed to many re- mote Inquiry Stations, limited only by acceptable queueing. Polysynchronous. OUTPUT Media Speed Line Printer 600 lines/min alphanumeric 900 lines/min numeric Buffered, sharable, with Demand Interrupt ability. Paper Tape Punch120 chars/sec Any code whatever. Inter-character time sharable. Card Punch100 or 250 cards/min Same as Printer Buffered Inquiry Units333 KC alphanumeric Same as for input. Line Printer has Multiple Listing Feature to enable simultaneous printing of three separate listings, each with independent paper transport. An interconnecting device is available to permit push- button switching of peripherals from one 315 Peocessor to another, in mufti-processor installations. CHECKING FEATURES Checking features include complete parity-checking throughout the entire system. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 1 Anticipated production rates 7 per month initially COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES PRICE LIST Monthly Price Rental 315-1 Basic Processor $82,500 $1,300 315-2 Bank Processor 90,000 1,400 315-3 File Processor 90,000 1,400 315-4 Bank File Processor 95,000 1,500 316-1 2,000 Word Memory 37,500 650 316-2 5,000 Word Memory 55,000 1,100 316-3 10,000 worn Memory 75,000 1,600 332-202 40 kc magnetic Tape Unit 27,500 700 332-203 60 kc Magnetic Tape Unit 36,000 900 340-3 High Speed Printer with 357-1 Buffer 72,500 1,425 354-1 Card Punch Buffer 25,000 450 355-1 Sorter Buffer 23,500 450 362-371 Paper Tape Reader and Punch 15,000 450 383-1 Punched Card Reader 20,000 450 PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Training made available by manufacturer to users include a complete schedule of courses in programming, systems analysis, autocoding, COBOL, etc. All courses are available on the customer's premises.
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 315, start page 0713
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features include a wide range of capacity and price with modular components, giving wide provision for future expansion and the Demand Interrupt feature so that under permissive program control peripheral units may interrupt, be reacti- vated, and continue their operation independently while the Processor returns to the primary program. This processor is unusually economical of memory space for program storage. In multi-processor installations, all processors are the same with only one coding system. Work may be divided among processors at convenience of user, and each provides on-site backup for the other. Peripheral units may be electronically switched from one processor to another. Normal procedures for magnetic tape handling are recommended. FUTURE PLANS Future plans include one and two degrees of Mag- netic tape simultaneity, a new concept of random access memory - magnetic cards, optional high-speed inputs, including paper tape at 1800 char/sec and punched cards at 2000 cards/min, and intercommuni- cation, with master-slave relationship among multiple processors.
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 390, start page 0714

NATIONAL 390

National Cash Register Company Model 390 Computer MANUFACTURER National Cash Register Company
Photo by National Cash Register Company APPLICATIONS System is designed to handle all types of accounting records, reports, and statistics, paper tape sorting (Direct and Sequential), engineering calculations, and linear programming problems (Limited to 10 x 15 matrix or less PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Coded Decimal Decimal digits/word 12 Decimal digits/instruction 12 Instructions per word 1 Instructions decoded 27 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type Four address Number range From - 1 x 109 to + 9 x 109 Instruction word format +-----------+-------+----------+-----------+----------+----------+ | Instruc- | Mode | Address | Address | Address | Address | | tion | | A | B | C | D | | | | | +----------+ | | | | Operand | Operand | Modifi- | Next | | | | | | cation | Instruc- | | | | | | | tion | +-----------+-------+----------+-----------+----------+----------+ Two decimal digits each Automatic built-in subroutines include block transfer, and sum and add pairs of numbers. Variable block instructions perform some functions similar to B-boxes. ARITHMETIC UNIT Operation Incl Stor Access Time Microsec Add 11,000 Mult 250,000 Div 400,000 Above times are "worst case". Because of the 4 address system, command times all include access and storage. Arithmetic unit is constructed of 48 cores, with transformers and diodes. Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential STORAGE No. of No. of Media Words Digits Access Core 200 2400 22 microsec/bit Magnetic Ledger 200 digits 200 220 char/sec Cards Variable word length on magnetic cards
BRL 1961, NATIONAL 390, start page 0715
INPUT Media Speed Paper Tape (Photoelectric) 400 char/sec Punched Card (IBM 024 or 026) 18 char/sec Magnetic Ledger Card 220 char/sec Speed of reading and writing depends on card length. The average is 1.5 to 2.0 sees. Console Keyboard (Standard) The Magnetic Ledger Card is a standard ledger card with standard visible posted information on the front and strips of magnetic tape on the back capable of storing up to 200 digits of information pertaining to that account. OUTPUT Media Speed Paper Tape 17 char/sec Punched Card 18 char/sec Magnetic Ledger Cards Same as input Accounting Machine Printer 1200 char/min The Accounting Machine type printer is completely programmable both horizontally and vertically. It will accommodate continuous forms, ,journals, cut forms, and ledger cards all simultaneously, if desired and has all accounting machine.checking, comparing, and accumulating features. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Diodes 4,000 Transistors 1,150 Magnetic Cores 9,792 14 vacuum glow triodes are used as indicators. CHECKING FEATURES Among the fixed checking features are a 5 bit parity check, reader and punch check, power supply tolerances auto check, a print-out check, and ledger card read-write failure indicators are used. Test points are available on all logical circuits. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE. PREPARATION KVA, computer 4.8 KVA 1 phase 240v Area, computer 78 sq ft Room size 10 ft x 15 ft Floor loading 20 lbs/sq ft 40 lbs concen max Weight, computer 1,000 lbs 1,500 lbs, total PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 6 Number in current operation 6 Number on order 100+ Anticipated production rates 600 - 700 annually Quantity production will commence in the first quarter of 1961. COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Monthly Basic System Price Rental 390-3 Console and Central $56,300 $1,395 Processor 361-1 Paper Tape Reader 10,000 250 461-2 Tape Recorder 1,735 50 Additional Equipment 381-1 Punch Card Reader Coupler $ 2,250 $ 60 468-1 Punch Card Coupler 815 27 417 Paper Tape Rewinder-Splicer 1,215 30 361-2 Paper Tape Reader Maintenance service is included in the rental price, or is approximately 5 to 6% of purchase price annually. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS A typical installation will require a combination supervisor and programmer, an operator, and possibly one clerk. The number of input operators would depend on the volume and type of input media and the method of creating it, e.g. by-product of necessary parent machine operation, off-line separate operation, etc. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Acceptance test specifies 40 hours continuous operation without failure or error. Tests are run under extreme marginal conditions. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features include magnetic ledger cards, accounting machine printer, 4 address system, internally stored program, decimal coding, and desk size. The unique Magnetic Ledger Card which combines visible, auditable, historical information posted on the front, with machine language encoded on the back. Up to 200 characters of information pertaining to each account can be stored on the back of each card. The magnetic ledger philosophy provides unlimited external storage facility and immediate random access to a complete, up-to-date historical record. FUTURE PLANS Future plans include alphanumeric s, a document sorter (MICR) input, optical document and ,journal readers, automatic ledger handling, increased speed and capacity, and a high speed printer.
BRL 1961, NORC, start page 0716

NORC

Naval Ordnance Research Calculator MANUFACTURER International Business Machines Corporation
Photo by U. S. Naval Weapons Laboratory APPLICATIONS General scientific calculation in ordnance research, development and testing. Primary effort has been devoted to scientific computation, including satellite surveillance data reduction, orbital computation, missile ballistics, reactor design, war game simulation. A small portion of the time is spent on business type data reduction and computation. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary coded decimal Decimal digits/word 16 Decimal digits/instruction 16 Instructions per word 1 Instructions decoded 80 Instructions used 80 Arithmetic system Floating or fixed point Instruction type Three address Number range 10-43 to 10+31 A number may be written as +- x.xxxx xxxx xxxx . 10xx ARITHMETIC UNIT Exclud Stor Access Microsec Add 15 Mult 31 Div 227 ConstructionVacuum tubes and diodes (switching) Rapid access word registers 2,000 Basic pulse repetition rate 1 Mc/sec
BRL 1961, NORC, start page 0717
Photo by U. S. Naval Weapons laboratory Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Asynchronous Operation Concurrent Multiplication and division are partly performed in parallel. Operation time depends on decimal indices. STORAGE No. of No. of Digits Access Media Words (decimal) Microsec Magnetic Core 20,000 16 per word 8 Magnetic Tape 40,000,000 Variable The core memory was built by Daystromi Instrument Corp. and installed in March 1960. Original memory was a 2,000 word Williams CRT System with same word size and access time. The magnetic tape system can read or search forward and backward and write for- ward. INPUT Media Speed Magnetic Tape (8) 70,000 dec dig/sec Keyboard Manual (Serial) Eight tape units are in service. The packing density on magnetic tape is 500 char/inch, the linear speed is 140 inches/sec. 0.5 inch tape is used. OUTPUT Media Speed Magnetic Tape (8) 70,000 dec dig/sec Mechanical Printers (2) 150 lines/min 07 mechanisms CRT-Microfilm Printer and Plotter 15,000 char/sec Built by Strombery Carlson; uses Charactron CRT; installed in 1958.
BRL 1961, NORC, start page 0718
CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Tubes 9,800 Tube types 20 Crystal diodes 30,000 Separate cabinets 6 CHECKING FEATURES Fixed checks include: Bit count modulo-4 check on each word transfer Modulo-9 arithetic check Illegitimate character check Word-length and block-length check on tape reading. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 138 Kw 145 KVA 0-95 Pf Power, air condit 70 Kw 100 KVA 0.70 Pf Above figures are estimated. Area in existing concrete building was remodeled. Special 12" raised floor used to cover sir ducts and cable raceway. 40 ton closed circuit air conditioner used for main racks. 25 ton system used for auxiliary equipment and roam cooling. Main computer room approximately 2,000 sq ft, power supply 500 sq ft, air conditioner 700 sq ft and shops 700 sq ft. PRODUCTION RECORD Produced l Operating 1 COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES $2,500,000 is the cost of the machine as above described (without core memory and CRT printer) plus Card-Tape- Card Converter. Additional costs were the Core Memory at $500,000 and the CRT Printer at $200,000. Total for the system is $3,200,000. FUTURE PLANS The IBM 7090 System and the IBM 1401 System will supplement the computer capability of the Naval Weapons Laboratory. INSTALLATIONS U. S. Naval Weapons Laboratory Dahlgren, Virginia PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS 7 Day/Week Three 8-Hour Shifts Supervisors 1 Analysts, Programmers, Coders 40 Clerks 4 Operators 13 Engineers 2 Technicians 10 In-Output Oper 12 Operation tends toward closed shop. Methods of training used includes primarily on the Job training, except that for the 7090 System to be installed, advantage is being taken of available instruction from UK. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Average error-free running period 1.2 Hours Good time 133 Hours/Week (Average) Attempted to run time 144 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.925 Above figures based on period 1 Jan 60 to 30 Jun 60 Passed Customer Acceptance Test June 1955 Time is available for rent to qualified outside or- ganizations. Time, when available, is used by Defense contractors as well as government agencies. This machine is exceptionally well checked, both internal and with regard to input-output. Most errors can be corrected immediately by the machine operator with practically no lost time. Sine installation of core memory, error free period is close to 2 hours. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features include long worm length, high arithmetic speeds, high tape speeds, checking features, CRT printer, three address logic, and ease of programming. Magnetic tape stored in computer room in metal cabinets. Since the tape is not compatible with other units there is no reason for it to leave the completely controlled climate of this area. Acetate base tape is used. Speed increased by taking short cuts in case of zero operands and through the use of previous result as an operand. Provisions for addition, subtraction, and shifting of instruction words make possible programmed synthesis of instructions. A large variety of conditional program transfer instructions are available. Three address-modifier registers make possible the modification of operand addresses without changing the stored instruction. Card- tape-card conversion is used.
BRL 1961, NORC, start page 0719

BRL 1961, NORDEN VOTE TALLY, start page 0720

NORDEN VOTE TALLY

Norden Electronic Vote Tallying System Model 2602 MANUFACTURER United Aircraft Corporation Borden Division Data Systems Department
Photo by Norden Division, United Aircraft Corp. APPLICATIONS The Borden Vote Tallying System is a special purpose electronic system used to tally paper ballots at high speed. Votes are accumulated by candidate and issue in a magnetic core memory, and totals are output to a printer-punch unit. A short length of punched paper tape is used to instruct the processor as to the ballot width, color and format before ballots are read. This same tape establishes the punch-out sequence. Two mechanical paper handlers are attached to a processor. A ballot handler feeds ballots in a fixed length of 24" and varying from 9" to 30" in width at 10 ballots per second. Up to six ballot widths may be individually selected by paper tape instruction without manual intervention. The ballots are not mechanically registered. The processor contains the necessary skew interpolation circuitry to compensate for a misaligned ballot. This circuitry is shared by the two ballot handlers. Only one ballot handler feeds ballots at a time. While one ballot handler is feeding and totals are being accumulated, the second ballot handler is being reloaded with a spindled tray of ballots and totals are being transmitted for the stack of ballots previously read. The alternate use of the ballot handlers permits the continuous processing of ballots. Each ballot is examined for acceptability in accordance with the Election Code to accept only valid votes. Overvoted offices and incorrectly voted recall issues or recall candidates are not accepted,
BRL 1961, NORDEN VOTE TALLY, start page 0721
Photo by Norden Division, United Aircraft Corp. but all valid votes are accepted to update totals. This analysis and updating occurs prior to the reading of the next ballot. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary and Binary Coded Decimal Digits per word 3 decimal, 4 binary, 1 parity Digits/instruction one alpha per instruction Instructions decoded 14 instructions Arithmetic system Fixed point Each operation is defined by an alpha instruction character. Number range 000 to 999 for each of 540 totals One alphabetic character defines an instruction operation. For example, one character, followed by appropriate designators, instructs system on specific locations of voting squares on the ballots to be read. Another alphabetic character initiates the actual reading of ballots- Instructions are read from punched paper tape and are executed in sequence as read from the tape. Essentially all operations in the system are builtin subroutines. These include updating of the totals in memory as each ballot is read, checks on overvoting, punch-out of candidate totals, etc. All programming is in direct instructions. Registers include instruction register, memory in-out register, ballot mark input registers, and punch encode register. ARITHMETIC UNIT Add time is 33 microseconds, including storage access, 6.6 for the actual add operation only. Arithmetic operation of updating totals after read- ing each ballot is an automatic subroutine. Timing Synchronous, within data processor Operation Sequential Arithmetic mode Serial STORAGE No. of No. of Access Medium Words Digits Microsec Magnetic Core Memory 600 17 bits 3 to 4 INPUT Media Speed Punched Paper Tape 60 char/sec 8-channel tape (7 information plus parity) Paper Ballots 10 ballots/sec Ballots can be up to 30" wide, 24" long.
BRL 1961, NORDEN VOTE TALLY, start page 0722
OUTPUT Medium Speed Cards (80-Column) 18 columms/sec System uses IBM 526 Printer-Punch CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Tubes 5651 2 6199 20 Diodes DR-385 Approximately 3,500 1N770 Approximately 1,000 Miscl. Approximately 200 Transistors 2N426 Approximately 3,000 2N388 Approximately 600 Miscl. Approximately 300 Magnetic Cores 10,800 in each of two memories Voltage regulator tubes used as reference tubes, in power supplies. Photomultiplier tubes in optical reading heads. Follow-on systems will use 1N770 diodes. Each memory has 18 core planes (one spare), with 10 columns, 60 rows in each. Cores are General Ceramics. Data is for Model 2602 Tyro-handler system. CHECKING FEATURES Checking features include paper tape parity, column read, ballot jam, memory parity, format pickup, precinct number agreement, power supply monitoring, double-punch and blank- column detection, and ballot clock-track check. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 4.5 to 5 0.90 pf Power includes tape reader and output card punch. One system, employing two ballot handlers, requires approximately 1,200 sq ft of floor area. Total installation load for system is approximately 15,000 pounds. Data processor weighs approximately 2,000 pounds; each ballot handler, about 5,200 pounds. Operator consoles and output printerpunches account for remainder. Floor should be capable of supporting distributed load of 300 pounds square foot. Site preparation requirements for each system include air compressor, an air fan to provide high-volume low-vacuum air, and a vacuum pump for high-vacuum pressure. Ballot handlers operate alternately in reading ballots. While reading, drive motors in ballot handler draw approximately 20 KVA from 220-Volt 3 phase line. Air compressor, low- vacuum fan, and high-vacuum pump, required for each system, draw about another 20 KVA per full system from 220-Volt 3 phase line. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 1 Number in current operation 1 Time required for delivery 12 months Production of additional systems to be started soon for use in elections of 1962 and 1964. COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Model 2602 System (2 Model 610 Ballot Handlers, 2 Model 620 Control Consoles, 1 Model 640 Data Processor cost approximately $600,000. A slightly smaller system, Model 2601 System (1 Model 610 Ballot Handler, 1 Model 620 Control Console 1 Model 630 Data Processor), cost approximately $375,000. Maintenance contract, issued on annual basis, will be available from the manufacturer. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Training made available by the manufacturer to the user include programming and operator training. Typical election requires two console operators, and requires three ballot personnel per ballot handler. Total of 8 people per system per shift, plus one supervisor for the entire facility (which may be multiple-system facility). RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY System employs solid-state construction throughout to attain reliability, and employs modular assembly techniques to facilitate rapid isolation and replacement of malfunctioning module. Indicator lights on each control console provide information on status of each component unit of system.
BRL 1961, NORDEN VOTE TALLY, start page 0723
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS System reads voter-marked ballots at rate of 10 ballots per second, and tallies ballots in accordance with election codes. Checks for over-voting, and provides for candidate rotation on ballots. Output totals are punched into cards; no manual transcriptions of totals from counters is required. System eliminates long hours of manual tallying of ballots at individual precincts. Handles variety of sizes of ballots. Output cards can be processed by conventional card equipment. INSTALLATIONS Los Angeles County, California
BRL 1961, NUMERICORD, start page 0724

NUMERICORD

Numericord Machine Tool Director MANUFACTURER Concord Control, Incorporated
Photo by Concord Control, Incorporated APPLICATIONS The Numericord Director System is the Giddings & Lewis Machine Tool Company's numerical, continuouspath control system for automatically and electronically controlling a wide variety of multi-axis machine tools. Numericord is the registered trademark of the Giddings & Lewis machine Tool Company, Fond du Lac, Wisconsin. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Coded Decimal Decimal digits/instruction 43 Arithmetic system Fixed point Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential The Numericord Director System utilizes a fixed word length; instruction format and program for all computations. STORAGE No. of No. of Access Medium Words Digits Microsec Magnetic Core Memory 44 334 10 INPUT Medium Speed Paper Tape 600 lines/sec Utilizes high speed photo-electric one inch wide tape reader for input.Input system can also be modified to accept the magnetic tape output of a general purpose computer in lieu of the punched tape.
BRL 1961, NUMERICORD, start page 0725
OUTPUT Medium Speed Magnetic Tape Continuous at 60 in/sec Output information is continuous phase modulated quantized analog control signals on one inch, 14 channel magnetic tape. Magnetic tape output is used as permanent information storage medium be- tween director system and machine tool. Director system can also be modified to control machine tool directly without magnetic tape storage. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Tubes 600 Diodes 5,000 Transistors 300 Magnetic Cores 300 CHECKING FEATURES Fixed self-checking features indicate location of errors to one or more of approximately 12 system areas. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE. PREPARATION Bower, computer 6 Kw 9 KVA 0.66 pf Volume, computer 250 cu ft Area, computer 45 sq ft Weight, computer 4,600 lbs No special site preparation required. System designed for operation in any normal office environment. PRODUCTION RECORD Number in current production 8 in United States COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Director, Power Supply, and Tape Recorder cost approximately $225,000. Tape preparation desk cost approximately $25,000. System is normally not available for rental or lease. Users maintenance personnel are fully trained at manufacturer's plant prior to system installation. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour Shift Shifts Shifts Used Recom Used Recom Used Recom Operators 1 1 2 2 3 3 Technicians 1 1 2 2 3 3 Operation tends toward open shop. Equipment operation is relatively simple. Initial personnel are trained on the ,job by manufacturer. Additional personnel can be quickly trained on the ,job as required. The Numericord Director is a special purpose digital computer and although it is sometimes programmed manually, programs are normally prepared by a large general purpose computer. When used in this fashion the Numericord system can usefully be described as a piece of special purpose off-line peripheral equipment used in conjunction with a number of large general purpose computers. Normal personnel requirements for the system usually consist of a trained operator and a trained electronic technician who is on call but not necessarily present at the equipment at all times. Programming is done by the regular data processing department mathematical programming section. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Purpose - provides fully automatic control of complete work cycles for general-purpose machine tools having as many as five simultaneous axes of movement. Operation - places all machine movements and auxiliary functions under control of a magnetic tape program which is prepared electronically from numerical data off part drawings. Significance - provides a "store" of skills which makes workpiece accuracy a function of engineering and methods planning completely independent of machine operator's experience. Application - while capable of automatically operating any type of machine tool, optimum effectiveness is achieved on multiple-axis, three-dimensional contouring machines. Machine Scope - controls standard machine movements to generate such geometric shapes as straight lines, circles, ellipses and spirals or any shape that can be mathematically defined or arbitrarily set up in three-dimension coordinates. Accuracy - tolerances obtainable with the Numericord System of machine control range from .0005" to .001" on the largest and most intricate workpiece. No cumulative error. FUTURE PLANS For several years this system has been used primarily by the aircraft and missile industries. Modifications and adaptations of the system are now being designed for special applications in precision plane and contour map making, coordinatography, precision plotting, flame cutting, X-ray inspection, and riveting. INSTALLATIONS Republic Aviation Corporation, Farmingdale, Long Island, New York Giddings & Lewis Machine Tool Company, Fond du Lac, Wisconsin Boeing Airplane Company Wichita, Kansas Convair, Division of General Dynamics Fort Worth, Texas Convair, Division of General Dynamics San Diego, California Lockheed Aircraft Corporation Burbank, California North American Aviation Inc. Los Angeles, California


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