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BRL 1961, GE 100 ERMA, start page 0262

GE 100 ERMA

General Electric 100 Electronic Recording Method Accounting MANUFACTURER General Electric Company Computer Department Phoenix, Arizona Photo Photo by Bank of America (Abbate Photo) APPLICATIONS Located in San Francisco, Berkeley, San Jose, Los Angeles, North Hollywood, Covina, and Paramount, California, the systems are being used for commercial deposit accounting (checking accounts). The Bank of America is now operating 7 ERMA Centers in the locations indicated above. Each center is equipped with 2 to 3 GE-100 Computing Systems depending on projected account vole for area being serviced. Checks and deposits, which are delivered to the ERMA Centers in the early evening, are processed and sorted at night for early morning return to the branches. STORAGE No. of No. of Access Medium Words DigitsMicrosec Magnetic Core 4,000 28,000 32 Work structure consists of 7 decimal characters. The first character contains sign, numeric-alpha numeric designation and checking digits.
BRL 1961, GE 100 ERMA, start page 0263
INPUT Media Speed Magnetic Tape 30,000 char/sec 3/4 inch tape - 10 channel - 2 digit in parallel. Paper Tape 200 char/sec 7 channel punch paper tape photo reader Flexowriter 10 char/sec 7 channel punch paper tape mechanical reader Sorter/readers 750 items/min Magnetic ink coded documents. The sorter/readers are equipped with character recognition. OUTPUT Media Speed Magnetic Tape 30,000 char/sec Flexowriter 10 char/sec Printer 600-900 lines/min Revolving drum/hammer type, operable both off-line and on- line. The printer is used off-line with magnetic tape input. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 150 Kw Power, air conditioner 185 Kw Volume, computer 18,000 cu ft Volume, air conditioner 33,500 cu ft Area, computer 2,000 sq ft Area, air conditioner 1,900 sq ft Room size, computer 80 ft x 25 ft x 9 ft Room size, air conditioner 87 ft x 20 ft x Mezzanine Floor loading 250 lbs/sq ft Capacity, air conditioner 150 Tons Weight, computer 23,000 lbs False ceilings and plenums are required for air supply and negative pressure. Building type is either of pre- stressed concrete panels or cast concrete: no modifications are necessary since the buildings are specifically designed as ERNA Centers. Power distribution is provided by underfloor conduit and pull boxes. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Because of the recent development and installation of our current GE 100 Systems, accurate figures are not yet available on our ultimate personnel requirements. However, typical operating personnel in an ERMA Center consist of a manager, assistant managers, branch liaison officers, console operators, sorter reader operators and printer operators. Programming activities for all our various installations are centralized within the Bank of America's Systems and Equipment Research Department. Engineer and technician requirements are to be determined by the manufacturer, General Electric Company, under terms of the contractual agreement to provide necessary maintenance. Operation tends toward open shop. Key personnel, i.e. managers, liaison officers and console operators receive a six-month training course prior to their initial assignment. The first seven weeks consist of attendance at a programming school. The remaining weeks are spent in controlled on-thej-ob training in all phases of an ERMA Center's operation. All other employees are given on-the- job training in their respective assignments. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Average error-free running period 2 Hours Good time60 Hours/Week (Average) Attempted to run time62 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.967 Above figures based on period 1 Aug 60 to 31 Aug 60 Passed Customer Acceptance Test 1 Jul 59 Time is available for rent to qualified outside or- ganizations. Although we have available computer time now, it is not being offered on a rental basis due to our projected volume which will utilize this time. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features include magnetic ink character recognition and simultaneous read one tape, write one tape, and compute is permitted. Magnetic ink character recognition units on the sorter/readers allow computer input directly from source documents. Magnetic tapes receive an internal label under program control as well as a manually produced external label. Tapes are stored in a fire-proof tape vault which has humidity and temperature control. Critical "back-up" tapes are sent daily to off-premise storage locations. The system was designed by General Electric as a general purpose computer to be used primarily in deposit accounting. Therefore, in order to utilize source documents as immediate input, the system was provided with magnetic character recognition facilities rather than punched card input. Components of a basic system are a central processing unit, main power unit, console, eight tape units, tape control unit, printer, printer control unit, three sorter/readers, and a sorter/reader control unit. Under the term of the sales contract, cost/price figures per system will not be available prior to equipment acceptance at final installation. FUTURE PLANS Additional ERMA Centers are planned to service the branches of the Bank of America in the Sacramento, Fresno, West Los Angeles, Southwest Los Angeles, Montebello, and San Diego areas. It is anticipated that these centers will all be in operation by June 30, 1961. Due to the fact that our ERMA Centers are either relatively new or still in the planning stage, and since the equipment has yet to be utilized to the maximum extent of which it is capable, no additional components, major modifications or plans for retirement are under consideration at the present time. INSTALLATIONS Bank of America NT & SA Systems and Equipment Research Department 500 Howard Street San Francisco, California
BRL 1961, 210, start page 0264

GE 210

General Electric Model 210 MANUFACTURER General Electric Company Computer Department
Photo Photo by General Electric Company APPLICATIONS Manufacturer System is designed for general purpose, commercial, data processing and utility billing applications. Computer Department, General Electric System is used for banking, utility billing, and inventory PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Manufacturer Internal number systemBinary coded decimal Decimal digits/word 6 Decimal digits/instruction 6 Instructions/word 1 Instructions decoded 124 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type One address Number range -999,999 999,999 to +999,999,999,999 Instruction word format +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+ | | | | | | | | +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+ | | Operation | Operand Address | | | Code | | +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+ There are automatic built-in subroutines. A complete library of subroutines for business data processing is available. G. E. Com. and General Electric Common Language (Common to all G. E. Machines including Automatic Coding Techniques and Assembly Compiler are available. Registers N Location of next instruction M Input & output memory transfer J Memory Buffer I Contains current instruction R Accumulator
BRL 1961, 210, start page 0265
L Used with R for double length word operations B Address portion on instruction P Peripheral Buffer ARITHMETIC UNIT Manufacturer Incl. Stor. Access Exclud. Stor. Access Microsec Microsec Add 64 32 Mult 550 Avg. 518 Div 1200 Avg. 1168 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors 9,998 Condensers 7,430 Diodes 39 333 Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Operation Concurrent STORAGE Manufacturer No. of No. of Access Media Words Digits Microsec Core Memory 4,000 or 8,000 24,000 or 48,000 32 Magnetic Tape 1,400,000 8,400,000 5000 No. of units that can be connected 13 Units No. of chaxs/linear inch 66 Chars/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 11 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record 1 Inch Tape speed 60 or 100 Inches/sec Transfer rate 30 to 50 KC Chars/sec Start time 4.5 Millisec Stop time 4.5 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel 30 Seconds Physical properties of tape Width 3/4 Inches Length of reel 1200, 2400, 3600 Feet Composition Mylar INPUT Manufacturer Media Speed Magnetic Tape 30 or 50 char/sec Magnetic Documents 750 or 1200 documents/min Paper Tape 200 or 500 char/sec Punched Cards 400 or 1500 cards/min Console Typewriter 10 char/sec OUTPUT Manufacturer Media Speed Magnetic Tape 30 or 50 char/sec Magnetic Documents 750 or 1200 documents/min Paper Tape 60 char/sec Console Typewriter 10 char/sec High Speed Printer 72 Column 600 (Alpha) lines/min 1200 (Numeric) lines/min 120 Columm 600 to 1000 lines /Min E13B Magnetic Font (off line} 300 lines/min CHECKING FEATURES Manufacturer Internal checking is performed on all operations by the Modulo-3 method. A 2-way parity check is performed in all magnetic tape operations. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Manufacturer KVA, computer 10 KVA 208v Area, computer 50 sq ft Room size 680 sq ft Floor loading 150 lbs Weight, computer 10,000 lbs Capacity, air conditioner 7 Tons Computer Department, General Electric KVA, computer 40 KVA Area, computer 1100 sq ft Floor loading 250 lbs concen max Weight, computer 9,650 lbs Weight, air conditioner central Site preparation included a false ceiling and floor, and brick construction. PRODUCTION RECORD Manufacturer Number produced to date 8 Number in current operation 8 Number in current production 8 Number on order 50 Time required for delivery12 - 15 months COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Manufacturer Basic system Cost Central Processor $225,000 PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Manufacturer Entirely dependent on application and utilization. Training made available by manufacturer to users includes complete training in all aspects of electronic data processing - programming classes, operator training, and consultation service. Full time site application engineer assigned to customer from time of order until 3 months after installation. Computer Department, General Electric One 8-Hour Shift Supervisors 1 Analysts 2 Programmers 2 Coders 3 Clerks 8 Librarians 1 Operators 2 Engineers 4 Technicians 2 In-Output Oper 5 Operation tends toward open shop. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Manufacturer La.rge scale computer fully transistorized and proven by 1 1/2 years of continuous daily operation in processing an actual application. Computer Department, General Electric Average error-free running period 95% Good time 35 Hours/Week (Average) Attempted to run time 40 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 95,% Passed Customer Acceptance TestJune 59 Time is available for rent to outside organizations.
BRL 1961, 210, start page 0266
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Manufacturer Outstanding features include automatic address modification, blockette write, table look-up command, special commands for internal sorting, and ease of programming. Unique system advantages include dual document handlers on-line; automatic Mod-3 and parity check, and simultaneous read/write/compute ability. Computer Department, General Electric System is completely solid-state. It has the ability to read ABA E13B Font. Magnetic tapes are stored in vaults and fireproof cabinets. FUTURE PLANS Manufacturer Future plans for this system include thermo plastic tape storage, broader use of magnetic ink, and character reading. INSTALLATIONS General Electric Company Computer Department 13430 North Black Canyon Highway Phoenix, Arizona [ page 0267 is blank ]
BRL 1961, GE 225, start page 0268

GE 225

General Electric Model 225 MANUFACTURER General Electric Company Computer Department
Photo Photo by General Electric Company APPLICATIONS System is designed for business data processing, business paper processing, and scientific computing. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word (19 + sign) = 20 Instructions/word One Instructions decoded 59 plus input and output Arithmetic system Floating point optional Fixed point standard Instruction type One address Instruction word format +-----------+-----------------------+--------------+ | 4 | 5 6 | 7 | +-----------+-----------------------+--------------+ | Operation | Address Modification | Operand | | Code | Bits Process | | +-----------+-----------------------+--------------+ Automatic built-in subroutines include double precision add and subtract. Standard double precision multiply and divide are optional. The standard GE 225 is equipped with a compiler which is an automatic coding technique which allows the program to be prepared with little or no knowledge of the intricacies or internal language of modern computers. Registers A Register an accumulator Q Register used for double length operations M Register memory location N Register output register for typing I Register instruction register B Register memory buffer, holds information dur- ing arithmetic operations P Counter instruction counter GE 225 accommodate alphabetic or numeric, binary or decimal. information. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl. Stor. Access Exclud. Stor. Access Microsec Microsec Add 40 20 Molt 250 230 Div 500 480 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors 3,194 Condensers 4,747 Diodes 4,183 Magnetic Cores 327,680
BRL 1961, GE 225, start page 0269
Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential System is concurrent in that input-output equipment operates simultaneously with central processor, which performs calculations. This substantially reduces processing time. STORAGE Access Media No. of Binary Words Microsec Magnetic Core 2048, 4096, 8192 or 20 16,384 Magnetic Drum 8192 or 16,384 8,300 20-bit words Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 64 Units No. of chars/linear inch 200 Chars/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 7 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record 3/4 Inches Tape speed 75 Inches/sec Transfer rate 15,000 Chars/sec Average time for experienced operator to change reel of tape 30 Seconds Physical properties of tape Width 1/2 Inch Length of reel 2,400 or 3,600 Feet (Max) Composition Mylar The tape language is compatible with most existing tape installations. INPUT Media Speed Magnetic Tape 15,000 char/sec Horizontal and vertical parity checking Document Sorter 1,200 docum/min Sorter under control of central processor Paper Tape Reader 1,000 char/sec Parity check Card Reader 400 cards/min Reads binary or Hollerith CD. Photoelectric Control Console OUTPUT Media Speed Console Typewriter 10 char/sec This is under the control of the central processor Card Punch 100 cards/min Punches binary or Hollerith cards High Speed Printer 600 lines/min Flexible print format-parity check Magnetic Tape 15,000 char/sec Horizontal and vertical checking Punched Paper 60 char/sec 5, 6, 7, 8 channel tape Data Transmitter - 60 char/sec Receiver Unit CHECKING FEATURES Parity checking POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION KVA, computer 15 Room size 1,200 sq ft Capacity, air conditioner 3 Tons Weight, computer 8,900 lbs PRODUCTION RECORD Time required for delivery from receipt of order 12 months COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Basic System Cost Central Processor $200,000 or $4,000/mo. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Entirely dependent on application and utilization. Training made available by manufacturer to users includes complete training in all aspects of electronic data processing - programming classes, operator training, and consultation service. Full time site application engineer from time of order until 3 mos. after installation. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS The data mating function of GE 225 provides a common control and inter-communication link for the wide range of either data processing peripheral units or unusual, special purpose input-output devices associated with the system. A general compiler provides the programmer with a highly advanced and effective automatic coding technique. The equipment flexibility of the GE 225 offers an additional degree of freedom in the planning of a system by allowing the computer to grow to meet the demands of expanding systems requirements. INSTALLATIONS General Electric Company Missile and Space Vehicle Department 3198 Chestnut Street Philadelphia 1, Pennsylvania
BRL 1961, GE 250, start page 0270

GE 250

General Electric 250 Information Searching Selector MANUFACTURER Computer Department General Electric Company
Photo Photo by Computer Department, General Electric Company APPLICATIONS The GE 250 Information Searching Selector is a data processing system specifically designed to provide rapid inquiry and selection from large data files. In its simplest form, the Information Searching Selector provides: storage of information, storage of the search questions, and the means for comparing the two, detecting desired information, and recording the result. The information file is stored on magnetic tape which provides a compact record with unlimited ex- pansion. Search questions are stored in the memory of the Selector. Whenever search questions are sat- isfied, answers are recorded. It can be used to retrieve information from vast files of data as found in: industry (chemicals, metals, petroleums, pharmaceuticals), government (patents, military, personnel, intelligence, law enforcement, census), and the professions (law, medi- cine, applied research, libraries). The first GE 250 Information Searching Selector will be delivered to the Center for Documentation and Com- munications Research at Western Reserve University. It will be used to accelerate the abstracting service of a metals information center now in operations, as well as to facilitate further effort into other docu- mentation and library research - including language translation.
BRL 1961, GE 250, start page 0271
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Up to ten inquiries may be prepared on punched paper tape and entered into the Selector's main memory for simultaneous processing. Successive reels of magnetic tape file are searched at the rate of 15,000 characters per second for satisfaction of any or all of the ten inquiries. Each tape may contain four million or more characters. A printed text or identifying information is provided in answer to all selected questions and the search criteria they fulfill. If desired, acceptance through partial satisfaction of requirements can be specified. The GE 250 Information Searching Selector retrieves selected information from a large storage file, permits immediate and efficient use of recorded knowledge, answers questions through high-speed electronic searching, correlates scattered information in complex files, reduces costs of file preparation and searching, and simplifies updating of information with new material - simplifies elimination of obsolete information. ARITHMETIC UNIT System reviews and compares 15,000 char/sec. Several thousand abstracts can be processed per minute. Up to ten unrelated inquiries can be searched simultaneously. STORAGE Magnetic Tape15,000 char/sec Buffer Storage Expansible Number of magnetic tape units is variable. INPUT OUTPUT Media Speed Magnetic Tape15,000 char/sec Cards Read-punch unit CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM System is fully transistorized. CHECKING FEATURES Adequate checking provides accuracy. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS The GE 250 Information Searching Selector can operate with any indexing, classifying or coding systemeven simple English notation. Professional assistance will be provided for developing systems and adapting well-tested procedures. Outstanding features are that it is compact, easy to install, and easy to operate. It requires little power as it is fully transistorized. FUTURE PLANS The first Information Searching Selector will be used by Western Reserve University, Center for Documentation and Communication Research, to provide rapid inquiry and selection of information from vast data files. INSTALLATIONS Western Reserve University Center for Documentation and Communication Research Cleveland, Ohio General Electric Company Computer Department Deer Valley Park Phoenix, Arizona
BRL 1961, GE 312, start page 0272

GE 312

General Electric Model 312 MANUFACTURER General Electric Company Computer Department
Photo Photo by General Electric Company APPLICATIONS System is designed for process and production control as well as for data logging and monitoring. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 20 19 + Sign Binary digits/instruction 19 Instructions/word Single address or 1+1 Mode Instructions decoded More than 60 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type One address Number range -524,288 to +524,288 Instruction word basic format +----+---------+-----------------+ | 1 | 2 5 | 6 19 | +----+---------+-----------------+ | | Command | Operand Address | +----+---------+-----------------+ An eleven bit automatic modification of instruc- tion address is provided for automatic instruction modification, linkage for sub-routines, counters, etc. Registers A Primary Arithmetic Register Q Arithmetic and Temporary Storage N I/0 Buffer X Instruction Modification X Current Instruction B Location of Next Instruction ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl. Stor. Access Exclud. Stor. Access Microsec Microsec Add 192 (1 Add) 288(1+1 Add) 96 Mutt 2016 max (1+1) 1920 Max Div 2592 Max (1+1) 2496 max Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors 2,572 Condensers 1,409
BRL 1961, GE 312, start page 0273
Diodes 2,265 Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential STORAGE Access Medium No. of Words Microsec Magnetic Drum 2,048 to 50,000 6,250 avg Optional: Fast Access Core Storage can be provided. INPUT Media Speed Paper Tape Reader 20 char/sec Standard equipment Paper Tape Readers Up to 240 char/sec Optional equipment. Additional or alternatives. Process Analog and Digital Information Requires optional equipment When coupled to process instrumentation, analog or digital inputs may be accommodated within limits which virtually are determined only by the requirements of the users. OUTPUT Media Speed Paper Tape Punc 20 char/sec Standard equipment Electric Typewriter 10 char/sec Standard equipment Paper Tape & Card Punch 60 char/sec Optional Analog Output (Digital-to-Analog Converter) CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Diodes ED216o 445 1x1692 32 ED2231 1,788 Transistors 2N219 2,290 2N321 51 2N527 135 2N388 96 CHECKING FEATURES Parity checking POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 4 Kw 120v 10,% 60 cps Volume, computer 168 cu ft Area, computer 27 sq ft Floor loading 110 lbs/sq ft Weight, computer 3,000 lbs Air conditioner Self contained 105oc max, 95% humidity PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 4 (1 Aug 60) Number in current operation 4 Number in current production 12 Number on order 12 Time required for delivery 8-12 months COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES GE 312 Digital Control Computer System Standard Basic Price with 8,000 word drum memory $85,200 In usual applications the GE 312 is Price range from used as Central Processor for On 150,000 to Line Data Processing & Computer $500,000 Control Systems for utility & industrial plants, depending upon the system configuration. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Completely dependent upon application. Training made available by manufacturer to users includes a 3 week programming course and an 8 week maintenance course. Following the 3 and 8 week courses, is on-site training during installation and initial operation. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY On-Line reliability of 99%, over a 6 month period. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features include up to 52,000 word drum memory expansion, single & 1 + 1 address, and automatic address modification. Unique system advantages include a flexible command structure, including a special instruction for computer direction of system input/output equipments.
BRL 1961, GENERAL MILLS AD/ECS, start page 0274

GENERAL MILLS AD/ECS

General Mills AD/ECS Computer MANUFACTURER General Mills Mechanical Division
Photo Photo by General Nulls APPLICATIONS System is a general purpose digital computer, which may be used for on-line and real time applications as well. System can communicate with conventional digital I/0, as well as A/D converters, and other buffering equipment. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 36 + sign Binary digits/instruction 18 Instructions per word 2 Instructions decoded Up to 64 Arithmetic system Fixed point (Floating optional Data processing is in alphanumeric Instruction type One address Number range- (1-2-36) through + (1-2-36) Instruction word format +--------+---------+----------+--------+-------------+ | | Instr I | Instr II | +--------+---------+----------+--------+-------------+ | Break- | Oper | Address | Oper | Address | | point | | | | | +--------+---------+----------+--------+-------------+ | 1 | 6 | 12 | 6 | 12 | +--------+---------+----------+--------+-------------+ Instructions are not permanently designed into the machine, but are constructed from microprogrammed "instructions" by means of placing appropriate diode logic on a special circuit card called an "instruction card". Many specialized orders can be constructed using this technique. One index counter is standard. There are up to 8 additional index counters available as an option.
BRL 1961, GENERAL MILLS AD/ECS, start page 0275
Photo Photo by General Mills ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 80 60 Mult 840 800 Div 940 920 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors 1,000 Diodes 10,000 Arithmetic mode Parallel Timing Asynchronous Operation Sequential System is entirely solid state. STORAGE No. of No. of Access Media Words Digits/Word Microsec Magnetic Core 4,096 36 bits + sign 8 Magnetic Drums 10,000 36 bits + sign 8,000 (avg) (optional) Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 64 Units No. of chars/linear inch of tape 200 Chars/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 7 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record 0.75 Inches Tape speed 150 Inches/sec Transfer rate 30,000 Chars/sec Start time 5 Millisec Stop time 5 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel of tape 60 Seconds Physical properties of tape Width 0.5 Inches Length of reel 2,100 Feet Composition 3M 186 magnetic instrumentation tape INPUT Media Speed Paper Tape 150 char/sec Typewriter 12 char/sec Paper tape is standard but computer can also accommodate a wide variety of other input devices, e.g. cards. Unit will read any code one 8 bit character at a time or std word or block.
BRL 1961, GENERAL MILLS AD/ECS, start page 0276
OUTPUT Media Speed Paper Tape 60 char/sec Typewriter 12 char/sec Paper tape is standard but computer can also accommodate a wide variety of other output devices, e. g. cards, printers. Unit will punch any code one 8 bit character at a time or std word or block. Alphanumeric with format control. Paper tape units will handle data in any format up to 8 levels. System is capable of handling up to 64 input-output devices of almost any sort. These devices could exchange information with two 64-word magnetic core buffers at the normal input-output device information rate. The central computer initiates these external machine and buffer operations but does not wait for their execution. The AD/ECS goes on with other computation while buffer operations are proceeding and then takes in the buffer information at the central computer rate. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Diodes 15,000 Transistors 1,500 Magnetic Cores 37,000; 74,000; or 148,000 System is entirely solid state. Quantity of magnetic cores is dependent upon the memory option. CHECKING FEATURES Parity check on all input-output. Marginal checking on frequencies and voltages. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 1 Kw Volume, computer 65 cu ft Area, computer 10.5 sq ft (not including console) Floor loading 60 lbs/sq ft Weight, computer 600 lbs No special site preparation or air conditioning required. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 2 Number in current operation 2 Number in current production 1 Number on order 1 Time required for delivery 6 months COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Basic System Cost Paper Tape Reader (150 char/sec) $ 3,932 Paper Tape Punch (60 char/sec) 3,283 Central Computer 109,956 Typewriter 12,952 Console plus Desk 11,857 -------- Total $ 141,980 Additional Equipment Floating point $ 3,200 Extra index, counters: 1 through 4 760 plus 1,930 each 5 through 8 1,520 plus 1,930 each Binary to BCD and BCD to binary instruction cards 155 each Bin to alpha-- and alphanum to bin instruction cards 205 each Not available for rent. On-site or on-call maintenance is available. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Programming and, if desired, maintenance training courses are available. Personnel requirements depend on application and size of system. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Completely transistorized. Designed to work without air- conditioning in range of 32o F - 125o F. System constructed of very few basic building blocks. Has operated reliably outdoors for extended months) periods.
BRL 1961, GENERAL MILLS AD/ECS, start page 0277
ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features include the ability to have extremely flexible order structure, due to instruc- tion card principle, flexible external machine commun- ications, magnetic core I/0 buffers, and air-condi- tioning is not required. Unique system advantages include special instruc- tion for individual requirements without any modifi- cation of the computer, and ease of addition of a wide variety of peripheral equipment without computer modification. FUTURE PLANS Continued development of 1/0 equipment. INSTALLATIONS General Mills Mechanical Division 2003 East Hennepin Avenue Minneapolis 13, Minnesota
BRL 1961, GENERAL MILLS APSAC, start page 0278

GENERAL MILLS APSAC

General Mills APSAC Computer MANUFACTURER General Mills Mechanical Division
Photo Dust Covers Removed Photo by General Mills APPLICATIONS General purpose computer used in on-line automatic survey system. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 35 (plus sign) Binary digits/instruction 18 Instructions per word 2 Instructions decoded 29 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type One address Number range 2-35 to 2+35 Instruction word format - 36 bits +--------+----------+-----+--------+----------+-----+ | 6 | 12 | 3 | 6 | 12 | 3 | +--------+----------+-----+--------+----------+-----+ | Oper | Address | | Oper | Address | | +--------+----------+-----+--------+----------+-----+ Explanation of last three bits in each instruction Address Clear A Breakpoint A Reg- Register First two bits in this group are not used by every instruction. Registers include an accumulator register (A) and a remainder register (R). ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 120 120 mat 1,520 1,500 Div 16,200 Done by sub routine
BRL 1961, GENERAL MILLS APSAC, start page 0279
Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors Approx 1,200 Condenser-Diodes Approx 16,000 Magnetic Cores Approx 20,000 Arithmetic mode Parallel Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential STORAGE No. of No. of Access Medium Words Digits Microsec Magnetic Core 512 35 + sign 10 Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 2 Units No. of chars/linear inch 48 Chars/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 7 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record 0.667 Inches Tape speed 25 Inches/sec Transfer rate 1,200 Chars/sec Start time 3 Millisec Stop time 3 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel of tape 60 Seconds Physical properties of tape Width 0.5 Inches Length of reel approx 300 Feet Composition Mylar INPUT Medium Speed Flexowriter 10 chars/sec OUTPUT Medium Speed Flexowriter 10 chars/sec Typewriter and punch System has, in addition to Flexowriter and magnetic tape, real-time input from digital clock and from astrolabe. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Diodes 20,000 Transistors 1,500 Magnetic Cores 20,000 CHECKING FEATURES Magnetic tape has parity check across tape, and markers for usable and non-usable tape. Paper tape also has parity check. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 0.86 Kw o.96 KVA 0.9 pf Volume, computer 52 cu ft Area, computer 15 sq ft Floor loading 35 lbs/sq ft 35 lbs concen max Weight, computer 520 lbs No special site preparation or air conditioner needed. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 1 Number in current operation 1 Number in current production Now in field test Number on order Now in field test Time required for delivery 6 months PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Operator, programming, and maintenance courses are optional. Ordinarily GMI trains maintenance personnel, although it can be handled on contract basis if desired. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Both computer and magnetic tape equipment designed to operate under field conditions. Average operating time between component failures is about 600 hours. FUTURE PLANS Anticipate repackaging to minimize space requirements. INSTALLATIONS General Mills Mechanical Division 1620 Central Avenue Minneapolis 13, Minnesota
BRL 1961, GEORGE, start page 0280

GEORGE

Argonne National Laboratory "GEORGE" Computer MANUFACTURER Argonne National Laboratory
Photo Photo by Argonne National. Laboratory APPLICATIONS Scientific problems. Data handling and data reduction. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Number of binary digits per word 40 or 80 Number of binary digits per instruction 20 to 100 Number of instructions per word Variable Total number of instructions decoded 220 Arithmetic system Floating Point Fixed Point Sign + 62 bit fraction Sign + 39 bit fraction Sign + 10 bit power 20 bit positive integers 6 bit index of significance Instruction type Modified two-address for fixed point Variable zero through four-address for floating point Number range Fixed Point -1 < n <= 1-2-39 Floating Point [-1/2 <= c <= +1/2] [2-1024 <= e <= 2+1024] Instruction word format +-------------+-----------+---------+-------------------+ | B -Address | Order | Tag | A-Address | | 0 - 11 | 12 - 19 | 20 - 27 | 28 39 | +-------------+-----------+---------+-------------------+ +-------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+ | Order | A-Address | B-Address | C-Address | D-Address | | 0 - 19| 20 - 39 | 40 - 59 | 60 - 79 | 80 - 99 | +-------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+ Automatic built-in subroutines Square root on floating point Automatic coding GAR -George Assembly Routine (with Macro-instruc- tions) Registers and B-boxes Fixed and floating point arithmetic registers Four high speed floating point registers 16 high speed index registers and any memory lo- tion An index of significance is carried with each floating point number and is corrected with each operation as to the number of bits which are still significant.
BRL 1961, GEORGE, start page 0281
Photo Photo by Argonne National Laboratory ARITHMETIC UNIT Operation time, excluding storage access, Microseconds Fixed Point Floating Point Add 7 3 Mult 485 26 Div 595 27 Construction, arithmetic unit only Vacuum tubes 1,800 Transistors 20,000 Crystal diodes 6,000 Arithmetic mode Parallel Timing Asynchronous Operation Concurrent GEORGE is composed of two arithmetic units, a fixed point unit and a floating point unit. Each has its own word length and instruction code. The two arithmetic units work concurrently with a single memory. STORAGE Media Number Number Access of Words of Digits Microseconds Magnetic core 4,096 42 bits/word 7.5 Wide magnetic 4 x 106 42 bits/word tape Magnetic tape system features are: Maximum number of units that can be connected to the system 4 Units Channels or tracks on the tape 42 Track/tape Tape speed 43 Inches/sec Physical properties of tape Width 2 Inches Length of reel 1200 Feet Composition Mylar Sandwich Tape has fixed blocks of 128 words. The time per block is 70 millisec: Including start, read or write, and stop. Tape may be searched for a partic- ular block while the computer is computing.
BRL 1961, GEORGE, start page 0282
INPUT Media Speed Paper tape (2 readers) 1,000 alphanumeric char/sec Narrow mag tape 15,000alphanumeric char/sec Keyboard Manual OUTPUT Media Speed Paper tape 60 alphanumeric char/sec Narrow mag tape 15,000 alphanumeric char/sec Buffered 16 microsecond tieup for computer On-line printer 72 columns; 600 lines/minute Buffered 28 microsecond tieup for computer Console typewriter 10 char/sec Cathode ray tube CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Tubes Type Quantity 5670 70% of 3,500 Diodes 1N191 30% of 6,000 1N628 20% of 6,000 S55G 50% of 6,000 Transistors 2N393 85% of 20,000 Magnetic cores 164,060 CHECKING FEATURES Parity on Input, Output, and Core memory. Complete redundancy and Dropout error. Correction on wide magnetic tapes. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 50 K.W. Air conditioner part of building system. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 1 Number in current operation 1 Floating point is under construction. Completion date is 31 December 1960. Fixed point has been in operation since September 1957. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Two 8-Hour Shifts Supervisors 3 Analysts 3 Programmers 15 Clerks 2 Librarians 1 Operators 2 Engineers 1 Technicians 2 In-output oper 2 Description of the order structure and the programming systems available are found in ANL-5995, GEORGE Programming Manual by Loretta Kassel. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Fixed Point GEORGE has been operating two and 1/2 years with an average effective time over 80%. In the past year the effective time has been about 90%. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding Features: 1. FLIP (Floating Point Unit) numbers have index of significance, i.e. an indication of how many significant bits remain in the number. 2. In fixed point (GEORGE) the first 12 bits of any memory location can be used as an index register. Thus, 4096 "index registers" are available. 3. In fixed point operations, GEORGE Instructions 2-nd address (B-address) has a variety of uses, it can be used as an index address, a "preliminary add" address, a store address, and/or a jump address. Unique System Advantages: 1. Flexibility of B-address allows for compact coding - to make for better use of the 4096 word memory in fixed point operations. 2. Length of floating point word, and the index of significance, allow for more accuracy in floating point operations. INSTALLATIONS Argonne National laboratory 9700 Cass Avenue Argonne, Illinois FUTURE PLANS Present plans call for a 128,000 word drum and for a larger, faster core memory. [ page 283 is blank ]
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GE0TECH AUTOMATIC

Geotechnical Automatic Chart Reader MANUFACTURER The Geotechnical Corporation
Photo Photo by the Geotechnical Corporation APPLICATIONS System reads information contained on plotted charts, converts into several forms of output, and performs simultaneous computations, digital or ana- logue. The recorded charts are scanned optically, output is produced proportional to trace ordinate, and operations are performed on the output. So many different sizes and configurations of charts and films are recorded by such a variety of techniques that no one instrument configuration could possibly be designed to read them all. However, the basic techniques, utilizing the BASIC READER, the CONVERSION UNITS, or the COMPUTING UNITS, can be applied successfully to many unusual types of charts and films. A drive system for the chart is often ob- tained by employing a drive similar to the one on which the chart was originally recorded. For best results, the trace on the chart should have good contrast with the chart paper. For example, a BASIC READER, with the digital computer, reads year-long river and stream water level charts, feeds the com- puter which computes daily mean discharge and water level, and reads out to punched tape, then automatic typewriters.
BRL 1961, GE0TECH AUTOMATIC, start page 0285
PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Computations are performed with modular computing units. Rack mounted computing units may be added in building block fashion. Computing units perform integration, multiplication, addition, subtraction, reciprocal, variable functions and others. INPUT OUTPUT The BASIC READER consists of an optical projection system, a scanning system, and electronic circuitry. It is located so that a thin strip of light, focused on the chart at right angles to the long axis of the chart, reflects a narrow cross- sectional image of the chart onto a rotating scan disk. The dark trace of the chart does not reflect light; however, the white paper background on either side of the trace does reflect. Therefore, the strip of light imaged on the scan disk appears to be broken by a dark "spot." When the drive is turned on and the chart is set into motion, this spot undulates back and forth across the surface of the disk exactly as the trace undulates on the chart. The rotating scan disk is made of glass with an opaque coating through which two or more transparent slits have been scribed. These scribed slits are usually in the form of involute curves because p rotating involute provides a linear sweep and always intersects the strip of light from the chart at right angles. The type and number of slits scribed on the scan disk, as well as the rotational speed of the disk itself may vary according to particular requirements, however a speed of 3600 RPM and two involutes are common. As the disk rotates and its involute slit first intersects the strip of light imaged on it, light is allowed to pass through the slit to strike a photomultiplier tube. As rotation continues, the involute next intersects the dark spot, i.e. the reflected trace, and light to the photomultiplier is momemtarily cut off, generating a pulse. A reference trace on the chart or reference marks on the disk are often used to generate another pulse which defines the base of the chart. A gating circuit then forms a measuring pulse whose duration is proportional to the spacing of these two pulses, and therefore proportional to the ordinate of the recorded trace. By rotating the disk containing the two slits at 3600 RPM, the location of the ordinate of the trace is pin-pointed 7200 times a minute. This system provides a continuous or periodic pulse-width output proportional to the trace ordinate of the moving chart, accurate to .1% of full scale, and this output is all that is required for many purposes, however, additional outputs are available with modular conversion units. By adding optional rack-mounted conversion units in building-block fashion, the basic pulse-width output may be converted to digital, analog voltage or current, or mechanical rotation or displacement. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 1 Kw Volume, computer 16 cu ft Weight, computer 300 lbs COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES $10,000 for analog $20,000 for digital Maintenance contract is available PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS One operating technician is required. He can be taught on-the-job. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Good time 150 Hours/Week (Average) Attempted to run time180 Hours/Week (Average) ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS SPECIFICATIONS Chart Drive Synchronous motor Chart Speed 12" per minute. Others available upon request. Scan Rate 120 scans per second. Approxi- mately 600 scans and PWM pulses per linear inch of chart at speed of 12" per minute. Accuracy PWM pulses proportional to trace ordinate are accurate to within + 0.1% of full scale. Analog voltage output proportional to trace ordinate is accurate to within + 1% of full scale. Output This model: 1 MA into 40 K ohms, designed to match a TI recti/riter recorder. Power Requirements 500 VA, 115 volts, 60 cps. Dimensions 24" deep; 24" wide; 50 1/2" high. Weight 250 lbs (115 kg.) Chart Requirements This model is designed to read 6" rectilinear, single-trace charts. Extraneous Marks Charts must be free from marks that will produce spurious signals. Trace Continuous black line at least .020" wide. Trace ContrastTrace should have good contrast with chart paper. Grid Lines Preferably none; watery-green grid lines acceptable.


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