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BRL 1961, AMOS IV, start page 0013
Chapter II COMPUTING SYSTEM DESCRIPTIONS
BRL 1961, AFCRC, start page 0014

AF CRC

Air Force Cambridge Research Center Magnetic Computer MANUFACTURER Remington Band Univac Division of Sperry Rand Corporation [photo bad] Photo by Air Force Cambridge Research Center APPLICATIONS Air Force Cambridge Research Center Located at AFCRC, Hanscom Field, Mass., the system is used for general purpose scientific computations and as a flexible buffer for transfering data to paper tape. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary coded decimal Decimal digits/word 10 plus sign Arithmetic system Fixed point ARITHMETIC UNIT Operation Incl Stor Access Time Microsec Add 90 Mult 300 to 1, 700 Arithmetic mode Serial by dec dig within word Parallel by bit within dec dig Pulse repetition rate 660 kilocycles/sec Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential
BRL 1961, AFCRC, start page 0015
STORAGE 22,000 decimal digits (2,000 words, each ten digits plus sign). Aluminum drum, plated with nickel-cobalt allay, spins at 16,500 rpm. Average access time 1.8 milliseconds. Four hundred of the 2,000 words are stored in fast- access bands with average access time of 450 microseconds. Active drum surface is 5 in. in diameter and 3 in. long. INPUT AFCRC Media Speed Paper Tape 180 char/sec Alphanumeric Typewriter 10 char/sec Alphanumeric Real-time Input 8,000 bits/sec OUTPUT AFCRC Media Speed Paper Tape 180 char/sec Alphanumeric Typewriter 10 char/sec Alphanumeric Color Scope 7,700 points/sec Can be plotted in 3 colors Real-time Output 154,000 bits/sec CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Six hundred miniaturized circuit packages Magnetic core Ferractors, developed by Sperry-Rand, are used as the basic logical control element for snitching and amplifying. 15 Vacuum tubes are used. All processing and control circuitry is mounted in one cabinet. Primarily solid state design. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION AFCRC Power, computer 15 KVA, 3 phase, 208 volt, 60 cps Volume, computer 140 cu ft Area, computer 500 sq ft Room size, computer 20 ft x 30 ft x 8 ft Weight, computer 4,000 lb s Computer unit is 6 ft high, 6 ft 6 1n long and 1 ft 6 in deep. Console is 4 ft 6 in high, 6 ft long, and 3 ft deep. Cooling is by integral fan. COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES AFCRC Cost of system is $800,000, including development costs. Development by Remington Band Univac was sponsored by the Air Force Cambridge Research Center. Maintenance/service contracting costs are $21,000 per men per year. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS AFCRC Three 8-Hour Shifts Used Recommended Supervisors 1 1 Analysts 4 4 Programmers 4 4 Operators 2 3 Engineers 1 1 Technicians 1 3 Operation tends toward open shop. Method of training n used is by apprenticeship. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY AFCRC Average error-free running period 30 Hours Good time 1.26 Hours/Week (Average Attempted to run time 140 Hours/Week (Average Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.90 Above figures based on period 1 Apr 59 to 1 Apr 60 Fussed Customer Acceptance Test Apr 56 Time is not available for rent to outside organiza- tions. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS AFCRC Outstanding feature is its solid state magnetic circuitry with a unique system of logic. The color scope, the high-speed paper tape punch, and the circuitry for alphanumerics were added to the computer by AFCRC personnel. FUTURE PLANS AFCRC The addition of a core memory of 4,096 words is anticipated. It is expected. that this will speed up average computing time by a factor of 5 over minimum latency programming on the drum. It is planned to improve the paper tape handling capability of the computer by installing newer paper tape readers and punches. It is planned to expand the input-output capability by installing high-speed magnetic tape units. INSTALLATIONS U. S. Air Force Cambridge Research Center ARM Lawrence G. Hanscom Field Bedford, Massachusetts
BRL 1961, ALWAC II, start page 0016

ALWAC II

Alwac (Axes-Wenner-Gren) Computer Model MANUFACTURER Alwac Computer Division El-Tronics, Inc. Formerly Logistics Research, Inc. [photo bad] Photo by U. S. Navy David Taylor Model Basin APPLICATIONS Located at the Aerodynamics Laboratory, Transonic Building, the system is used for wind tunnel data reduction and computation and for solving engineer ing , and scientific problems. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 32 plus sign Binary digits/instruction 16 or 8, depending on instruction Instructions per word 0,1,2,3 or 4, depending on order and address combination
BRL 1961, ALWAC II, start page 0017
Arithmetic system Fixed point Floating point can be programmed. Instruction type One address Some orders do not require an address, but it is basically one address system. An instruction con- sists of an order and an address (16 binary digits) or an order (8 binary digits). Since this computer follows orders from the first syllable (4 per word) of each of 8 words before following orders from the second syllable, each word could have 4 addresses, 1 order and 3 addresses, 2 and 2, 3 and 1 or 4 orders. Number range 0 to +- 232- 1 ARITHMETIC UNIT Exclud Stor Access Microsec Add 1,000 malt 32,000 Div 32,000 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Vacuum tubes and diodes Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential Input device is parallel. STORAGE No. of No. of Access Media Words Digits Micro sec Magnetic Drum 2,048 32 bits & sign Magnetic Drum 64 32 bits & sign 8,000 (Fast Access) Information must be copied into fast access in blocks of 32 words. INPUT Media Speed Flexowriter Keyboard 10 char/sec (alpha-numeric) Flexowriter Paper Tape 10 char/sec (alpha-numeric) OUTPUT Media Speed Flexowriter Keyboard 10 char/sec alpha-numeric) Flexowriter Punch 10 char/sec alpha-numeric) Computer has programmed format controls. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Quantity Tubes 250 Crystal diodes 3,500 Tube types 5963, 5687, 12AT7 (excluding power supply) There are 13 different types of plug-in units. CHECKING FEATURES Checking features include memory verification, overflow, impossible order code, and automatic sequencing. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 4 KW power, air conditioner 6 Kw Volume, computer 158 cu ft (incl console) Volume, sir conditioner 44 cu ft Area, computer 35 sq.ft (incl console) Area, air conditioner 7 sq ft Room size, computer 240 sq ft Floor loading 93 lbs/sq ft 900 lbs concen max Capacity, air conditioner 5 Tons Weight, computer 2,100 lbs Weight, air conditioner 1,000 lbs Power is 115 V, 60 cycles, single phase. Air conditioner depends on room size and cooling. The 5 Ton air conditioner is used for 2 computers in one room. Area and volume figures include the console, but weights do not. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 2 No longer in current production. Model II has been superseded by the III E. (See ALWAC III E). COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES System cost approximately $50,000. Maintenance is performed by our own electronic engineer. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS This is an old computer, still operable with nominal maintenance required. It is not used in regular production, but for miscellaneous engineering problems where its speed is relatively unimportant. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Average error-free running period 45 Hours Good time 3,250 Hours Attempted to run time 4,065 Hours Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to van time) 0.80 Above figures based on period 7 Jun 54 to 16 Oct 56 Passed Customer Acceptance Test 7 Jun 54 ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS System advantages are order address is automatic, has a decision register, low cost, and ease of maintenance. This machine is no longer 1n production in favor of an improved model. INSTALLATIONS U.S. Nary Bureau of Ships David Taylor Model Basin Washington 7, D. C.
BRL 1961, ALWAC III E, start page 0018

ALWAC III E

Axel Wanner Gren Automatic Computer III E MANUFACTURER Alwac Computer Division El-Tronics, Incorporated [Bad Photo] Photo by Alwac Computer Division of El-Tropics, Inc. APPLICATIONS Manufacturer System is used for computer simulation, photogrammetry analysis, on-line engine test data acquisition and reduction, automatic numerical machine tool control, linear programming and general purpose computing. The Adjutant General, U.S.A. System is used for analytical statistics such as correlation matrices, matrix algebra, best scoring, item analysis, test selection, and factor analysis. David Taylor Model Basin System is used for wind tunnel data redaction and computation, solving engineering and scientific problems, and for the solution of general engineering problems. Offutt AFB, Nebraska System is used for Geodesy, i.e. datum conversions, coordinate transformations, range and azimuths, and geodetic position computations; for photogrammetry, i.e. analytical triangulation, photo orientation and rectification; for intelligence reduction; and for library retrieval. Aeronautical Structures Laboratory High temperature, structural, fatigue, and loads research projects. Data reduction on check-out, pre liminary, and final test. Results are presented in a form to be tabulated on a x+02 and plotted on electroplotters. The answer cards contain fixed information, answers and series of "x" punches to control printing in achy of 1%t columns. Thus, the results of a test are available in tabular form suitable for inclusion in reports. Statistical data from fleet flight-maneuver and aircraft landing-loads programs. Motion pictures are made of the airplane approach and landing aboard an aircraft carrier. After the film is analyzed and transcribed on the film- reading system to IBM cards, a versatile computer program fits by a least-square-curve fitting method a polynomial space-time-carve to the airplane motion. Numerical differentiation of this curve is used to obtain velocity and acceleration at different points in the flight path. Alto gether 22 lancing parameters are obtained from each landing. A further statistical analysis of the parameters is performed to determine probability curves, deviation, skewness, variance, confidence limits and other statistical relationships. For the fllghtloads program, information concerning the use of naval airplanes is obtained from flight recorders which make a permanent record of the most important things that happen, structure-wise, to the airplane while it is happening. From this data, airspeed, altitude, Mach number, 3 "G" load factors and 3 accelerations are computed. Study of structural problems associated with space vehicles. Solution on the computer of nonlinear differential equation with variable coefficients by numerical methods of approximating the required solution. Bulova Research & Development Laboratories, Ins. System is used for the numerical solution of systems of ordinary differential equations, optical ray tracing, parameter variation studies, reduction of test data, e.g. curve fitting and auto correlation, spectrum analysis, and probability distribution analysis. Institute of Gas Technology System is used for the calculation of mass spectrometer data, gas distribution network analysis, chemical equilibrium studies, and correlation problems involving gas send-out and weather data. Reliance Electric & Engineering Company System is used for the design of electric machinery, and associated problems. Southwestern Computing Service, Ins. System is used far process equipment design, geophysical data reduction, and miscellaneous research problems.
BRL 1961, ALWAC III E, start page 0019
[Bad photo] Photo by U.S. Army - TAGO PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits per word 32 + sign Binary digits/instruction 16 Instructions per word 2, 3 or 4 Instructions decoded 101 Basic (Many are micro programmable) Arithmetic system Fixed point Commands normally consider numbers to be integral Instruction type One address Optimum sequencing is built in Number range 64 bits Negative numbers are indicated by sign Decimal input and output are built-in with a single command capable of taking in up to 8 digits. Several systems are available both for floating point or fined point operations. Neumonic interpretive routines as well as symbolic compilers are in use. There are four registers, viz, a main accumulator 32 bits + sign + recoverable overflow bit, a secondary accumulator 32 bits + sign, an auxiliary register 32 bits + sign, and a 16 bit B-Box Index register. The first two registers are combined for double precision operations. Also, complete shiftability applies to main accumulator as Knell as double length accumulator. Auxiliary register is used in multiplication, division, for special floating point assistance commands and risking operations. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud. Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 1,000 1,000 Mult 17,000 17,000 Div 17,000 17,000 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Vacuum-tubes 132 Diodes 5,000 Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential Two commands at once are picked off the drum and unless the first command of the pair is an executed jump instruction, a second access to the drum is not required. as the next command is held ready for immediate use in a static register.
BRL 1961, ALWAC III E, start page 0020
[Bad Photo] Photo by U. S. Navy - Bureau of Ships STORAGE Manufacturer No. of Access Media Words Microsec Drum 128 0 to 8,000 Drum 8,192 0 to 16,000 Core 32 500 Magnetic Tape No, of units that can be connected 16 Units No, of chars /linear inch of tape 155 Chars/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 7 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record 0.25 Inches Tape speed 120 Inches/sec Transfer rate 20,800 Chars/see Start time 9 Millisec Stop time 7 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel of tape 60 Seconds Physical properties of tape Width 1/2 Inches Length of reel 2,400 Feet Composition Sandwich Mylar Each tape transport has its own search register. Once directed to search for data, the transport is independent of the computer and tape buffer. The tape buffer is a 32-word core storage unit which works between the computer and up to 16 magnetic tape handlers. Individual words within the core buffer are addressable and useable by the computer. INPUT Manufacturer Media Speed Paper Tape (Flexowriter) Manual or 10 char/sec Paper Tape (High-Speed) 180 char/sec 80-Column Cards 100 cards/min Curve Follower 20 points/sec Special tie-ins have been made to analog to digital conversion equipment. Speed of entry possible depends upon number system and format arrangement. Aeronautical Structures Laboratory Data is prepared for the computer off-line on the following: Five oscillogram reading systems, three film reading systems. Input and output cards are checked for double punch and blank-column on an IBM 101 statistical machine.
BRL 1961, ALWAC III E, start page 0021
[Bad Photo] Photo by U. S. Air Force - Offutt AFB OUTPUT Manufacturer Speed Paper Tape (Flexowriter) 10 char/sec Paper Tape (High-Speed) 60 char/sec 80-Column Cards 100 cards/min Line Printer 150 lines/min Magnetic Tape 21,000 char/sec Plotter 20 points/sec The line printer used is an IBM type 407. It is completely useable as a standard off-line unit with only a change of plug board. Aeronautical Structures Laboratory Off-line the data is tabulated on an IBM 402 alphabetical accounting machine (series 50) or plotted on the two electroplotters which operate at 25 cards minute. Institute of Gas Technology A Western Electric paper tape punch at 50 char/sec is connected to the computer through a buffer. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Manufacturer Type Quantity Remarks Tubes 780 319 in basic system Diodes 13,500 5,870 in basic system 7,630 in additional equipment Transistors 75 66 tape transport 9 tape buffer Magnetic Cores 1,280 The basic system includes the Power Supply, Memory Unit, and Logic Unit. Additional Equipment includes the Standard Card Converter, Magnetic Tape Buffer, Magnetic Tape Transport, and the High Speed Paper Tape Console.
BRL 1961, ALWAC III E, start page 0022
[Bad Photo] Photo by Bulova Research and Development Laboratories CHECKING FEATURES Manufacturer An arithmetic operation overflow alarm is built on. A switch-controlled bit by bit comparison of all data transferred between high-speed loops and main memory can be made. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Manufacturer Power, computer 5 Kw 0.9 - 1.0 pf Volume, computer 160 cu ft Area, computer 30 sq ft Room size, computer 16 ft x 19 ft Weight, computer 2,690 lbs Above requirements are for the basic system. The ideal site requirements are cable troughs, an acoustic ceiling, 75F room ambient temperature, 4 ft. clearance around computer, a maintenance bench with 2 electrical outlets, and a storage space for spare parts. The Adjutant General, U.S.A. Power, computer 13 Kw Power, air conditioner 100 KVA Volume, computer 277 cu ft Vole, air conditioner 50 cu ft Area, computer 52 sq ft Area, air conditioner 8 sq ft in computer room Room size, computer 500 sq ft Room size, sir conditioner 200 sq ft Floor loading 91 lbs/sq ft 140 lbs concen max Capacity, air condition 12 1/2 Tons Weight, computer 4,800 lbs Site preparation included air conditioning and power modifications.
BRL 1961, ALWAC III E, start page 0023
[Bad Photo] Photo by the Institute of Gas Technology David Taylor Model Basin Power, computer 6 Kw 220 V Power, air conditioner 6 Kw Optional, depends on room size and cooling Volume, computer 231 cu ft Vole, air conditioner 44 cu ft Area, computer 45 sq ft Area, air conditioner 7 sq ft Room size, computer 240 sq ft Floor loading 80 lbs/sq ft 900 lbs concen max Capacity, air conditioner 5 Tons Weight, computer 2,200 lbs Weight, air conditioner 1,000 lbs Area and volume include console and high speed reader but weights do not. System uses 220 Volt, single phase, 60 cycles, 3 vice. Air conditioner is used for 2 computers in one room. Offutt AFB, Nebraska Power, computer 17.5 Kw 0.9 - 1.0 pf Volume, computer 361 cu ft Area, computer 64 sq ft Roam size 26 ft x 26 ft 676 sq ft Floor loading 88 lbs/ sq ft 140 lbs concen max Weight, computer 5,630 lbs The building is air conditioned. An AC voltage regulator and adequate power outlets are required. Aeronautical Structures Laboratory Power, computer 10 Kw 15 KVA Power, air conditioner 45 Kw Volume, computer, 234 cu ft Volume, air conditioner 64 cu ft Area, computer 47 sq ft Area, air conditioner 24 sq ft Room size, Computer 20 ft .x 16 ft Room size, air conditioner Suspended from ceiling Floor loading 100 lbs/sq ft Capacity, air conditioner 33 Tons Weight, computer 3,200 lbs Air conditioner includes peripheral equipment requirements. The computer facility urea 80 feet by 48 feet is partitioned into the following areas: Computer and off-line output equipment Data reduction (film Data reduction (oscillographs) Equipment repair Office space The following was installed: acoustic celotex ceiling, 230V, 100A, 3 phase, outlet for computer, comp. air (90 p.s.i.) with valves and hoses in each area, three power distribution panels 110V, 100A, 1 phase with extensive outlets for the peripheral equipment.
BRL 1961, ALWAC III E, start page 0024
[Bad Photo] Photo by Logistics Research, Inc. Bulova Research & Development Laboratories, Inc. Power, computer 7.7 Kw Volume, computer 185.35 cu ft Area, computer 38.9 sq ft Room size 18 ft x 18 ft x 11 ft Weight, computer 2,864 lbs Air conditioning is an estimated 5 Tons from central air conditioning system. Site preparations included soundproofed room, additional air conditioning ducts, and an exhaust fan with hood. Institute of Gas Technology Power, computer 7 Kw Volume, computer 248 cu ft Volume, air conditioner 37 cu ft Area, computer 45 sq ft Area, air conditioner 5 1/4 sq ft Room size, computer 18 ft x 24 ft Room size, air conditioner 18 ft x 24 ft Capacity, air conditioner 3 Tons Weight, computer 2,500 lbs Site preparation included a required 220V, 60 cycle, single phase, power line. Reliance Electric & Engineering Company Power, computer 7 Kw 7 KVA 0.97 pf Volume, computer 4,000 cu ft Area, computer 500 sq ft Room size, computer 24 ft x 24 ft Air conditioner is combined with other equipment. Room was designed for electronic tabulating equipment. PRODUCTION RECORD Manufacturer Number in current production 3 Time required for delivery 1 Month COST,, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Manufacturer Rental Components of Basic System Cost Monthly Power Supply, Flexowriter, Mon- $76,950 $2,500 itor Scope, Control Console, Logic and Control Unit, Memory Unit Additional Equipment High Speed Perforated Tape Con- 10,950 290 sole (Punch & Read) Paper Tape Buffer 26,200 750 Card Converter 24,750 660 Magnetic Tape Buffer 21,600 580 Magnetic Tape Transport 23,100 640 Maintenance Full-time resident engineer - $15,000 per year. On-Call - $120/Day plus travel, not to exceed 500 miles. Scheduled Service - 10% of list price of equipment per year.
BRL 1961, ALWAC III E, start page 0025
The Adjutant General, U.S.A. Computer (including console and Flexowriter), card converter, and magnetic tape buffer cost $105,000. Rental rates for additional equipment is a card reader and punch at $140/month. Maintenance, including parts is $12,000 per year. David Taylor Model Basin Cost is approximately $70,000. High Speed Paper Tape Reader and Punch rents at $260/month. Maintenance is done by our own electronic engineer. Offutt AFB, Nebraska The computer control and arithmetic unit cost $69,950, the modified Flexowriters (2) cost $4,950, and the high speed punch and tape cost $4,950. The card converter cost $22,500, the IBM 514 reproducing punch cost $5,700, the magnetic tape transports (2) cost $46,000, and the magnetic tape buffer cost $18,000. Maintenance cost $15,000 per annum. Aeronautical Structures Laboratory Power supply, logic, magnetic drum, card converter cost $85,000. Peripheral equipment - five oseillogram and three film reading systems and two electroplotters cost $169,000. The IBM 514 input-output to computer rents at $1320 Per year. IBM peripheral equipment-punches, verifier, sorter, statistical machine, reproducing punches, accounting machine, etc. rent at $20,000/year. ASL does its own maintenance and servicing. Bulova Research & Development Laboratories, Inc. The Memory Cabinet (8,196 word drum), Flexowriter, Oscilloscope, Logic Cabinet, Power Supply Cabinet, Control Panel, and Memory Display rents at $2,350/ month. The High Speed Paper Tape, Reader, and Punch rents at $260/month. Institute of Gas Technology The basic computer, Flexowriter input and output cost $50,000. The High Speed Paper Tape Reader and Punch, with one word buffer cost $10,000. Reliance Electric & Engineering Company The Flexowriter and basic computer, with 4,096 word drum, coat $56,000. The High Speed Console cost $18,000 and the 8,192 word drum (replacement) cost $12,000. Maintenance cost $600/month. Southwestern Computing Service, Inc. System requires almost no maintenance. We do our own. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Manufacturer One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour Shift Shift Shift Supervisors 1 Coders 2 Operators 1 2 3 Engineers 1 1 2 Training made available by the manufacturer to users includes free training in coding and operation at manufacturing plant. Training in maintenance is by special arrangement. The Adjutant General, U.S.A. Two 8-Hour Shifts Used Recommended Supervisors 1 1 Analysts 3 3 Programmers 3 4 Clerks 1/2 Librarians 1/2 Operators 2 2 Engineers 1 1 Specific to needs and problems encountered in this organization (other users may very well require more or fewer of each). Operation tends toward closed shop. David Taylor Model Basin Tyro 8-Hour Shifts Used Recommended Supervisors 1 1 Programmers 2 3 Operators 3 3 Engineers (Maint.) 1 1 Operation tends toward closed shop. Methods of training used includes informal instruction. Machine merle available to engineers on open shop basis using Floating Point interpretive routines or compilers. Offutt AFB, Nebraska One 8-Hour Two 8-Sour Shift Shifts Recommended Used Recomm Supervisors 2 2 Programmers 4 4 Engineers I Operation tends toward open shop. Methods of training used includes on-the-,job training. Aeronautical Structures Laboratory One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Shift Shifts Used Recomm Used Recomm Supervisors 2 2 Programmers 2 Clerks 1 Operators 1 1 1 Engineers 1 2 Technicians 4 4 1 1 Operation tends toward open shop fpr peripheral equipment and closed shop for computer. Some personnel have taken courses in advanced programming,, numerical analysis and numerical solutions of differential equations. On- the-,job training is used for the technicians and IBM training is used for peripheral IBM equipment. Bulova Research & Development Laboratories, Inc. One 8-Hour Shift Used Recommended Supervisors 1 1 Analysts 2 2 Programmers 1 2 Operators 1 Engineers 1 1 Operation tends toward closed shop. Methods of training used includes individual instruction on the ,job. Institute of Gas Technology One 8-Hour Shift Used Recommended Supervisors 1 1 Programmers 1 2 Clerks 1 1 Technicians 1 1 Methods of training used includes on-the-,job.
BRL 1961, ALWAC III E, start page 0026
Reliance Electric & Engineering Company One 8-Hour Shift Used Recommended Supervisors 1/2 Programmers 1 2 Operators 1 1 Operation tends toward closed shop. Methods of training is mostly on individual basis. Computer has made a major contribution to our engineering effort. Recognition of this fact is company-wide, and unchallenged. Southwestern Computing Service, Inc. One 8-Hour Shift Programmers 2 Operators 1 Operation tends towards closed shop. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Manufacturer Average user reliability figures are 96.4% useful computing time. The Adjutant General, U.S.A. Time is available for rent to qualified outside organizations. The current model of the ALWAC III E (serial 28) was installed so recently that adequate data are not yet available. David Taylor Model Basin Good time 46 Hours/week (Average) Attempted to run time 52 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.884 Above figures based on period 1 May 59 to 30 Apr 60 Time is available for rent to qualified outside or- ganizations. Offutt AFB, Nebraska Average error-free running period 20 Hours Good time 75 Hours/Week {Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) O. g4 Above figures based on period Jul 59 to May 60 Time is not available for rent to outside organiza- tions. Aeronautical Structures Laboratory Average error-flee running period 100 Hours Good time 72 Hours/Week (Average) Attempted to run time 80 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.90 Above figures based on period Nov 55 to Apr 60 Passed Customer Acceptance Test Nov 55 Time is available for rent to qualified outside or- ganizations. In May 1957, after 2,000 hours of good computing time, a card converter, larger memory and new power supply were installed. Since October 1958 the computer has been on a two-shift operation. A new dry was installed in October 1959. As of 1 May 1960, the computer has over 9,000 hours of good computing time. Bulova Research & Development Laboratories, Inc. Average error-free running period 2 Weeks Good time 25 Hours/Week (Average) Attempted to run time 27 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.926 Above figures based on period 22 Jan 59 to 26 Jun 60 Passed Customer Acceptance Test 22 Jan 59 Time is available for rent to outside organizations. Above figures include scheduled maintenance. If this time is omitted, the figures are good time 25, attempted to run time 25.5, and operating ratio 0.98. Institute of Gas Technology Average error-free running period 80 hrs, approx. Good time 35 Hours/Week (Average) Attempted to run time 40 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.875 Above figures based on period from 55 to Present Passed Customer Acceptance Test 1955 Time is available for rent to qualified outside or- ganizations. Our records are not set up to obtain the above data accurately. Reliance Electric & Engineering Company Good time 36 Hours/Week (Average) Attempted to run time 40 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.90 Above figures based on period Feb 56 to Present Passed Customer Acceptance Test Feb 56 Time is available for rent to qualified outside organizations. Southwestern Computing Service, Inc. Good time 40 Hours/Week (Average) Attempted to run time 39 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 0.975 Above figures based on period from 56 to Present Time is available for rent to outside organizations. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Manufacturer Outstanding features include a large internal memory, (Over 16,000 program step storage), builtin-to hardware decimal-binary conversion, a large command structure, fully alpha numeric notation and an index register. Unique system advantages include automatic decimalbinary conversion on cards, tape transports with independent searchability, and as many as 4 Commands per word. Special recommended procedures for magnetic tape storing includes temperature at 60 - 85 F and humidity at 40% to 60%. The Adjutant General, U.S.A. This ALWAC III Ehas been modified to read binary which is quite desirable for the work here. The system, for the cost, is large, flexible, and highly useful. The first ALWAC at the Personnel Research Branch was installed in June 1958. Although it was a useful productive machine, the percent of up time was less than would be desirable. The replacement computer, a larger and improved model, has been installed too recently to evaluate. Up time is expected to be well above 80%. David Taylor Model Basin Large memory and powerful logic structure make this system powerful and easy to program. It has an "E" box, it can read any 6-level paper tape, and it has complete program control of input- output operations and format. Offutt AFB, Nebraska Outstanding features include hexadecimal numbering system. Tapes are stored in steel filing drawers. The temperature and humidity are controlled to preve-~t damage to the tapes while in storage. Bulova Research & Development Laboratories, Inc. Outstanding features include a large memory, the ability to pack instructions 2 - 4 instructions per word, and built-in decimal-binary conversion. Due to its small amount of tubes, the ALWAC III E is extremely reliable and easy to maintain. The ALWAC III E is a general purpose single-address,
BRL 1961, ALWAC III E, start page 0027
serial binary computer. The computer has 86 instructions and one index register. Basic number system for input- output is hexadecimal, using the digits a, b, c, d, e, f, for 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 wild 15, respectively, in addition to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. Magnetic tape and punched card equipment is also available. Institute of Gas Technology Outstanding features include large memory, rapid input-output, and a large order list. System advantages includes a single address system which allows two program steps per ward. Reliance Electric & Engineering Company Outstanding features include a large memory, low cost, and great flexibility. The Flexowriter gives unlimited flexibility in using all kinds of easily prepared forms. The paper tape is convenient for filing and for transmission via Teledata over telephone lines. It is used this way. Low cost made it possible for engineering to get it for its own use without sharing time with others. Southwestern Computing Service, Inc. Outstanding feature is reliability. FUTURE PLANS Aeronautical Structures Laboratory To prevent interruptions in data processing, expansion of the facility is planned in stages. The installation of a new computer (with magnetic tape and punched card capabilities is planned at the same time as the installation of the laboratory's high-speed data-gathering equipment. In the second stage, the existing ALWAC III will be modernized to the equivalent of the ALWAC III-E so that programs and routines can be interchanged. As a final stage, magnetic-tape capabilities will be added to the modernized ALWAC III for farther flexibility of operations. Southwestern Computing Service, Inc. A faster input from the paper tape reader will be built. INSTALLATIONS The Adjutant General, U.S.A. 2nd & T Streets, S. W. Washington 25, D. C. David Taylor Model Basin Washington 7, D, C. 544th Reconnaissance Technical Group Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska Aeronautical Structures Laboratory Naval Air Material Center Philadelphia 12, Pennsylvania Bulova Research & Development Laboratories, Inc. 62 - 10 Woodside Avenue Woodside 77, New York Institute of Gas Technology 17 West 34th Street Chicago 16, Illinois Reliance Electric & Engineering Company 24701 Euclid Avenue Cleveland 17, Ohio Southwestern Computing Service, Inc. 910 S. Boston Tulsa 19, Oklahoma ------------------------

BRL 1961, AMOS IV, start page 0028

AMOS IV

AMOS IV Computer MANUFACTURER National Bureau of Standards AMOS IV BLOCK DIAGRAM WITH APPROACH VISIBILITY CONFIGURATION
Photo 54 K Bytes Chart by National Bureau of Standards APPLICATIONS The National Bureau of Standards in cooperation with the U. S. Weather Bureau has developed a specialized digital computer for the Weather Bureau to use as a research tool in exploring the concept of the automatic weather station. The AMOS IV Computer receives data from weather-sensing instruments and processes these data through such functions as sampling, comparing, selecting a maximum, and arithmetic operations. The results are transmitted via teletype to a central forecasting station and to other airport weather stations. Values of two quantities recently developed as aids to air safety - runway visual range and approach light contact height are given by the machine through automatic table look-up. For a number of years, the Weather Bureau has been appraising the possibilities of an automatic weather station. Such stations could be widely distributed, and would be especially useful in relatively inaccessible locations that are important sources of early data on meteorological activity. The various developmental prototypes of this concept have been called (Automatic Meteorological Observation Station); the current version, containing transistorized packages, is ANDS IV. It is an outgrowth of previous work done by NBS for the Weather Bureau that resulted in s special computer for processing cloud-height signals from a ceilometer. The ceilometer was intended for use with the AMOS III. Several of the input quantities to the AMOS Computers, such as cloud height and precipitation, cannot be satisfactorily represented by instantaneous values but must be time-averaged. Varying amounts of data processing must therefore be associated with the different instruments measuring these quantities. In the AMOS III concept, several complex units were required for these functions. Although many of the functions were similar, the hardware was not minimized because of a diversity of design that resulted from the isolated development of the individual units. Analysis of the overall system indicated that a considerable reduction could be made in hardware and therefore in maintenance. In AMOS TV, the automatic weather station is built around a single small, general-purpose computer designed especially for this application. The computer
BRL 1961, AMOS IV, start page 0029
Photo, 18 K bytes Photo by National Bureau of Standards receives data from the input instruments at any de-sired interval. These data are suitably processed and arranged in a specified order for teletype transmission in a variety of message formats and at var-ious speeds. The computer also operates local and remote displays. Much latitude is available for re-search into the most desirable form of data process-ing because of the inherent flexibility of the inter-nally programmed machine. The machine must accomodate a number of input devices, all furnishing data continuously. Extensive stored tables are needed for empirically determined data which varies from station to station. A short word length is sufficient, since the data comes primarily from physical instruments; three digits and sign appear sufficient, relying on double- precision methods for those few cases where needed. A comparatively slow circuit speed is acceptable, working in conjunction with the magnetic drum, which rotates at a moderate speed for long life and reduced cost. The machine needs only a limited arithmetic capa- bility, in view of the extensive stored tables; it can perform addition and subtraction, with other operations available through programming. The machine must transmit teletypewriter messages at high and low speeds, independently of each other and of the data processor.
BRL 1961, AMOS IV, start page 0030
Photo, 58 K bytes Photo by National Bureau of Standards Provision must be included for operating local and remote displays. The machine must concurrently process input data, transmit teletypewriter messages, and perform data processing. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary coded decimal Decimal digits/word 3 plus sign and parity Instructions/word 0.5 Instructions decoded 21 Instruction type One address Information word t14 t1 +-------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+-----+ |Pe | 8| 4| 2| 1| 8| 4| 2| 1| 8| 4| 2| 1| +- | +-------+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+-----+ |Parity | 102 | 101 | 100 | Sign| +-------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----+ A "word" in AMOS IV consists of three decimal dig-its and a sign. Since, in binary notation, a deci- mal digit can occupy as many as four bit positions, it is necessary to assign four bit positions to each decimal digit. A data word in AMOS IV looks as above.
BRL 1961, AMOS IV, start page 0031
[ photo not included ] Instruction Word +----------+----------+----------+----------+ | Word | Operation| Channel| | | a | | b | | +----+-----+----+-----+-----+----+----------+ | | | | +- | | | +- + +----+-----+----+-----+-----+----+----------+ | Data word at even | Data word at odd | | address | address | +---------------------+---------------------+ The operations are coded in two decimal digits. The (a,b) of the word upon which the operation is performed is placed in the first two and last two decimal positions of the instruction. The sign at the end of the instruction has no bearing upon the function; the sign at the center of the instruction affect the computer's operation within predetermined modes. (In the future, when the remainder of the drum is activited, the sign at the end of the word will have significance.) The content of each register is shown on the indicator panel. IR - Instruction Register. The instruction being performed is stored in this register., IAC - Instruction Address Counter. Te address (a, P) of the next instruction is contained in this register. FLEX Buffer. This is the intermediate stage for flexowriter input and output. It indicates what is being written or read by the flexowriter.
BRL 1961, AMOS IV, start page 0032
A Register. This register is used for storage in various operations. B Register. This register is also used for storage in various operations. IR - Index Register. The index register, two decimal digits in size, is filled by operation's (60) transferring two digits of the address into it. In the operation of the machine, if an address enters the IR which is "impossible", such as (11x11), the content of the index register replaces the a portion of the address in the IR. ARITHMETIC UNIT In addition to an address counter and decoding network for obtaining commutating pulses, the input circuit has a one- word shift register which serves as a buffer between the instruments and the input recording circuit. Data words from sampled instruments are inserted in the register by means of a parallel transfer, up to 13 bits at a time (three decimal digits and sign). The number representation need not be binary-coded decimal, since the computer can perform code conversion, if required. STORAGE Medium No. of Words Magnetic Drum 10,000 To store data, the machine uses a magnetic drum operating at 1800 rpm that carries 100 general storage channels of 100 words each and has space for 100 additional channels. Several dual-head channels are available for simultaneous read-in and read-out of incoming data, outgoing messages, etc. The magnetic drum provides the extensive storage capacity required for the table look-up involved in the calculations of runway visual range and approach light contact height. About 35 tables are stored on the drum; each table has about 90 three-digit values. One set of these tables contains the data on runway visual range (RVR), i.e., the distance along the runway visible to a pilot from the point of touchdown generally 1,000 to 6,500 feet, depending upon runway illumination (natural and artificial) and atmospheric conditions. The primary input for the RVR determination is a transmissometer reading. The computer continuously monitors this reading and "looks up" the proper corresponding value of RVR, which is then displayed locally and inserted into the teletype message. The other set of tables contains the data on approach light contact height (ALCH), i.e., the height from which the pilot can identify the approach lights. ALCH is affected by background illumination level, atmospheric conditions, and the intensity of the approach lights, which are set in accordance with prevailing conditions. If limiting conditions are indicated by either low clouds, as shown by the ceilometer, or by fog or snow, as sensed by the transmissometer, a value of ALCH based on the interfering factor is obtained. If both factors are present, two calculations are made; the machine then determines and displays the lower value. Since there is a statistical uncertainty in this type of information, two values of altitude are presented. The higher altitude is that at which the pilot has a 20 percent probability of seeing the approach lights; the lower altitude is that at which the probability is 90 percent. The drum operates at a conservative rate of 1,800 rpm; non-return-ta-zero recording is used, with a recording density of 120 bits per inch. Thus, the machine operates at a bit rate of 50 kc. INPUT Media Paper Tape Keyboard Various Analog Data Channels Typewriter The computer continuously monitors new input data while simultaneously processing data already entered and transmitting messages on command. Among the input quantities which the AMOS IV Computer can handle are temperature, dew point, wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, precipitation, transmissivity, and cloud height. Input data can be received directly from the instruments in the simplest possible form, such as analog voltage, current, or resistance; and pulse rate or contact closure. Information may also be received in coded form, such as the Gray binary code frequently used with shaft-position encoders. The nature of the weather instruments and of the quantities measured limits the input data to 2 or 3 decimal digits for the most part; word size is therefore 3 digits plus sign. Double precision methods are available for those few instances requiring greater accuracy. Communication with the machine is via electric typewriter or punched tape. The method of receiving input data from the weathersensing instruments is a compromise between the use of separate pre- processing devices and use of the central processor. In order to avoid excessive interruption of the central processor, varying amounts of circuitry have been assembled, depending on the form of the input data, to pre-digest the instrument signals .for most efficient use of the processor. Once the data has been prepared in suitable form, generally as contact closures or storage in flip-flop registers, it is entered into the computer via an input-data track on the magnetic drum. This track is equipped with two heads, one addressable by the central processor and the other wired to the input circuitry. Since the track can store 100 words, there is an input capacity of 100 instrument readings, a quantity considerably in excess of present requirements. The address of each word identifies the reading, and the addresses therefore, are used to call out the appropriate subroutines when new data appears in the various word locations. The input devices are sampled sequentially by means of commutating pulses obtained from a decoding network attached to an address counter. It is possible with this ache to sample any instrument within 130 second of the time that a desired reading is obtained. If readings were obtained at the rate of 30 per second, however, the central processor would quickly be overloaded; actually, it is sufficient to sample most instruments at intervals of once per minute or longer. The ceilometer is the most frequent with readings at 6 second intervals. The teletypewriter outputs involve the buffering of data, which comes from the drum at a high rate, down to the desired message speed. In addition, data words must be reorganized into teletypewriter characters, including the addition of start and stop pulses, and the generation of space and sign characters. Taro independent teletypewriter outputs are required, with different codes and message formats. The lowspeed output is nominally 100 words per minute, while the high-speed output is in the range of 750 to 1560 words per minute. Several different message lengths are required at the higher speed, requiring that the
BRL 1961, AMOS IV, start page 0033
circuitry be capable of skipping unwanted portions of the message. Since the messages are to be combinations of data prepared by the computer and alphanumeric remarks and text inserted by hand, several tracks have been allowed on the drum for this information. Certain tracks, addressable by the computer, contain the numerical data. Other tracks may be written into only from the automatic typewriter, and are used for the remarks. These are all dual-head tracks, with one set of heads being used to insert data, either from the processor or the typewriter, while the other set is used to read out the information. Photo, 120 K bytes CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM The computer circuitry is based on transistorized plug-in assemblies designed at NBS for a variety of data-processing applications. These 50-kc packages perform flip-flop, analog switch, and gating circuitry functions, as well as others. CHECKING FEATURES Parity. This pushbutton-light indicates when parity has been lost in the memory circuits. AMOS IV operates on an even parity system. As each word is written into the memory, the number of binary "1's" is counted. If the number of 1's is even, a "0" is placed in the parity bit position. If the number of 1's is odd, a "1" is placed in the parity bit position; thus, any word in the memory plus its parity bit contains an even number of 1's in its binary notation. Upon read-out of a word from the memory, a check is made for this "even 1's" characteristic. If, through an error in the recording process, parity does not check, the parity light is operated and remains lighted until the parity control button is depressed. This light is a warning light, indicating that some malfunction has occurred in the read process. Depressing the parity button resets the parity system RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY The circuits are designed to permit wide variations from the nominal values of the characteristics and parameters of the components. The electrical outputs from most of the packages can be short-circuited to ground or to the negative voltage supply without damage to any of the components. Pin-type connectors with high-pressure contacts are used rather than printed-circuit edge-type connectors. Signal swings are at least 6 volts, with a collector supply of -12 volts. All connectors have gold-plated pins. All back panel wiring is by taper pins for ease and convenience in making external connections. Taper pins also eliminate solder joints. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS A need for improved reporting of weather data has been brought about by the requirements of modern, high-performance aircraft, together with the advent of high-speed computers for use in weather forecasting. Manual methods of recording meteorological observations introduce an undesirable time delay, increase the chance of error, and limit the frequency of observations. A solution to this problem lies in the use of automatic data processing equipment for the recording, pre- processing, and transmission of the information. Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Weather Bureau, the National Bureau of Standards has developed a specialized computer for use as a research tool in exploring this concept. INSTALLATIONS National Bureau of Standards Washington 25, D. C.
BRL 1961, AN/ASQ 28 (v) EDC, start page 0034

AN/ASQ 28 (v) EDC

AN/ASQ 28 (V) Emergency Digital Computer APPLICATIONS System is designed and used as a general purpose stored program computer for manned aircraft bombing, navigation and missile guidance subsystem. It may be utilized for real time control of processes of small capacity. The central computer is general purpose while the input-output equipment is special purposes. Designed and developed under contract no's AF 33 (600)36599 and AF 33(600)41253 as a minimal emergency back- up computer to the main computer of the AN/ASQ-28(V) Bombing, Navigation and Missile Guidance Subsystem of the B- 70 aircraft. MANUFACTURER International Business Machines Corporation Federal Systems Division PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 26 Binary digits/instruction 26 Instructions per word 1 Instructions decoded 10 Arithmetic system Fixed point Sign and Magnitude Instruction type One plus one (Operand and next instruction) Number range Plus and minus 23 bits accuracy Instruction word format +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | S|W1|W2|W3|T1|T2|T3|T4|T5|W1|W2|W3|W4|W5|W6|T1|T2|T3|T4|T5|T6|01|02|03|04| P| +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | | Operand Address | Next instruction address | Operation | +--+-----------------------+-----------------------------------+--------------+ P = Parity S = Switching Registers include a Multiplier-Quotient revolver, an accumulator, and an instruction revolver. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 624 156 Mult 3,744 3,276 Div 3,744 3,276 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors 60 - 5 Types Diodes 290 - 6 Types Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential STORAGE No. of Access Medium No. of Words Digits/Word Microsec Drum Instructions and 26 Min - 156 Constants - 3456 Max - 5000 Data - 38 Instructions can be optimally located to permit a minimum memory access time. Fast intermediate data access time provided by revolvers on the drum. INPUT Media Speed Decimal. Insert Random Shaft-to-Digital 100 words/sec/device Pulse Trains Variable Discrete Signals Variable Manual insert is by 7 decimal digits. 48 instrumental discrete signals may be inserted. OUTPUT Media Speed Discrete Signals Variable 32 instrumented Decimal Display Variable 7 Decimal digits Digital-to-Shaft 100 words/sec/device Pulse Train Variable The decimal display is seven digits long. 32 instrumented discrete output signals are obtainable. high speed input-output processor is provided which performs a number of functions coincidently with the central processor. 48 parameters can be processed at a rate of 4800 operations per second. System characteristics include updating of digital servo loops, determination of first order clamp for digital servo loop, accumulation and generation of pulse train inputs and outputs, buffering of decimal display word, acceptance of manual insert register word, and reading and decoding of shaft-to-digital encoder inputs.
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CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Diodes 4,395 Transistors 592 These figures include the central computer and input- output processor. They do not include special input-output equipment required for special applications. CHECKING FEATURES Transfer parity check is built in. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 0.25 Kw Volume, computer 1.9 cu ft Weight, computer 81 lbs These figures include the central computer and input- output processor. They do not include special input-output equipment required for special applications. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY This equipment is designed to meet stringent reliability requirements for a supersonic military aircraft environment. The ambient temperature range is 0o to 100oC. All circuits use.silicon transistors and diodes and. are designed for ultrareliable operation from 0o to 100oC. Reliable drum readout signals are provided by air floated drum heads. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features include replaceable (pluggable) subassemblies, nonerasable drum tracks to prevent accidental destruction of the stored program, intercommunication provided with a main digital computer through a common drum track link, unique high speed input-output processor with a repetition rate greater than the computation cycle of the basic computer, and 48 programmed discrete inputs for program branching and 32 discrete outputs for system control. Unique system advantages include rugged environmental specifications, high reliability, and flexibility.

BRL 1961, AN/ASQ 28 (v) MDC, start page 0036

AN/ASQ 28 (v)MDC

AN/ASQ 28 (V) Main Digital Computer MANUFACTURER International Business Machines Corporation Federal Systems Division
photo 34 K bytes Photo by International Business Machines Corporation Subassembly Drawer, containing Printed Circuit Boards APPLICATIONS Designed for general purpose stored program computer for manned aircraft bombing navigation and missile guidance subsystem. Applicable to real time control of processes (large capacity). The central computer is general purpose while the input-output equipment is special purpose. System was designed and developed under contract no's AF 33(600)36599 and AF 33(600)41253 as the central computing element for the AN/ASQ-28(V) Bombing, Navigation and Missile Guidance Subsystem of the B-70 aircraft. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 22 plus sign and parity Binary digits/instruction 16 including parity Instructions per word 1 Instructions decoded 14 Arithmetic system Fixed point Sign and Magnitude Instruction type One address Number range Plus and minus 22 bit accuracy Instruction word format +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | P| M|S6|S5|s1|s2|s3|s4|Rl|R2|R3|R4|0l|02|03|04| +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ P = parity M = modifier R1-R4, S1-S6 = address 01-04 = operation Registers include multiplier-quotient, accumulator, check register, and memory buffer. An instruction word is read from drum storage 4 bits parallel by 4 bits serial. A constant word is read from dry storage 6 bits parallel by 4 bits serial.
BRL 1961, AN/ASQ 28 (v) MDC, start page 0037
Photo by International Business Machines Corporation ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 24 24 Mult 264 264 Div 288 288 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors 249 - 5 Types Diodes 2,726 - 6 Types Arithmetic mode Parallel Timing Synchronous Operation Concurrent The feature of instruction overlap is incorporated which permits the reading of instructions and per- forming arithmetic operations simultaneously. STORAGE No. of No. of Access Media Words Digits/Word Microsec Cores 1,024 24 24 Drum 26,624 Instructions 16 6,656 Constants 24 5,000 avg. Minimum drum access time is 24 microseconds. INPUT Media Speed Decimal Insert Random (Manual) 7 decimal digits Shaft-to-Digital 100 words/sec/device Pulse Trains Variable Discrete Signals Variable96 instrumented Seven decimal digits are inserted. 96 instrumented discrete signals may be entered. OUTPUT Media Speed Discrete Signals Variable Two Decimal DisplaysVariable Decimal Printer Variable Digital-to-Shaft100 words/sec/device Pulse Trains Variable Eighty instrumented discrete signal outputs are available. The displays and printer utilize 7 deci- mal digits. A high speed input-output processor is provided which performs a number of functions coin- cidently with the central processor. 52 parameters can be processed at a rate of 5,200 operations per second. The following characteristics are involved: Updating of digital servo loops. Determination of first order clamp for digital servo loop.
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Accumulation and generation of pulse train inputs and outputs Buffering of decimal printer word. Buffering of decimal display word. Acceptance of manual insert register word. Reading and decoding shaft-to-digital encoded inputs. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Types Quantity Diodes 13,076 Transistors 1,697 These figures include the central computer and the input- output processor. They do not include special input-output equipment required for special applications. CHECKING FEATURES Checking features include a random error counter, parity and timing check circuitry, and Test Point compare. The random error counter minimizes the effects of random and intermittent errors on system performance. Built in test equipment enables rapid fault location. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 0.8 Kw Volume, computer 7.4 cu ft Weight, computer Approx 260 lbs These figures include the central computer and input- output processor. They do not include special input-output equipment required for special applications. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY This equipment is designed to meet stringent reliability requirements for a supersonic military aircraft environment. Ambient temperature range is from 0o to 100oC. All circuits use silicon transistors and diodes and are designed for ultra-reliable operation from 0oC to 100oC. Reliable drum readout signals are provided by air floated drum heads. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features are replaceable (pluggable) subassemblies, nonerasable drum tracks to prevent accidental destruction of the stored program, intercommunication provided with an emergency digital computer through a common drum track link, built-in checking circuitry minimizes effects of random and intermittent errors on system performance, a new hardware approach to fault isolation, supplemented by simplified diagnostic programs, which permits rapid location of computer failure, a unique high speed input-output processor with a repetition rate greater than the computation cycle of the basic computer, and 96 programmed discrete inputs for program branching and 80 programmed discrete outputs for system control. Unique system advantages include rugged environmental specifications, high reliability, flexibility and ease of maintenance. During normal operation of the bombing, navigation and missile guidance subsystem, a high-speed, parallel computer with both a random access memory and a magnetic drum memory performs all calculations required by the subsystem. If the main computer malfunctions, a moderate speed, serial, all-drum computer automatically assumes control and generates solutions to a simplified problem. Repair of the main computer is then possible without disturbing the remainder of the subsystem. Main Computer Drum Organization 27 K bytes Diagram by IBM
BRL 1961, AN/ASQ 28 (v) MDC, start page 0039
Flow Diagram of Main Central Computer 27 K bytes Diagram by IBM
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AN/FSQ 7 AN/FSQ 8 (SAGE)

MANUFACTURER IBM AN/FSQ 7 and 8 (Semi Automatic Ground Environment) International Business Machines Corporation
Photo by Systems Development Corporation, 47 K bytes Photo by Systems Development Corporation APPLICATIONS Manufacturer Real time for Air Defense (SAGE) - Semi Automatic Ground Environment. The AN/FSQ-7 is a Real Time Digital Computer at the heart of each SAGE Air Defense installation. At electronic speed the computer processes radar data, performs complex computations and displays visually the current air defense situation to Air Force personnel for assigning the appropriate weapons for interception. System Development Corporation Located at 2500 Colorado Avenue, Santa Monica, California, system is presently being used for design analysis and development checkout of SAGE computer programs. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Manufacturer (SAGE is a duplexed computer system. Information quoted is for one simplex computer.) Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 32 + 1 parity Binary digits/instruction 32 + 1 parity Instructions per word 1 Instructions decoded 61 Arithmetic system Fixed point Dual arithmetic unit with left and right half The instruction, set through programming methods, permits binary coded decimal and floating point to be simulated. Instruction type One address Single address with indexing capability Number range 215 in each half word
BRL 1961, SAGE, start page 0041
Photo by International Business Machines Corporation, 47 K bytes Photo by Systems Development Corporation Instruction word format Left Hand Word +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ | P | L | L | L | L | L | L | L | L | L | L | L | L | L | L | L | L | | | S | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10| 11| 12| 13| 14| 15| +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ Right Hand Word +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ | R | R | R | R | R | R | R | R | R | R | R | R | R | R | R | R | | S | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10| 11| 12| 13| 14| 15| +---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+ L1, L2, L3: Index Register Selection Bits L4, L5, L6, L7, L8, L9, L10: Instruction Code Bits L10, L11,-L12, L13, L14, L15: Index Interval Bits RS through R15: Data Address P = Parity Bit S = Sign Bit Automatic built-in subroutines include Start from Test Memory, Load from Card Reader, Load Prom AM Drums, Clear Memory, and Master Reset. Automatic coding includes Compass, Lincoln Utility, and Jovial. Registers 4 Index Registers 1 Memory Buffer Register 1 "A" Register 1 Accumulator 1 B Register 1 I/0 Register 1 Drum Control Register 1 I/0 Word Counter Register 1 Program Counter Register 1 Address Register 1 I/0 Address Register 3 Memory Address Registers 1 Test Register 1 MI Register ARITHMETIC UNIT Manufacturer (Simplex Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Computer) Microsec Microsec Add 12 6.0 Mult 16.5 10.5 Div 51.0 45.0 Arithmetic mode Parallel Timing Synchronous Internal computer operations are synchronous. How- ever, input data can be handled at a random rate. Operation Sequential and concurrent The Stored Program computer with sequential execution of programmed instructions. Through the use of buffer storage devices (drums) input, output, arithmetic operations can be accomplished concurrently. STORAGE Manufacturer (Simplex Computer) No. of No. of Binary Access Media Words Digits/Word Microsec Ferrite Memory 69,632 33 6 (Core) Magnetic Drums 135,168 33 10 Magnetic Drums 18,432 24 10 Drum access time is for each consecutive word. Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 8 Units No. of chars/linear inch of tape 248 Chars/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 6 Data, 1 control Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record 0.75 Inches Tape speed 75 Inches/sec Transfer rate 18,750 Chars/sec Start time 5 Millisec Stop time 5 Millisec
BRL 1961, SAGE, start page 0042
Average time for experienced operator to change reel of tape 60 Seconds Physical properties of tape Width 1/2 Inches Length of reel 2,400 Feet Composition Mylar or cellulose acetate base System Development Corporation No. of No. of Binary Media Words Digits/Word Microsec Core 69,632 33 6 Drum 153,600 33 10,000 INPUT Manufacturer (Simplex Computer) Media Speed Cards 150 cards/min, 24 words/card Magnetic Tape 3,086 words/sec Manual Inputs Random Automatic Inputs Random LRI-GFI, Xtell System Development Corporation Magnetic Tape 75 feet/sec 248 characters per inch, 1.2 million words per reel. 3,000 words/sec read-write time. Card 150 cards/min Hollerith contains 1 instruction word per card. Binary contains 24 instruction words per card. OUTPUT Manufacturer (Simplex Computer) Media Speed Printer 150 lines/min Punch 100 cards/min Display Random Digital Display & Situation Display Automatic Outputs Random TTY, G/AFD, G/A TD, G/G LRI: Long Range Radar Inputs from distant radar sites are received at random, processed and stored for use by the computer. GFI: Gap Filler Radar Inputs: A separate element processing and storing data in a manner similar to LRI. Xtell: Coded Digital messages from adjacent SAGE computers received at random, processed and stored for use by the computer. TTY: Teletype output capability for computer generated messages. G/AFD: Ground to Air Frequency Division output capability for computer generated messages. G/ATD: Ground to'Air Time Division output capability for computer generated messages. G/G: Ground to Ground output capability for com- puter generated messages to other SAGE computers. System Development Corporation Media Speed Cards 100 cards/min Binary is normal output. Hollerith can be outputed. Tape 25 ft/sec Printer 150/500/5,000 lines/min Printer - IBM 717, 720A and SC 5000. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Manufacturer (Duplex) TypeEstimated Quantity Tubes 50,000 Diodes 170,000 Transistors 703 Magnetic Cores 4,603,904 CHECKING FEATURES Manufacturer Parity, inactivity, overflow, fix programming (Self detecting, error correcting program routine which corrects approximately 95% of all errors without manual intervention.) POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Manufacturer All values are for duplex system Power, computer 750 Kw 0.65 DC Supplies 1.0 Filaments Volume, computer 337,500 cu ft Area, computer 22,500 sq ft Room size 150 ft x 150 ft Floor loading 150 lbs/sq ft Weight, computer 275 Tons Site preparation requirements Computer plenum, requirements are 150 x 150 x 6 = 135,000 cu ft. Display system requires additional 35,000 sq ft of floor space. The Display area has a special hexcel ceiling and controlled blue lighting. Building is climatically controlled, reinforced concrete construction, no windows. All power is self-contained within the compound. The square footage is divided into four separate areas: A Computer, B Computer, Simplex and Maintenance and Programming. The air conditioning equipment is not provided by IBM. System Development Corporation Power, computer 1500 Kw 1875 KVA 0.8 pf Power, air cond 288 Kw 360 KVA 0.8 pf Volume, computer 10,450 cu ft Volume, air condition 8,500 cu ft Area, computer 1,508 sq ft Area, air condition 1,250 sq ft Room size, computer 100 ft long 76 ft wide 20 ft high Room size, air condition 36 ft long 16 ft wide 20 ft high Floor loading 150 lbs/sq ft Capacity, air conditioner 500 Tons Weight, computer 113.1 Tons, total The building was constructed by the Air Force using specifications furnished by IBM for the specific purpose of housing the computers, power and air conditioning equipment, the space for support equipment (EAM) and operating and maintenance personnel. Above figures are approximate
BRL 1961, SAGE, start page 0043
PRODUCTION RECORD Manufacturer Number produced to date 25 (25 duplex systems equals 50 units) Number in current operation 23 Number in current production 1 Time required for delivery 16 months PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Manufacturer The personnel requirements are dependent upon the intended application and requirements (reliability and shift policy) of the equipment as established by the Air Force. The experience to date would not necessarily be a criteria for all equipment applications. Training of operators, maintenance personnel, programers, and customer management is available on the basis of specific contract negotiation. System Development Corporation one 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour Shift Shifts Shifts Used Recom Used Recom Used Recom Supervisors 12 12 14 14 16 16 Analysts 10 10 Programmers 500 500 Clerks 11 11 16 16 Operators 7 10 13 17 19 20 Engineers 10 7 20 14 30 21 In-Output Oper Covered under Operators Tape Handlers Covered under Operators Operation tends toward open shop. Programming and System training staff. Five weeks of concentrated programming training and three weeks of associated System training. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Manufacturer The four years of field operating experience on this equipment has proven it to be reliable. Quality control and sound engineering has contributed to maximum reliability and maintainability. System Development Corporation Average error-free running period 13 Hours Good time 116.76 Hours/Week (Average Attempted to run time 120 Hours/Week (Average) Operating ratio (Good/Attempted to run time) 97.3 Above figures based on period 1 Jan 60 to 28 May 60 Passed Customer Acceptance Test Nov 57 Time is not available for rent to outside organiza- tions. The total hours on the air is 144 (6 days/week). The total maintenance hours is 24 hours/week (4 hours/day). The available operational time = 120 hours/week (20 hours/day). ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Manufacturer Outstanding features include large ca city internal memory, automatic recovery program self-checking), BOMARC control capability, high reliability, and automatic marginal checking. Unique system advantages include six or nine tube pluggable unit packaging with printed circuits which enable quick replacement by a spare, visual display capability to assist in tracking and identifying aircraft and assist in selecting and directing weapons, duplex switching to increase reliability. Tapes used with the AN/FSQ-7 are form the standard IBM commercial product line. The same precautions are applicable in tape handling. The system is to ensure reliable around-the-clock air defense. System Development Corporation Outstanding features include a 16 bit half word arithmetic logic for convenience in two dimensional geometric calculations. Unique system advantages include a large auxiliary memory in the form of drums, permitting flexibility in the manipulation of complex multi-program systems. FUTURE PLANS Manufacturer It is planned to provide a modest product improvement program for the indefinite future. INSTALLATIONS System Development Corporation 2500 Colorado Avenue Santa Monica, California
BRL 1961, AN/FSQ 31 (v), start page 0044

AN/FSQ 31 (v)

SAC Data Processing Subsystem AN/FSQ 31 (V) MANUFACTURER International Business Machines Corporation Federal Systems Division APPLICATIONS The Q-31-V is a general purpose scientific computing and data processing system control applications. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 48 + 2 parity bits Binary digits/instruction 48 + 2 parity bits Instructions per word 1 Instructions decoded 69 Arithmetic system Fixed and floating point Instruction type One address Number range Sign, 11-bit characteristic, and 36 bit mantissa on floating point. Ones complement binary arithmetic, sign + 47 data bits on fixed point. An automatic coding system has been developed by the customer. Register and B-boxes include 8 index registers, expandable to 13. 22 internal registers have specific addresses which may be used in the address portion of the instruction, i.e., program register, accumulator "B" register, etc. 4 switch registers have specific addresses. 32 plug-board registers also have specific addresses. Sixty nine basic instructions are decoded. The use of the operation code modifiers in conjunction with the basic instruction provides the capability of decoding 771,716 effective instructions. When performing fixed point operations a data word may be treated as a sign plus 47 data bits or may be split into two half words of sign and 23 data bits. These half words may be operated on either with the right or left half only or with both halves at the same time but independently, in the arithmetic section. There are three ways of addressing (a) Real data - the right half of the instruction is the operand to be used. (b )Direct Address - the address portion of the word specifies the location of the data (c) Indirect Address - the address portion of the word specifies the location of another address which may specify the location of the data. This function may be recursive. There are two basic instruction forms. Form "A" is used for all instruction except the decrement class. Form B" is uses only for the decrement class instructions. The decrement field of the de- crement class instruction is the same number of bits in length as the index registers because these in- structions work with or on the index registers. Data may also be handled in 6 bit groups called "bytes" with an ability being provided to manipulate these bytes in many ways. Manipulation of bits within a byte (as specified by the instruction) is also possible. ARITHMETIC UNIT Including Storage Access Operation Microseconds Time Fixed Floating Add 2.5 5-27.5 Mutt 14-58 14.5-61.5 Div 70 56.5-63.5 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors 9,800 Special MADT Condensers 19,100 Corning Glass and Mica Diodes 21,400 Transformers 2,700 Resistors 48,200 Special, 5'%, carbon Arithmetic mode Parallel Timing Synchronous Operation Concurrent The instruction times including and excluding memory access are the same because of the overlap of the instructioned coding with the fetch time of the operand. The two level decoding structure permits this. STORAGE No. of Access Media No. of Words Digits Microsec Ferrite Core 65,536 (expand- 3,276,800 to 2.5 able to 131,072) 6,553,600 Mag. Drums - 139,264/drum 6,963,200 to Aux. Storage (max of 557,056) 27,852,800 Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 24 expand to 48 Units No. of char/linear inch of tape 556 Chars/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 7 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record 0.75 Inches Tape speed 75 Inches/sec Transfer rate 41,667 Chars/sec Start time 3.65 Millisec Stop time 3.65 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel of tape 30 Seconds Physical properties of tape Width 1/2 Inch Length of reel 2,400 Feet Composition Acetate, Mylar Magnetic Drum access time; maxmum 22.5 milliseconds, average 11 milliseconds, minimum 11 microseconds, consecutive transmission 2.75 microseconds/word. A system may be expanded to handle two drum adapters and eight physical drums increasing the maxim= stor- age to 1,114,112 words. Up to 3 of the 24 tape units may be operating on-line as input/output devices simultaneously. INPUT Media Speed Cards 250 cards/min Typewriter Typing Speed Data Channel 32 microsec/word There are 12 full words and 12 half words on each input card. The data channel can receive 1/2 word every 16 microseconds.
BRL 1961, AN/FSQ 31 (v), start page 0045
OUTPUT Media Speed Cards 100 cards/min Typewriter 600 char/sec Data Channel 32 microsec/word Printer 600 lines/min 132 char/line The data channel is actually a communications link with a smaller computing system operating as a message switching/processing complex. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Diodes 229,000Special high speed design Transistors 138,000 Special MART Design Magnetic 3,276,800 Ferrite Cores CHECKING FEATURES 100% single error detection with the capability of programmed error correction. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer (initial) 109.05 Kw 168 KVA 0.65 Pf Power, computer (expanded) 147.47 Kw 227 KVA 0.65 Pf Power, air cond, internal, liq cooled 62.25 Kw Power, air cond, internal, air cooled 14.00 Kw Power, sir cond, external air cooled 89.89 Kw Volume, computer 4,825 cu ft Area, computer 740 sq ft Area, computer, maint and prog 4,250 sq ft Area, maint, test and store 1,425 sq ft Floor loading, structural design 150 lbs/sq ft Weight, computer, total, SAC initial 105,650 lbs Capacity, air conditioner, external 23.2 Tons Site preparation requirements Power equipment installation consisting of power dis- tribution unit, frequency-converters, and M-G sets for prime power regulation. Maintenance room provi- sions for a-c regulators shall be installed. Installation of heat exchanger for liquid cooling purposes. Compressed air provision for drum units. Forced air cool for memory required. Segregated race-way systems (for signal and power) shall be pro- vided for overhead at a height of 8'-8" and 9'-8" respectively. Room air conditioning for personnel comfort. Liquid cooling accommodations for transistorized equipment shall be provided. Dias is desirable with access ramp and/or stairs due to underfloor cabling requirements for commer- cial equipment. Leveling channels shall be installed for uniform floor loading for computer equipment. Minimum 8 foot door heights have to be provided. Power Emergency-Off system located within the build- ing should be provided. Lighting system for equipment installation and main- tenance purposes (minimum average of 50 foot-candles illumination at the floor level.) Adequate administrative office area must be provided. PRODUCTION RECORD Number in current production 3 Number on order 3 PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Personnel requirements are established on the basis of reliability and shift requirements established by the user. Training of operators, maintenance, programmer and customer executive personnel is available on the basis of specific contract negotiation. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY System features and construction techniques utilized by manufacturer to insure required reliability include error detection hardware enables 100% single failure detection, specific hardware in the machines used for the FIX error correction concept, where by an intermittent singe error may be corrected by programming means, specific hardware connected with FIX is used to isolate a solid failure to a minimum number of circuit elements (Q-Pacs), and circuit design was accomplished utilizing an "End-of-life" technique. Marginal checking capability is provided to enable the operation of the system with marginal voltages. Marginal conditions may be controlled either manually or by program means. Diagnostic Programming Techniques are employed in conjunction with marginal checking to assist in locating circuit elements which have not yet failed but may be about to fail. Operating Experience-Prototype of system is currently under reliability evaluation. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features include a very sophisticated instruction list, machine design which permits very efficient usage for either data processing tasks or scientific usage. Semi-variable field ability not usually found with high speed arithmetic operations. Machine desing permits use of many advanced programming techniques, i.e., direct or indirect addressing, single or double indexing, most internal registers are addressable. Ultra reliable design philosophy is used throughout the system. System was designed primarily as a real time control system for a wide range of command and control applications. In addition to a very powerful general purpose computer, the system has facilities for expansion (or contraction) in all storage and input/output area to meet a large variety of real time control and computing demands. Error detection and correction design insure high reliability. The tape utilized on this system is from the standard IBM product line. Anticipated installation date of first system is the fourth quarter of 1960. The system described here may also be implemented as a completely duplexed installation with very effective communication links from one computer to the other. FUTURE PLANS A modest product improvement program is planned. INSTALLATIONS Strategic Air Command

BRL 1961, AN/FSQ 32, start page 0046

AN/FSQ 32

AN/FSQ 32 MANUFACTURER International Business Machines Corporation Federal Systems Division APPLICATIONS General purpose scientific computing and data processing system with emphasis on real-time control applications. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 48 + 2 parity bits Binary digits/instruction 48 + 2 parity bits Instructions per word 1 Instructions decoded 69 Arithmetic system Fixed and floating point Instruction type One address Number range Sign + 47 data bits fixed point, Sign + 36 bit mantissa 11 bit characteristic floating point. An automatic coding system has been developed by the customer. Registers and B-boxes 3 index registers expandable to 13.22 internal registers have specific addresses which may be used in the address portion of the instruction. (i.e. Program register, accumulator "B" register, etc.j 4 Switch registers also have specific addresses. 32 plug-board registers also have specific addresses. Sixty nine basic instructions are decoded. The use of the operation code modifiers in conjunction with the basic instruction provides the capability of decoding 771,716 effective instructions. When performing fixed point operations a data word may be treated as a sign plus 47 data bits or may be split into two half words of sign and 23 data bits. These half words may be operated on either with the right or left half only or with both halves at the same time but independently, in the arithmetic section. There are three ways of addressing (a) Real data - the right half of the instruction is the operand to be used. (b) Direct Address - the address portion of the word specifies the location of the data. (c) Indirect Address - the address portion of the word specifies the location of another address which may specify the location of the data. This function may be recursive. There are two basic instruction forms. Form "A" is used for all instruction except the decrement class. Form "B" is used only for the decrement class instructions. The decrement field of the decrement class instruction is the same number of bits in the length as the index registers because these instructions work with or on the index registers. Data may also be handled in 6 bit groups called "bytes" with an ability being provided to manipulate these bytes in many ways. Manipulation of bits within a byte (as specified by the instruction) is also possible. ARITHMETIC UNIT Including Storage Access Operation Microseconds Fixed Floating Add 2.5 5-27.5 Mutt 14-58 14.5-61.5 Div 70 56.5-63.5 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors 9,800 Condensers 19,100 Diodes 21,400 Pulse Transformers 2,700 Resistors 48,200 Arithmetic mode Parallel Timing Synchronous Operation Concurrent The instruction times, including and excluding memory access time, are the same because of the over- lap of the instruction decoding with the fetch of the operand. Two level decoding structure permits this. STORAGE Access Media Microsec Ferrite Cores 81,920 expand- 4,096,000 to 2.5 able to 8,192,000 (complete 163,840 memory cycle) Aux. Storage 139,264 exp. 6,963,200 to to 557 056 27,825,800 Dator Storage 139,26 6,963,200 Magnetic Drum access time, Aux. storage maximum 22.5 milliseconds, average 11 milliseconds, and minimum 11 microseconds. Consecutive transmission time is 2.75 microseconds. The dator drum is used with the output system and the data to be sent out must be put on the drum in specific patterns to enable the correct operation of the output system. Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 24 Units No. of chars/linear inch of tape 556 Chars/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 7 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record 0.75 Inches Tape speed 112.5 Inches/sec Transfer rate 62,500 Chars/sec Start time 3.65 Millisec Stop time 3.65 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel of tape 30 Seconds Physical properties of tape Width 1/2 Inches Length of reel 2,400 Feet Composition Acetate or Mylar
BRL 1961, AN/FSQ 32, start page 0047
INPUT Media Speed Crosstell 1,300 bits/sec 32 channels, max Long Range Radar 1,600 bits/sec 40 channels, max Low Data Rate (LDR) 60-75-100 words/min 32 channel max, 5 bits/word 53-66-88 words/min 6 bits/word Card 200 cards/min 12 full words and 12 half words/card Typewriter Typing speed OUTPUT Media Speed Ground to Ground 1,300 bits/sec25 channels max Ground to Air 1,300 bits/sec8 channel max Teletype Same as LDR25 channel max Card Punch 100 cards/min 12 full words and 12 half words/card Typewriter 600 cards/min Printer 600 lines/min 132 chars/line CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Diodes 305,000 Transistors 201,000 Magnetic Cores 4,096,000 MART transistors account for a very large percentage of those used. Type WA diodes (an IBM classification) are used. CHECKING FEATURES 100% single error detection with the capability of programmed error correction. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer, initial 106.66 Kw 164 KVA 0.65 pf Power, computer, expand 203.42 Kw 312 KVA 0.65 Pf Power, air cond, expanded, liq 99.45 Kw Power, air cond, expanded, air 23.80 Kw Power, air cond, room 222.14 Kw Volume, computer, initial 6,010 cu ft Volume, computer, expanded 7,969 cu ft Area, computer, initial 887 sq ft Area, computer, expanded. 1,161 sq ft Area, comp, prog, initial 5,632 sq ft Area, comp, prog, expanded 6,656 sq ft Area, maint, tape, calibration 4,608 sq ft Floor loading 150 lbs/sq ft Weight, computer, initial 132,960 lbs, total Weight, computer, expanded 181,560 lbs, total Expanded Q-32 is with 18 tape drives and 10 storage units. Site preparation requirements Power equipment installation consisting of Power Distribution Unit, Frequency-Converters, and M-G sets for prime power regulation. Maintenance Room provisions for a-c regulators shall be installed. Installation of Heat Exchanger for liquid cooling purposes. Compressed air provision for drum units. Segregated race-way systems (for signal and power) shall be provided for overhead at a height of 8'-8" and 9'-8" respectively. Room air conditioning for personnel comfort. Liquid cooling accommodations for transistorized equipment shall be provided. Dais is desirable with access ramp and/or stairs due to underfloor cabling requirements for commercial equipment. Leveling channels shall be installed for uniform floor loading for computer equipment. Minimum 8 foot door heights have to be provided. Power Emergency-Off system located within the building should be provided. Lighting system for equipment installation and maintenance purposes (minimum average of 50 foot-candles illumination at floor level). Adequate administrative office area must be provided. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS The personnel requirements are depended upon the intended application and requirements (reliability and shift policy) of the equipment as established by the user. Training of operators, maintenance personnel, programmers and customer management is available on the basis of specific contract negotiation. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY System features and construction techniques utilized by the manufacturer to insure required reliability includes error detection hardware which enables 100% single failure detection and specific hardware in the machine, which is used for the FIX error correction concept, whereby an intermittant single error may be corrected by programming means. Specific hardware, connected with FIX, is used to isolate a solid failure to a minimum number of circuit elements (Q-PACS). Circuit design was accomplished utilizing an "End-of-life" technique. Marginal checking capability is provided to enable the operation of the system with marginal voltages. Marginal conditions may be controlled either manually or by Program means. Diagnostic programming techniques are employed in conjunction with marginal checking to assist in locating circuit elements which have not yet failed but may be about to fail. Operating Experience - Prototype of system has been underlying reliability evaluation for approximately two years. No operating experience is available on the full system at this time. Good prototype reliability is reported. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features include a very sophisiticated instruction list. Machine design permits very effi cient usage for either data processing tasks or scientific usage. The semi-variable field ability is not usually found with high speed arithmetic operations. Machine design permits use of many advanced programming techniques, i.e., direct or indirect adressing, single or double indexing, most internal registers are addressable. An ultra reliable design philosophy is utilized. System was designed primarily as a real time control system for a wide range of command control applications. In addition to a very powerful general purpose computer, the system has facilities for expansion (or contraction) in all storage and input/output areas to meet a large variety of real time control and computing demands. Error detection and correction design insures high reliability. The tape utilized on this system is from the standard IBM product line. Anticipated installation date of first system is the fourth quarter of 1960. The equipment described here may also be implemented as a completely duplexed installation with very effective communications link from one computer to the other. A modest product improvement program is planned.

BRL 1961, AN/MJQ I REDSTONE, start page 0048

AN/MJQ I REDSTONE

AN/MJQ 1 Missile Firing Data Computer (Redstone) MANUFACTURER North American Aviation Autonetics Division
Photo, 21 K bytes Photo by U. S. Army Ordnance Guided Missile School APPLICATIONS U. S. Army Ordnance Guided Missile School Located in Room 114, Bldg. 3303, OGMS, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, the primary mission of this system is to solve the Redstone Missile Firing Problem. The computer is currently being utilized to train stu- dents in Digital Computer Fundamentals. U. S. Army Artillery and Missile School Located in Bldg. 900, Gunnery/Cannon/Rocket Dept., Fort Sill, Oklahoma, the system is used for fire control computations. STORAGE USAOGMS and USAAMS No. ofNo. of Access Medium WordsDig/WordMicrosec Magnetic Disc 4,096 4115,700 The disc is of beryllium. INPUT USAOGMS and USAAMS Media Speed Keyboard (decimal) Manual Paper Tape (Teletype) 200 char/sec Five channel tape is used. OUTPUT USAOGMS and USAAMS Media Speed Typewriter (IBM) 9 dec dig/sec Indicator (Nixie) Displays momentarily during printout. Readout capacity is 16 decimal digits, including sign.
BRL 1961, AN/MJQ I REDSTONE, start page 0049
POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION USAOGMS Power, computer 0.4 Kw 0.9 pf Weight, computer 155 lbs Complete system can be set on top of 2 office size desks. No special air conditioning or special installation requirements are needed. USAAMS Power, computer 1.3 KVA Volume, computer 4.5 cu ft Area, computer 3.4 sq ft Floor loading 36.8 lbs/sq ft Weight, computer 125 lbs COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES USAOGMS System cost approximately $80,000. A van, with air conditioning and power system for field use, cost approximately $80,000. USAAMS System cost $66,000. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS USAOGMS The system is designed to be utilized in the field with a tactical organization and under tactical conditions. Its sole purpose is computation of the Redstone firing problem. Personnel required for this system include only military operators and maintenance type personnel. All training other than on-the-job training is conducted at the OGMS, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY USAOGMS Figures are based on the period from Sep 58 to Apr 60. Time is not available for rent to outside organizations. This machine has approximately 1,000 hours of operating time on it. It is normally used for demonstrations and instructing students in maintenance and programming. A record exists only for the last 482 hours of operation. In this period 88.9 hours were utilized for maintenance. Of this maintenance time listed, many of the hours were spent adjusting and checking out memories for other machines before shipping them to overseas. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS USAOGMS Outstanding features are simplicity of operation, and small size. Maintenance is difficult due to poor documentation and time sharing of components. FUTURE PLANS USAOGMS There are apparently no future plans for this machine. In all probability the machine will be utilized for its present mission as is until the Redstone System is replaced with a newer system. USAAMS The Field Artillery Digital Automatic Computer (FADAC), a rugged, lightweight computer for use in the field with artillery units will replace this system. INSTALLATIONS U. S. Army Ordnance Guided Missile School Redstone Section, BM Br., FAM Div. Redstone Arsenal, Alabama U. S. Army. Artillery and Missile School Computer Branch, R&R Div. Fort Sill, Oklahoma
BRL 1961, COMPAC, start page 0050

AN/TYK 4v COMPAC

COMPAC (AN/TYK-4v) MANUFACTURER Philco Corporation Computer Division
COMPAC General Purpose Control Panel, 50 K bytes Photo by USASRDL APPLICATIONS General purpose computer operating as an integral part of a larger weapon system; operation includes field artillery, fire direction, gun data computation and automatic transmission, survey data computation and automatic transmission, and meteorological data reduction, computation and automatic data transmission. Major component of the Army automatic data processing system. Major component of an automatic data processing system organized as an integrated subsystem. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Number of binary digits per word 36 plus sign and parity Number of binary digits per 36 plus spare and instruction parity Number of instructions per word 1 Total number of instructions 26 with in/out decoded converter, 19 w/o in/out converter Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type One-address Number range -(1-2-36) to + (1-2-36) Instruction word format Normal Command Parity Spare Op. Code Index Minor Major Register Address Address +-----+--------+----------+-----------+---------+----------+ | 38 | 37 | 36 31 | 30 28 | 27 16 | 15 1 | +-----+--------+----------+-----------+---------+----------+ I/0 Command Parity Spare Op. Code Word Device Storage Counter Selection Address +-----+--------+----------+-----------+---------+----------+ | 38 | 37 | 36 31 | 30 22 | 21 16 | 15 1 | +-----+--------+----------+-----------+---------+----------+ Automatic coding COMPAC uses an assembly program Registers and B-boxes Central processor 7 + 4 index = 11 registers In/Out converter 1 There are a total of 4 arithmetic, 4 transfer, 6 logical, 3 sense, and 9 input-output instructions Of the input- output instructions, 7 require the 1/0 converter.
BRL 1961, COMPAC, start page 0051
ARITHMETIC UNIT Operation time Inc. Stor. Excl. Stor. Access Access Microsec Microsec Addition 24 12 Multiplication 252 240 Division 252 240 Construction, arithmetic unit only Transistors 3,000 Condenser-Diodes 7,000 Arithmetic mode Serial by 6 bits/char Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential Mostly sequential, however, processing may proceed during input-output operations. STORAGE Microsec Media Words Digits/word Access Magnetic Core 4,096 38 12 Core storage up to 3 additional 4,096-word memo- ries may be added. Magnetic tape Maximum number of units that 8 Units can be connected to the system Maximum number of characters 300 Char/inch per linear inch of tape Channels or tracks on the tape 16 Track/tape Blank tape separating each record 1-1.5 Inches Tape speed 1 to 150 Inches/sec Transfer rate 300 to 45,000 Char/sec Start time 3 Millisec Stop time 3 Millisec Average time for experienced 30 Seconds operator to change reel of tape Physical properties of tape Width 1 Inch Length of reel 3,600 Feet Composition Mylar Two tracks on magnetic tape are "guard" channels and are not usable. INPUT Media Speed Paper tape reader memory loader 30 char/sec or 300 char/sec Keyboard on console Manual entry speed OUTPUT Media Speed Paper tape punch/printer 30 char/sec Communications converter 45 KC Limited by programming Input/Output Device can be added. This enables use of: Paper tape reader Paper tape punch Tape transports 120 char line printer 24 char line printer FIELDATA typewriter CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Diodes IN-643 3,500 Transistors 2N706 10,000 Magnetic Cores 156,000 Memory CHECKING FEATURES Parity on memory transfer and input/output; overflow; non- existent memory; non-existent instruction; non-existent device (I/0); marginal checking. Diagnostic Program. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Volt-Amperes, computer 4 KVA Space, computer 9 cu. ft. Weight, computer 200 lbs. COMPAC has no special requirements. It can be used in the field, on trucks, or in rooms. PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 0 Number on order 1 Time required for delivery from 12 months receipt of order PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Estimated One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour Shift Shifts Shifts Supervisors 1 2 3 Programmers and Coders Operators 1-2 2-4 3-6 Technicians 1 2 3 The number of coders and programmers depends on applications. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY The estimated mean time between failures is 101 hours for the COMPAC Central Processor. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Ruggedized for field use, operating from 25oF to +125o F; 0 to 97% relative humidity. Computer can be expanded into a system with additional memories, input-output converters and communications converters. It is a member of the Army FIELDATA family of computers. It uses the FIELDATA code and is compatible with other FIELDATA machines. System uses a communications converter. Operating at 45 Key it is limited by programming. INSTALLATIONS Mobile with the Army in the field.
BRL 1961, AN/TYK 6v BASICPAC, start page 0052

AN/TYK 6v BASICPAC

BASICPAC (AN/TYK-6v) MANUFACTURER Philco Corporation Computer Division
Typical Basicpac Computer Arrangement, 50 K bytes Photo by USASRDL APPLICATIONS Manufacturer The system is designed for military field use in- cluding a variety of logistical, administrative, intelligence, command control, fire support, and miscellaneous activities. Fairchild Astrionics - Primarily for drone recovery. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Number of binary digits per word 36 plus sign and parity Number of binary digits per 36 plus spare and instruction parity Number of instructions per word 1 Total number of instructions 41 decoded Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type One-address Number range -(1-2-36) to + (1-2-36) Instruction word format Standard Computer Instruction Word 38 37 36 31 30 28 27 16 15 13 12 1 +-------+------+------------+------------+----------+-----------+ | Parity| Spare| Op. Code | Index Reg.| Minor | Major | | | | | Selection | Address | Address | +-------+------+------------+------------+----------+-----------+ Input-Output Instruction Word 38 37 36 31 30 22 21 16 15 13 12 1 +-------+------+------------+------------+----------+-----------+ | Parity| Spare| In-Out | Word-Block| Device | Storage | | | | Command | Counter | Selection| Address | +-------+------+------------+------------+----------+-----------+ Automatic coding BASICPAC uses an assembly program Registers and B-boxes Central processor 6 + 4 index = 10 registers Communications converter 10 In/Out converter 6 There are a total of 8 arithmetic, 7 transfer, 13 logical, 3 sense, and 10 input/output instructions. Of the input/output instructions, 5 require the I/0 converter, and one requires the search unit. The index registers may be increased to a total of 7. BASICPAC central processor consists of one 4,096 word memory, arithmetic, programming and control units. BASICPAC system may contain one to seven input-output converters, and one communications converter. Each Input/Output converter can handle up to eight I/0 devices.
BRL 1961, AN/TYK 6v BASICPAC, start page 0053
ARITHMETIC UNIT Operation time, including storage access, micro- seconds Addition 22 - 26 Miltiplication 238 - 242 Division 238 - 242 Construction, arithmetic unit only Transistors 14,000 Arithmetic modeSerial-parallel 6 bits/char Parallel by bits Serial by character Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential Mostly sequential, however, processing may proceed during input/output operations. STORAGE Microsec Media Words Digits/word Access Magnetic Core 4,096 38 12 Core storage up to 6 additional 4,096-word memo- ries may be added. Magnetic Tape Maximum number of units that can 56 Units be connected to the system Maximum number of characters per 300 Char/in. linear inch of tape Channels or tracks on the tape 16 Track/tape Blank tape separating each record 1-1 1/2 Inches Tape speed 1 to 150 Inches/sec Transfer rate 300 to 45,000 Char/sec Start time 3 Millisec Stop time 3 Millisec Average time for experienced operator 30 Seconds to change reel of tape Physical properties of tape Width 1 Inch Length of reel 3,600 Feet Composition Mylar This system employs the FIELDATA Tape Transport. These units are connected to the central processor through the I/0 converter. Two tracks on Mag tape are "guard" channels and are not usable. INPUT Media Speed Paper Tape Reader 30 Char/second Communications Converter Approx. 45 KC, rate Handles up to 8 simultaneous real time input channels Keyboard on control panelManual entry speeds Mag Tape Transport 45 KC Communications converter rates limited by programming. OUTPUT Media Speed Paper Tape Punch 20 Char/second FIELDATA Typewriter100 words/min Page printer Must be operated with I/0 converter Communications converterApprox. 45 KC rate Handles up to 8 simultaneous real time output channels Nixie display Under program control or operator control Mag tape 45 KC COST, PRICE AND RENTAL RATES Fairchild Astrionics $1,000,000 for 2 complete units. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type No. Quantity Diodes SG22 750 IN270 200 Transistors 2N-393 13,500 2N-599 240 2N-341 162 2N-1123 174 2N-501-A 112 Magnetic Cores 156,000 Memory CHECKING FEATURES Parity on memory transfer and input/output; overflow; non- existent instruction; non-existent memory; non-existent devices (I/0); marginal checking. Diagnostic Programs. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Volt-Amperes, computing system22 KVA Space, central processor25 cu. ft. Space, system 500.68 cu. ft. Area, system 80.10 sq. ft. Room size, system S-109 shelter Air conditioners, two9,000 BTU/hr, each Weight, total system, incl air conditioners 4,150 lbs. BASICPAC system is housed in a S-109 shelter (75 inches high, 79 inches wide, and 146 inches long). Air conditioning is for operator comfort only. PRODUCTION RECORD Number in current production 2 Produced 5 Number on order 2 Operation 3 Time required for delivery from 12 months receipt of order PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Estimated One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour Shift Shifts Shifts Supervisors 1 2 3 Programers and Coders 2 Operators 1-2 2-4 3-6 Technicians 1 2 3 The number of coders and programmers depends on applications. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE, AND TIME AVAILABILITY Estimated mean time between failures: 154 hours for BASICPAC system. 209 hours for BASICPAC central processor. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Ruggedized for field use. Will operate from -25oF to +125oF; 0 to 97% relative humidity. The system is expansible in that 1 to 6 additional memories may be added, and 1 to 56 I/0 devices may be added. This machine is a member of the Army FIELDATA family of computers. It uses the FIELDATA code and is compatible with other FIELDATA machines. INSTALLATIONS Mobile with the Army in the field. Fairchild Astrionics Division, Wyandanch, N. Y.
BRL 1961, AN/TYK 7v INFORMER, start page 0054

AN/TYK 7v INFORMER

Minimal Informer (AN/TYK-7v) MANUFACTURER International Business Machines Corporation APPLICATIONS System is designed for military field use, including a variety of applications, such as Intelligence, Logistics, and Personnel. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 36 plus sign and parity Binary digits/instruction 36 plus spare and parity Instructions per word 1 Instructions decoded 55 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type One address Number range -(1 - 2-36) to +(1 - 2-36) Instruction word format (Operation) +--------+-------+------------+-----------+------------+-------------+ | 38 | 37 | 36 31 | 30 28 | 27 16 | 15 1 | +--------+-------+------------+-----------+------------+-------------+ | Parity | Spare | Operation | Index | Index | Memory | | | | Code | Register | Increment | Address | | | | | Selection | | | +--------+-------+------------+-----------+------------+-------------+ (Input-Output) +--------+-------+------------+-----------+------------+-------------+ | 38 | 37 | 36 31 | 30 22 | 21 16 | 15 1 | +--------+-------+------------+-----------+------------+-------------+ | Parity | Spare | I/0 | Word or | Device |Storage Addr.| | | | Code |Block Count| Addr. | | +--------+-------+------------+-----------+------------+-------------+ Registers and B-boxes In the central processor there is a total of 10 registers, viz. A Q, Program Counter, Program Counter Store, X, Y, and 4 Index Registers. There is one Input/Output converter instruction register. The system utilizes a total of 17 arithmetic instructions, 8 transfer, 17 logical, 3 sense, and 10 input-output instructions. Mobidic Assembly Program may be used. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl. Stor. Access Exclud. Stor. Access Microsec Microsec Add 20.7 12.7 Mutt 392 376 Div 425 400 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Type Quantity Transistors 2N696 3,204 Magnetic Cores 4 maxwell 5,799 Arithmetic mode Parallel Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential System operates primarily sequentially, however processing may proceed, during input-output operations. CHECKING FEATURES Checking features used are parity on memory transfer and input/output, overflow, non-existent instructions, non- existent memory, non-existent devices (I/0), and marginal checking. Diagnostic programs are available. STORAGE No. of No. of Media Words Digits/Word Microsec Core 4,096 38 8 Disk File 3,750,000 38 150,000 Additional Core Storage may be added up to 6 more 4,096 memories. Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 16 Units No. of characters/linear inch 300 Chars/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 16 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each 1-1.5 Inches record Tape speed 1-150 Inches/sec Transfer rate 300 to 45K Chars/sec Start time 3 Millisec Stop time 3 Millisec Average time for experienced 30 Seconds operator to change reel Physical properties of tape Width 1 Inch Length of reel 3,600 Feet Composition Mylar Two tracks on magnetic tape are "guard" channels and are not useable. INPUT Media Speed Magnetic Tape 45,000 char/sec Disk File 69,000 char/sec Paper Tape 30 char/sec Console Manual entry speed OUTPUT Media Speed Paper Tape Punch 20 char/sec FIELDATA Typewriter 100 words/min Magnetic Tape 45,000 char/sec CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Use Diodes 6,314 Switching Units Transistors 10,789 Power Amplification 2N696 2N697 2N1253 Magnetic Cores Tape 10,861 Logical Elements Ferrite 163,840 Core Storage PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS One 8-Hour Two 8-Hour Three 8-Hour Shift Shifts Shifts Supervisors 1 2 3 Programmers 1 Coders 1 Operators 1-2 2-4 3-6 Technicians 1 2 3 Number of programmers and coders depends on application.
BRL 1961, AN/TYK 7v INFORMER, start page 0055
Photo, 50 K bytes Photo by International Business Machines Corporation POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 0.312 Kw0.445 KVA 0.7 Pf Volume, computer 21.0 cu ft Area, computer 4.1 sq ft Room Size S-109 shelter Floor loading 110 lbs/sq ft 440 lbs concen max Weight, computer 440 lbs Weight, air conditioner 158 lbs Capacity, air conditioner 3/4 Ton System is installed in S-109 shelter. Air conditioning is for operator comfort only. PRODUCTION RECORD Number in current production 1 Number on order 1 Time required for delivery 18 months ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS System is ruggedized for field use, will operate from -25oF to +125oF, 0 - 97% relative humidity, and has the ability to select desired information from files without "knowing" the exact location of the information. Pulse Magnetic Logic is used. This machine is a member of Army FIELDATA family of computers. It uses the FIELDATA code and is compatible with the FIELDATA machines. INSTALLATIONS International Business Machines Corporation Neighborhood Road Kingston, New York
BRL 1961, AN/USQ 20 Navy Tactical Computer, start page 0056

AN/USQ 20

AN/USQ 20 Navy Tactical Computer MANUFACTURER Remington Rand Univac Division Sperry Rand Corporation Univac Park St. Paul 16, Minnesota Photo by Remington Rand Univac APPLICATIONS Designed as a Navy tactical data system computer, it is used for scientific, general purpose, data processing, on or off-line. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 30 Binary digits/instruction 30 Instructions per word 1 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type One address instruction word format +-------+--------+----------+--------+---------------------------+ | F | J | K | B | Y | | Func- | Branch | Operand | Index | Operand (The operand | | tion | Cond. | Interp. | Desig- | Desig- or the address | | Code | Des. | Des. | nator | nator of the operand | | | | | | destination | +-------+--------+----------+--------+---------------------------+ | 6-bits| 3-bits | 3-bits |3-bits | 15 bits | +-------+--------+----------+--------+---------------------------+
BRL 1961, AN/USQ 20 Navy Tactical Computer, start page 0057
Automatic built-in subroutines includes automatic recovery. A compiler is available. Registers and B-boxes include A - 30 bit addressable accumulator, Q - 30-bit addressable logical function register, and Bl - B7 - seven (7) 15-bit index registers (B- boxes). ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 16 9.6 Mutt 35.2 - 112 35.2 - 112 Div 112 112 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors 1,900 Diodes 5,700 Arithmetic mode Parallel Timing Asynchronous Operation Sequential STORAGE No. of No. of Cycle Time Media Words Digits Microsec Magnetic Core 32,768 30 8 Plugboard 16 30 8 INPUT Media Keyboard (Flexowriter) Paper Tape Magnetic Tape On-line analog to digital converters Specifications not yet finalized. OUTPUT Media Hi-Speed Printer Typewriter (Flexowriter) Paper Tape Magnetic Tape On- line digital to analog converters Specifications not yet finalized. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Diodes 33,787 Transistors 10,265 Magnetic Cores 983,040 For 32,768 30-bit words. CHECKING FEATURES All program checked (No internal checking). POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 2.5 Kw 3.1 KVA 0.8 pf Power, air condit 2.0 Kw 2.2 KVA 0.9 pf Volume, computer 60 cu ft Area, computer 27 sq ft Weight, computer 2,320 lbs PRODUCTION RECORD Number produced to date 1 Number in current operation 1 PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Training made available by the manufacturer to the user includes written publications on description, theory, operation and maintenance. Orientation courses, conducted by Training Department, Field Service staff personnel, will be given to assist in maintenance of computers at site. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features include real time clock, automatic recovery, repeat mode, extremely versatile input-output logical function capabilities, and wide environmental limits. Unique system advantages include large hi-speed core memory, versatile instruction repertoire, hicomputing speed (less than 14 microseconds per instruction, average), and asynchronous type of operation. INSTALLATIONS Remington Rand Univac Division of Sperry Rand Corporation Univac Park St. Paul 16, Minnesota

BRL 1961, ASC 15, start page 0058

ASC 15

Advance System Controller Model 15 MANUFACTURER International Business Machines Corporation Federal Systems Division
Welded Encapsulated Module, 50 K bytes Photo by International Business Machines Corporation, Federal Systems Division APPLICATIONS Computer is used in airborne guidance and control systems and is capable of a number of guidance sys- tem monitoring and check-out functions (ground opera- tions). System is similar to the computer being developed by IBM for use in the Titan Guidance Sub- system. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits/word 27 Binary digits/instruction 9 Instructions per word 3 Instructions decoded 22 Arithmetic system Fixed point Instruction type Two address (modified) Number range 224 Instruction word format A computer instruction consists of the following nine bits:FFFFF, TTTT. Every operation can be considered a transfer of the contents of the F (from) address to a location specified by the T (to) address memory. ARITHMETIC UNIT Incl.Stor Access Exclud Stor Access Microsec Microsec Add 312 156 Mult 2,028 1,872 High speed Mesa transistors are used in the arith- metic unit. Arithmetic mode Serial Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential
BRL 1961, ASC 15, start page 0059
There are two independent arithmetic elements (Adder and Multiplier). Addition and multiplication can be performed simultaneously. STORAGE No. of No. of Access Medium Words Bits Microsec Magnetic Drum 3,840 99,584 5,000 Thin Shell Magnetic Drum - Air-floated read-write heads. INPUT Media Speed Optisyns (hi-speed) 6,400 positive increments/sec 3,200 negative increments/sec (Accelerometer and attitude) Optisyns (lo-speed) 100 increments/sec (real-time) Discrete Inputs As programmed (740 in number) OUTPUT Media Speed 3 Ladder As programmed (+- 6 volts 64 increments) 12 Discrete As programmed 1 Digital 5 bit parallel CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM High speed Mesa transistors are used. CHECKING FEATURES There is a built-in check to determine whether computer is out of synchronization. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 0.150 Kw Volume, computer Between 2 and 3 cu ft A fan provides 100 cu ft/min of air at a pressure rise of 2" water above atmospheric pressure. Weight, computer Under 100 lbs Computer logic is packaged in welded encapsulated modules. RELIABILITY, OPERATING EXPERIENCE. AND TIME AVAILABILITY System is designed for a mean time to failure of 1,000 hours. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Outstanding features include welded encapsulated module packaging, built to conform to missile envirormLental specifications, dual arithmetic units, and high reliability (MTF greater than 1,000 hours). Unique system advantages include minimal addressing, which requires only 9 bits per instruction, and a number of system monitoring and control functions.
BRL 1961, ATHENA, start page 0060

ATHENA

ATHENA MANUFACTURER Remington Rand Univac Division of Sperry-Rand Corporation
Photo, 50 K bytes Photo by Remington Rand Univac Division of Sperry-Rand Corporation APPLICATIONS Primary application is as a missile guidance compu- ter. It is a special purpose, on-line machine that runs synchronized with the guidance system. PROGRAMMING AND NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary Binary digits word 24 Binary digits/instruction 17 Instructions per word 1 Instructions decoded 34 Arithmetic system Fixed point (fractional) Instruction type One address Data Registers Accumulator Quotient Exchange Steering Acceleration Discrete Display Control Registers Tape Assembly Drum Transfer Program Control Program Address Tape Disassembly Input Data Control Input Constants Control ARITHMETIC UNIT Exclud Stor Access Microsec Add 40 Mult 520 Div 1,000 Construction (Arithmetic unit only) Transistors 800 Diodes 4,000 Arithmetic mode Parallel Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential
BRL 1961, ATHENA, start page 0061
STORAGE No. of No. of Bin Access Media Words Digits/Word Microsec Magnetic Drum 8,192 17 Magnetic Core 256 24 40 Magnetic Tape No. of units that can be connected 1 Unit No. of chars/linear inch of tape 200 Chars/inch Channels or tracks on the tape 7 Tracks/tape Blank tape separating each record 0.75 Inches Tape speed 24 Inches/sec Transfer rate 4,800 Chars/sec Start time 3,000 Millisec Stop time 3,000 Millisec Average time for experienced operator to change reel of tape 60 Seconds Physical'properties of tape Width 0.5 Inches Length of reel 2,400 Feet Composition Mylar The magnetic drum contents cannot be altered by a program instruction. The magnetic tape unit is a system monitor only. INPUT Medium Paper Tape Reader can introduce information to the magnetic drum or the simulator. OUTPUT Media Magnetic Tape Tape unit can record computational results along with input data. Paper Tape Punch can record program information from magnetic drum or core storage. Printer Printer can record 8 decimal or octal digits. The simulator is a combination input-output device used to check computer operation. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS OF ENTIRE SYSTEM Type Quantity Diodes 33,000 Transistors 7,500 Magnetic Cores 7,680 CHECKING FEATURES Checking features include add, divide and shift overflow invalid instruction. Checking may optionally be performed by a simulator. POWER, SPACE, WEIGHT, AND SITE PREPARATION Power, computer 5.5 Kw 10 KVA 0.55 pf Volume, computer 2,860 cu ft Area, computer 370 sq ft Room size 36 ft x 24 ft Capacity, air conditioner 5 Tons Weight, computer 21,000 lbs Power requirement based on actual measurement. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Written publications on description, theory, operation and maintenance; orientation courses conducted by training department; staff of the manufacturer's field service personnel assist in maintenance of the computer on site. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS The outstanding feature is reliability.


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