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JOHNNIACJOHNNIAC John Von Neuman Integrator and Automatic Computer MANUFACTURER The RAND Corporation Santa Monica, California OPERATING AGENCY The RAND Corporation GENERAL SYSTEM STORAGE Mircosec Application Scientific and engineering; data Media Words Access processing problems. Magnetic Core 4096 15 Timing Asynchronous Magnetic Drum 12,000 18,000 Operation Sequential 40 binary digits per word. Information from storage is available in 8 microseconds to the NUMERICAL SYSTEM first address; 50 microsec per word thereafter. Internal number system Binary Binary digits per word 40 INPUT Binary digits per instruction 20 Media Speed Binary digits per instruction not decoded 1 Card Reader (IBM Collator) 240 cards/min Instructions per word 2 Reads all 80 columns. Either card feed of Total no. of instructions decoded 128 the collator may be used. Total no. of instructions used Approx. 85 Arithmetic system Fixed-point OUTPUT Instruction type One-address code Media Speed Number range Numerically less than unity; Card Punch (IBM523) 100 cards/min negative numbers as complements. Printer (Analex) 900 lines/min Punches all 80 columns on cards. ARITHMETIC UNIT Printer has 40 columns of numeric information. Add time(excluding storage access) 15 microsec Multiply time(" " ") 500 microsec(Avg.) NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS Divide time (" " ") 1000 microsec(Approx.) Tubes 5000 Construction Vacuum-tubes Tube types 8 Number of rapid access word registers 4 Crystal diodes 200 Basic pulse repetition rate Asynchronous Magnetic elements 165,840 storage cores Arithmetic Mode Parallel 5,120 switch cores Add time runs concurrent with a store cycle. Multiply time varies with -ier digit content. Registers are Accumulator, MQ, Memory Register, and Instruction Register. CHECKING FEATURES PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Marginal checking only Two engineers are on call. One operator is required. Operators are machine operators who PHYSICAL FACTORS process the problems through the machine. The Power consumption, Computer 35 K.W. engineers are electronic technicians who have Space occupied, Computer 12 ft x 3 ft s 8 ft been trained in the maintenance and repair of Total weight, Computer 5000 lbs. the machine. Capacity, Air Cond. 25T for Computer - 5T for room RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE MANUFACTURING RECORD Date unit passed acceptance test March 1954 Average error free running period 15 hours Number produced 7 including all IAS types. Operating ratio 0.95 Number in current operation 7 The RAND Corporation builds computing machines The system has been shut down from Aug 54 to use only. Feb 55 awaiting the delivery and converting for its own, internal use only. from a 256-word Selectron (Electrostatic) storage to the 4096 word core storage. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Drum storage to be increased to 100,000 words; Magnetic tapes and B-boxes are to be added during A9SS-S6. Pictures furnished by the Rand Corporation and the International Telemeter Corporation.

LARCLARC Livermore Automatic Research Calculator MANUFACTURER Sperry Rand Corporation 515 Fourth Avenue New York, N.Y. OPERATING AGENCY Radiation Laboratory University of California Livermore, California GENERAL SYSTEM ARITHMETIC UNIT Application Scientific, general purpose Add time 14 microsec Operation Concurrent Multiply time 8 microsec Computer to be built for the Atomic Energy Divide time 28 microsec Commission. Number of rapid access word registers 100 B-registers. Basic pulse repetition rate 2.50 megacycles/sec NUMERICAL SYSTEM Arithmetic mode Parallel. Internal number system Decimal All arithmetic operations are complete floating..or Decimal digits per word 12 fixed.point. An add time may involve two shifts, two Total no. of instructions decoded 1000 additions, and an adjustment of a B-box all within Total no. of instructions used 1000 the allowed 4 microseconds. Times above include Arithmetic system Floating-and fixed-point fixed and floating~point operation. Instruction type One-address Floating point characteristic base 50. STORAGE Media Words Magnetic Core 97,500 Magnetic Drum or Disc 1,000,000/unit drum 2,000,000/unit disc Basic computer will have 20,000 words of high speed storage capacity. A storage cabinet will contain 10,000 words of coincident current ferrite core storage arranged in blocks of 2500 words. Each 2500 word section is complete with its own storage switches, read amplifiers, and storage register and may be addressed independently of, and concurrently with, any other section. The drum (cylinders) are in pairs on two vertical shafts. INPUT NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS Media Speed Modular construction throughout. Punched Cards 600 cards/min Solid state devices are used throughout. Magnetic Tape 20,000 char/sec Keyboard Manual CHECKING FEATURES Fixed Check of all input-output operations. OUTPUT Storage and transfer of all information is Media Speed checked via a self-correcting (one error per Magnetic Tape 20,000 char/sec word) check and an odd-even code. Punched Cards 600 cards/min All arithmetic operations are checked by High Speed Printer 600 lines/min either duplication or use of an active "zero" 130 char/line circuit. Input-Output controlled by one input-output Drum and disc storage utilize five bits/dec dig. processor and buffer registers. PHYSICAL FACTORS ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS All modular units will employ self-contained The basic computing system consists of one power supplies operating from a central 400 cycle input-output processor, two disc files or drum motor-generator set with a stand by spare. equivalents, four tape units, one printer at Heat exchangers will be provided in all units to each console, one keyboard at each console and provide reliable operation independent of room one computing unit. Provision will be made for air conditioning. adding four computing units, each with control Maximum system requires a 55 ft by ~6 ft room. consoles. These may be used separately or in association. Online keyboards will be provided MANUFACTURING RECORD at each operators and engineer's station. Number produced 0 Operator may interlace the running of two Number on order 1 problems on one or more computing units and assign relative priorities. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Solid state components will be used throughout 8 Engineers will be trained to operate and the main computing system. maintain the computer. Marginal checking in the form of volt-second 20 programmers will be trained to code for clock pulse control will be provided. the computer.

LGP-30LGP-30 Librascope General Purpose Computer MANUFACTURER Librascope, Incorporated Glendale, California GENERAL SYSTEM STORAGE Microsec Application Engineering and scientific computation Media Words Access Timing Synchronous Magnetic Drum 4096 8500 Operation Sequential Drum rotates at 5500 RPM. Total storage is 151,072 binary digits. NUMERICAL SYSTEM A special sector numbering system on the Internal number system Binary drum facilitates optimum coding. Hence, the Binary digits per word 30 operating access time is materially reduced [editor's note: 29 bits per word read from drum] from the average value. Binary digits per instruction 16 Instructions per word 1 Total no. of instructions decoded 16 INPUT Total no. of instructions used 16 Media Speed Arithmetic system Fixed-point Paper Tape (Flexowriter) 10 char/sec Instruction type One-address code Keyboard Negative numbers representation by complement. The 10 char/sec are coded decimal or sexadecimal digits. ARITHMETIC UNIT Add time(excluding storage access) 260 microsec OUTPUT Multiply time(" " ") 17,000 microsec Media Speed Divide time (" " ") 17,000 microsec Typewriter (Flexowriter) 10 char/sec Construction Vacuum-tubes Paper Tape 10 char/sec Basic pulse repetition rate 120 kilocycles/sec Arithmetic Mode Serial NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS The control counter, order register, and Tubes 100 accumulator are recirculating registers on the Tube types 7 magnetic drum. Crystal diodes 1200 PHYSICAL FACTORS PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Power consumption, Computer 1.5 K.W. 115v 60 cycle One operator required during operation. Space occupied,Computer 5.25 ft x 1.83 ft 15 cu ft Total weight, Computer 400 - 500 lbs. RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE The computer is cooled by a forced air system of No. of different kinds of plug-in units 10 400 cu. ft. per mm. This new machine has been in development for 2 1/2 years. Demonstrations are available MANUFACTURING RECORD upon request. Number produced 3 Number in current operation 3 ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Delivery time 6 months The computer is designed to handle large scale engineering and scientific calculations at medium COST speed. Approximate cost of basic system $30,000 Subroutines available.

LOGLOG The Logistics Computer MANUFACTURER Engineering Research Associates Division of Remington Rand Minneapolis, Minnesota OPERATING AGENCY Logistics Research Project George Washington University Washington 7, D.C. GENERAL SYSTEM STORAGE Microsec Application Data handling; shot, simple routines Media Access repeated many tines. Magnetic Drum 17,400 Timing Synchronous The number of words of storage obtainable on Operation Sequential the drum varies from 57,200 words at 4 decimal The computer is plugboard controlled, digits per word to 14,200 words at 12 decimal digits per word. The recording method is non- NUMERICAL SYSTEM return to zero. Internal number system Decimal Decimal digits per word Variable 4-12 INPUT Arithmetic system Fixed-point Media Speed The "excess 3" system is used. Plugboard control Paper Tape Reader (Photoelectric) 525 or 162.5 ch/sec provides operations of Add, Subtract, and Multiply, Magnetic Tape Reader 525 or 162.5 ch/sec Input and Output, and various logical operations. A Ferranti photoelectric reader will soon be Drum word length is variable from 4 to 12 decimal installed with a speed of 200 characters/sec digits inclusive, but is fixed during any single program (plugboard) OUTPUT Media ARITHMETIC UNIT Paper Tape Punch (Teletype) 60 char/sec Add time(excluding storage access)(95 + 52d) nicrosec Magnetic Tape 600 char/sec Multiply time( " " ")1685 min to 10487 max Typewriter 10 char/sec Divide time ( " " ")oot available except by subroutine NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS Construction Vacuum tubes Tubes 4100 Number of rapid access word registers 5 Tube types 3 (General use) Basic pulse repetition rate 220 kilocycles/sec Crystal diodes 2600 Arithmetic Mode Serio-parallel: Each decimal digit Magnetic elements 246 cores is serial; the four binary digits expressing the decimal 200 relays are utilized. digit are parallel. The multiply time depends upon word length. The letter "d' under "add time" above stands for number of digits in the word: 4-12. CHECKING FEATURES PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Fixed "Excess 3" false code detector Daily Operation No. of Eng. No. of Tech. Arithmetic fault overload. One 8-hour shift 2 4 Optional Address overload, product overload, tape-fast overload RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE Date unit passed acceptance test March 1953 PHYSICAL FACTORS No. of different kinds of plug-in units 90 Power consumption, Computer 45 K.W., max. No. of separate cabinets(excluding power and Space occupied, 190 sq ft air cond.) 5 Capacity, Air Cond. 11 tons 5% of time is devoted to unscheduled maintenance 15% of time is devoted to scheduled maintenance MANUFACTURING RECORD 80% of time is good time Number produced 1 Number in current operation 1 ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS A complete programmer's manual for the Logistics COST Computer should be available late in 1955. Approximate cost of basic system $35O,OOO Additional equipment $5O,000 for magnetic tape units.

MAGNEFILE-BMAGNEFILE-B Magnefile System B MANUFACTURER Electronics Corporation of America Business Machines Division Cambridge 42, Mass. OPERATING AGENCY B. Altman and Company Fifth Avenue, New York, New York GENERAL SYSTEM STORAGE Microsec Media Words Access Activity of organization Retail Sales Department Magnetic Drum 4040 3 x l0^{5}Stores Application Inventory Control 8 decimal digits per word. Timing Asynchronous INPUT Operation Sequential Media Speed NUMERICAL SYSTEM Full Keyboard 4 char/sec Internal number system Decimal OUTPUT Decimal digits per word 8 Media Speed Instructions per word Instructions are wired in Electric Typewriter 7 char/sec Total no. of instructions used 7 Arithmetic system Fixed-point NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS Instruction type One-address Tubes 130 Three addresses are entered at once. Tube types 6 ARITHMETIC UNIT Crystal diodes 40 Add time(excluding storage access )l.5x10^{5}microsec Construction Vacuum-tubes Basic pulse repetition rate 30 kilocycle/sec Arithmetic Mode Serial CHECKING FEATURES PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS One operator required during operation. Fixed Continuous Checking Total Serviceman called when needed. No engineer required in attendance. PHYSICAL FACTORS Power consumption, Computer 0.6 K.W. RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE Space occupied, Computer 3.5 ft x 2.5 ft Date unit passed acceptance test 15 Feb 1954 Total veight, Computer 400 lbs No. of different kinds of plug-in units 10 COST No. of separate cabinets (excluding power and Approximate cost of basic system $20,000. air cond.) 1 ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Magnefile systems are special purpose digital systems utilizing drum storage and wired in prograimning. The Harvard Business School has a similar system.

MAGNEFILE-DMAGNEFILE-D Magnefile System D MANUFACTURER Electronics Corporation of America Business Machines Division Cambridge 42, Mass. OPERATING AGENCY B. Altman and Company Fifth Avenue New York GENERAL SYSTEM Application Inventory control Timing Asynchronous Operation Sequential NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Decimal Decimal digits per word. 142 Instructions per word All instructions are wired in. Total no. of instructions used 77 Arithmetic system Fixed-point Instruction type One-address code Three one-address co~ands are entered at once. ARITHMETIC UNIT Add time(excluding storage access) 10 microsec Construction Vacuum-tubes Basic pulse repetition rate 40 kilocycles/sec Arithmetic Mode Serial STORAGE Microsec Media Words Access Magnetic Drum 8000 5 x l0~ Magnetic Drum 500 5 x l0~ The larger drum stores 8,000 21 dec dig words The smaller drum stores 500 142 dec dig words. STORAGE Microsec Media Words Access Magnetic Drum 8000 5 x 10^{4}Magnetic Drum 400 5 x 10^{4}INPUT Media Speed Pull Keyboard Manual (Approx 14 cbar/sec) Remote keyboards may be added OUTPUT Media Speed Electric Typewriter 10 char/sec NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS Tubes 1140 Tube types 14 Crystal diodes 2140 PHYSICAL FACTORS PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Power consumption, Computer 1 K.W. Daily Operation No. of Tech. Space occupied, Computer 5 ft x 3 ft one 8-hour shift 1 Total weight 700 lbs No engineers are used. A serviceman is on call when needed. MANUFACTURING RECORD Number produced 1 RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE Number in current operation 1 Date unit passed acceptance test 5 Aug 53 Delivery time 7 months No. of different kinds of plug-in units 12 No. of separate cabinets(excluding power and COST air cond.) 1 Approximate cost of basic system $50,000 ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Large magnetic drum storage; wired (fixed) programming; special purpose machine.

MAGNETRONIC RESERVISORMAGNETRONIC RESERVISOR Nagnetronic Reservisor MANUFACTURER Teleregister Corporation Stanford, Connecticut OPERATING AGENCY American Airlines, Inc. GENERAL SYSTEM STORAGE Microsec Activity of Organization Airline Transportation Media Words Access Application Reservation inventory control and Magnetic Drum 15,000 50,000 Random flight status information. 45,000 digits total storage capacity This is a special purpose digital computer The drum is designed with a conservative operated at the New York Reservations office of packing factor of 20 to the inch, and an American Airlines situtated at La Guardia Field axial spacing of 8 tracks to the inch and serving many sales outlets in metropolitan New a timing frequency of 20 kilocycles/sec. York. When a ticket is returned or a reservation cancelled, there must be a fast and accurate pro- INPUT cessing of that fact. A valuable item of stock Media has been returned, it is available for resale, 120 Hand Operated Key-sets and it must be sold, because if unoccupied at Approximately 17 seconds are required to airplane departure tine it suffers a 100% mark insert coded plate and set up key-board- down. System is currently operating at a rate 100 millisec delay clearing through seeker of 7.5 million transactions per year. equipment. OUTPUT Media Illuminating Matrix on Key Set NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS The components were selected for long life characteristics. The principal vacuum-tubes employed are rendering 20,000 to 30,000 hours of useful life. CHECKING FEATURES RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE Fixed 2 Storage Drums and 2 Computers Date unit passed acceptance test July 1952 operating in parallel,cross-checks between Average error free running period 22 hrs/day computers. Comparison of pulse polarity Operating ratio 0.998 Good tine 21.9 hours and timing at 4 points in The fixed program. Attempted to run 22 hours Optional Specially designed test plates Scheduled 22 hours, 7 days/week; 2 hours/day introducing test patterns, marginal checks. down for marginal checks. In 1955, system Parity check to be added in near future. operated 99.8% of scheduled up-time. COST ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Approximate cost of basic system $70,000 The metallic serrated plate contains a Additional equipment $180,000 (Key sets, gummed label on which is recorded plain English transceivers, remote power supplies) inscriptions such as flight number, city served, etc. Insertion of the plate into the key set, PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS sets up a 9 element binary code representing a Daily operation No. of Eng. No. of Tech. psuedo address. 5-8 hour shifts 1 3 This psuedo address terminates in a section The system requires full time attendance of memory wherein is stored the precise addresses since the entire inventory of available for these data. Up to 8 storage locations are airline space is contained in the storage of read out to the key set simultaneously. the machine and a paper inventory could not This system permits the operator to scan be reconstructed without 12 to 24 hours work, groups of information and later select a precise Majority of technicians' time is spent on storage address in which inventory changes will routine preventive maintenance for the input- be reflected. The cross referencing feature of output key sets. this inventory address selector permits multiple appearance of like data upon different metallic plates. In this way the stock can be grouped. according to a variety of its characteristics, and yet only occupy one position of storage in the memory. The reliability of this system is outstanding. It can be operated on a single drum/single computer combination in the event of failure in the parallel equipment. By the end of this year experiments will be completed with remote control of the computer. Several key sets will be placed at locations 700 to 1000 miles away and function normally over long line teletype grade networks.

MANIACMANIAC MANUFACTURER Los Alamos Scientific laboratory Univ. of California Los Alamos, New Mexico OPERATING AGENCY Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory GENERAL SYSTEM STORAGE Microsec Activity of organization Scientific Research Media Words Access Application Physical, mathematical, chemical, Electrostatic tubes (Williams) 1024 8-16 astronomical and biological research. Magnetic Drum 10,000 85,000 for Timing Asynchronous 50 words Operation Concurrent Electrostatic storage utilizes 2BP1 tubes. NUMERICAL SYSTEM INPUT Internal number system Binary Media Speed Binary digits per word 40 Paper Tape 48 sec/1024 words Binary digits per instruction 8 Magnetic Tape 45sec/1024 words Binary digits per instruction not decoded 2 Instructions per word 2 OUTPUT Total no. of instructions decoded 36 Media Speed Total no. of instructions used 35 Printer (Teletype) 56 words/min Arithmetic system Fixed-point Printer (Anelex) 3600 words/min Instruction type One-address Code Paper Tape 81 words/min Number range -l <= x < 1 Magnetic Tape 45 sec/1024 words ARITHMETIC UNIT NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS Add time (excluding storage access )80 microsec Tubes 2400 Multiply time(" " ")l000 microsec Tube types 7 Divide time (" " ")l000 microsec Crystal diodes 500 Construction Vacuum-tubes Number of rapid access word registers 0 Arithmetic Mode Parallel CHECKING FEATURES PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Fixed Check sum on loading paper tape and magnetic Daily Operation No. of Eng. tape Two 8-hour shifts 4 Optional Check sum on loading, drum. A total of 12 technicians and operators are used. All the operators are programmers. PHYSICAL FACTORS Power consumption, Computer 55 K.W. RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE Space occupied, Computer 128 cu ft 20 sq ft Date unit passed acceptance test March 1952 Capacity, Air Cond. 10 tons Average error free running period 5 hours Operating ratio 0.93 Good tine 11,493 hr MANUFACTURING RECORD Attempted to run 12,399 hr Number produced 1 No. of different kinds of plug-in units Number in current operation 1 1 Electrostatic; 6 drum Machine not made for comuercial marketing. No. of separate cabinets(excluding power and air cond.) 4 COST Approximate cost of basic system $250,000 ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Additional equipment $48,000 for fast printer Maniac II is being designed and constructed. and drum Anticipated completion date is 1 Jan 1956. Three years of engineering and mathematical experience Price for basic system includes development, will be embodied on Maniac II. construction, and overhead.

MANIAC-IIMANIAC-II MANUFACTURER University of California Los Alamos Scientific Lab. Los Alamos, New Mexico OPERATING AGENCY Los Alamos Scientific Lab. GENERAL SYSTEM STORAGE Microsec Application Physical research Media Words Access Timing Asynchronous Electrostatic tubes 12,288 8 Operation Sequential Magnetic Tape 10^{6}5,000/word Total electrostatic storage is 589,824 digits. NUMERICAL SYSTEM Barrier grid type tubes are used. Internal number system Binary Magnetic tape will search while machine is computing. Binary digits per word 48 Binary digits per instruction 24 INPUT Binary digits per instruction not decoded 17 Media Speed Instructions per word 2 Paper Tape (Photoelectric) 40 words/sec Total no. of instructions decoded 55 Magnetic Tape 200 words/sec Total no. of instructions used 48 Flexowriter Keyboard Manual Arithmetic system Floating and fixed point Instruction type One-address code OUTPUT Number range Floating 2^{-155}<= |x| < 2^{112}Media Speed Fixed -1 <= x < 1 Typewriter (Flexowriter) 1 word/sec Base of floating point is 2^{16}Paper Tape (Flexowriter) 1 word/sec Punch 4.5 words/sec ARITHMETIC UNIT Synchroprinter 60 words/sec Add time(excluding storage access) 17 microsec Synchroprinter operates at 15 lines/sec Multiply time(" " " ) 280 nicrosec Divide time (" " ") 460 microsec NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS Construction Vacuum-tubes Tubes 2550 Number of rapid access word registers 3 Tube types 6 Basic pulse repetition rate 1 megacycle/sec Crystal diodes 380 Arithmetic mode Parallel. 95% of the tubes are type 5965. 5% are primarily high power drivers. CHECKING FEATURES PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Oper. Fixed Parity check on electrostatic storage and Daily Operation Engr Tech. magnetic tape. Two to Three 8-hour shifts 4 20 Load sums. Magnetic tape sums RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE Optional Overflow No. of different kinds of plug-in units 1 Exponent spill No. of separate cabinets(excluding power and air cond.) 3 PHYSICAL FACTORS The plug-in units are storage units. Power consumption, Computer 25 K.W. Space occupied, Computer 580 ca ft 77 sq ft ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Capacity, Air Cond. 20 tons One B-register for simplified indexing Semi-automatic return at control from sub- MANUFAC TURING RECORD routine. Currently being fabricated. Big base for floating point operation. Two dimensional construction, contrasted COST with MANIAC I, which is a three-dimensional Approximate cost of basic system $225,000 construction. Cost includes fast printer and 2 magnetic tape units.

MDP-MSI-5014MDP-MSI-5014 Mountain Data Processor MSI-5014 MANUFACTURER Mountain Systems Incorporated Thornwood, N.Y. OPERATING AGENCY Hickok Manufacturing Co.,Inc. Rochester, N.Y. GENERAL SYSTEM INPUT Activity of organization Manufacturer of men's Media Speed belts, buckles, jewelry and accessories. Paper Tape 600 char/min Pictures furnished by Mountain Systems Inc. Tape is prepared by an IBM 063 Card-to-Tape Machine or Flexowriter. NUMERICAL SYSTEM Decimal digits per word 5 OUTPUT Media Speed STORAGE Paper Tape 600 char/min Media Words Digits Paper tape is prepared from the system through Magnetic Drum 10,000 50,000 the Flexowriter. Vac Tube Shift Reg 1 5 Paper Tape Random access storage on drum. Paper tape is a means of permament storage while using magnetic drum for other purposes. COST RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE Approximate price of basic system $85,000 Date unit passed acceptance test July 1954 Additional equipment Commercial Controls Average error free running period 30.25 hours Flexowriter. Operating ratio 0.75 Attempted to Run 957.25 hrs Rental rates for additional equipment IBM 063 Average Good time 30.25 hours Card-to-Tape Machine is rented at $65 per month Average Down Time 10.50 hours plus $6.50 tax. The MSI 5014 is owned by Hickok Manufacturing ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Company, Inc. Address numbers used to locate head number and position on drum. PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Approximate size of magnetic drum is 8 inches Daily Operation Eng. Oper or Tech, long and 7 inches in diameter. The drum has 66 One 8-hour shift 0 1 recording heads. The address system is composed One technician and 1 clerk service and operate of a relay pyramid and a vacuum tube counting the machine. One methods engineer is utilized system (flip-flop). to develop applications. The programming and use Basic operations are addition, subtraction and of equipment is not completed. "reading out" a balance.

MELLON INST-DIG108 MELLON INST DIG Mellon Institute Digital Computer MANUFACTURER Mellon Institute of Industrial Research University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, Pa. OPERATING AGENCY Mellon Institute GENERAL SYSTEM STORAGE Microsec Application Research and development Media Words Access Tining Synchronous Magnetic Drum 16,384 50,000 Operation Sequential Total drum storage is 1,048,576 binary digits. NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary INPUT Binary digits per word 64 Media Speed Binary digits per instruction 16 Flexowriter 10 dec dig/sec Instructions per word 4 Motorized Tape 25 dec dig/sec Total no. of instructions used 35 Arithmetic system Fixed-point OUTPUT Instruction type One-address code Media Speed The Justify Instruction is used to simplify Flexowriter 10 dec dig/sec the programuing of floating-point operation. Motorized Tape 25 dec dig/sec ARITHMETIC UNIT NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS Add time(including storage access) 50,000 microsec Tubes 400 Multiply time ( " " ") 50,000 microsec Tube types 9 Divide time ( " " " ) 100,000 microsec Crystal diodes 1500 Construction Vacuum-tubes and magnetic elements Magnetic elements 198 Number of rapid access word registers 3 Approximately 80% of tubes are of one type. Basic pulse repetition rate 100 kilocycle/sec Arithmetic Mode Serial CHECKING FEATURES PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Fixed Sign check in addition and subtraction Daily Operation No. of Tech. or Operators operations. One 8-hour shift 2 Number-size check in divide operation. RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE No. of different kinds of plug-in units 21 PHYSICAL FACTORS Power consumption, Computer 3.5 K.W. No. of separate cabinets(excluding power and Space occupied, Computer 120 cu ft 18 sq ft air cond.) 2 Space occupied, Air Cond. 30 cu ft 5 sq ft Capacity, Air Cond. 3 tons ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS The system used in writing numbers on the MANUFACTURING RECORD drum allows the drum to be used for holding the Number produced 1 multiplier in the multiply instruction. Therefore, Number in current operation 1 only two arithmetic registers are needed in the computer.

MIDACMIDAC Michigan Digital Automatic Computer MANUFACTURER Univ. of Michigan Engineering Research Institute Willow Run Research Center Ypsilanti, Michigan OPERATING AGENCY Univ. of Michigan Engineering Research Institute GENERAL SYSTEM STORAGE Microsec Application Scientific calculation; simulation; Media Words Access mathematical research by numerical solution of Mercury Delay Line (Technitrol) 512 192 (Avg.) equations involving simultaneity, complex roots, Magnetic Drum (ERA) 6144 536 high order differentials, eigenvalues, eigenvectors, The drum is used as an auxiliary storage. Average partials, boundary values, calcalus of variations, access to the first word on a track is 5400 microsec, Timing Synchronous and access to the next 51 words is 556 microsec. Operation Sequential The drum storage capacity will be increased to 24,576 words of 48 bits each. NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary INPUT Binary digits per word 44 plus sign Media Speed Binary digits per instruction 45 Paper Tape (Flexowriter) 10 char/sec Instructions per word 1 Total no. of instructions decoded 19 Keyboard (Flexowriter) Manual Paper Tape (Ferranti) 200 char/sec Total no. of instructions used 17 Magnetic Tape at 480 char/sec will be added. Arithmetic system Fixed-point One character requires 4 bits for decimal or sexa- Instruction type Three-address Code decimal input and 6 bits for alpha-numeric input. Number range 0, +- (2^{-44}<= x <= 1-2^{-44}A standard machine word contains a sign and 11 OUTPUT decimal or sexadecimal characters. Media Speed Paper Tape (Flexowriter) 10 dec dig/sec ARITHMETIC UNIT Printed Page (Flexowriter)lO dec dig/sec Add time(excluding storage access) 48 microsec Oscilloscope 1 dot/432 microsec Multiply time ( ") 2208 microsec Magnetic Tape will be added. Divide time ( " ") 2208 microsec Construction Diode-Vacuum-tubes NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS Basic pulse repetition rate 1 megacycle/sec Tubes 900 Arithmetic Mode Serial Tube types 10 Crystal diodes 20,000 Two types of tubes are used in the central computer; other types are used in the drum system, tape units, and input-output stations. CHECKING FEATURES PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Fixed Odd-even parity on Mercury Storage and Daily operation No. of Eng. No. of Tech. Drum Three 8-hour shifts 3 6 Optional Odd-even parity on tapes. Engineers and technicians also do development Automatic transfer summing for drum and tapes. work. PHYSICAL FACTORS RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE Power consumption, Computer 25 K.W. Average error free running period 16 hours Space occupied, Computer 260 cu ft 65 sq ft Operating ratio 0.75 Power consumption, Air cond. 10 K.W. No. of different kinds of plug-in units 50 Space occupied, Air cond. 96 cu ft 12 sq ft No. of separate cabinets (excluding power and Capacity 10 tons air cond.) 8 The operating ratio is defined as Good Time/ MANUFACTURING RECORD Scheduled Time. Number produced 1 The average error free running period is Number in current operation 1 estimated and is based on the longest problem Not purchasable on commercial market. performed. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS MACIC system of automatic programming (utility programs, translation and conversions.) Present-address relative instructions Base counter (B-box) Built for possible expansion of operation.

MINIACMINIAC Marchant System MANUFACTURER Marchant Research, Inc. Oakland 8, California OPERATING AGENCIES Marchant Research, Inc. Oakland 8, California Atlantic Refining Company Philadelphia 1, Pennsylvania Atlantic Refining Co. Dallas, Texas GENERAL SYSTEM STORAGE Microsec Application General Purpose and Information Media Words Access Processing,Scientific and Engineering Problems Magnetic Drum (Main) 3,840 5,000 (Avg.) at Atlantic Refining Company, Dallas and Magnetic Drum (Fast Access) 256 1,250 (Avg.) Philadelphia, particularly mass spectrometer 10 decimal digits/stored word in the Oakland analysis. Computer. Timing Synchronous 10 decimal digits/word in the Dallas computer. Operation Sequential 26 binary digits/word in the Phila. computer. NUMERICAL SYSTEM INPUT Internal number system Decimal and Sexdec Media Speed Decimal digits per word 10 Typewriter (Flexo'writer) 10 char/sec Decimal digits per instruction 10 Magnetic Tape 1000 dec dig/sec Decimal digits per instruction not decoded 3 Instructions per word 1 OUTPUT Total no. of instructions decoded 71 Media Speed Total no. of instructions used 71 Typewriter (Flexowriter) 10 char/sec Arithmetic system Fixed-point Magnetic Tape 1000 dec dig/sec Instruction type One-address code Number range -l to +1 NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS Tubes 700 ARITHMETIC UNIT Add time(excluding storage access) 300 microsec Multiply time(" " ") 13,600 microsec Divide time( " " ") 14,800 microsec Construction Vacuum-tubes Basic pulse repetition rate 300 Kilocycles/sec Arithmetic Mode Serial CHECKING FEATURES PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Fixed Odd-even check of each word in drum storage Daily operation No. of Eng. No. of Tech. and each digit on magnetic tape. One 8-hour shift 1/2 1 Two 8-hour shifts 1 2 PHYSICAL FACTORS Three 8-hour shifts 2 3 Power consumption, Computer 5 K.W. Space occupied, Computer 4 ft x 4 ft x 4 ft RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE Total weight, Computer 2,000 lbs Date unit passed acceptance test Dec. 1953 Water cooled internally. Average error free running period 3 hrs(estimated) Operating ratio 0.52 MANUFACTURING RECORD No. of different kinds of plug-in units 100 Number produced 3 No. of separate cabinets(excluding power and air Number in current operation 3 cond.) 1 Number on order 2 Above figures given by Atlantic Refining Company. Delivery time 6 months ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS COST Atlantic Refining Company reports that all Approximate cost of basic system $85,000 computing backlog prior to computer installation Additional equipment "B" Register $l0,OQO has been completed. Miniac No. 1 is at the R & D Fast Access Storage $20,000. Department at Point Breeze Philadelphia and Miniac Price of basic system does not include "B" No. 2 is at Dallas, Texas laboratory. Miniac No. 2 Register, Fast Access Storage, or Input-Output is a binary coded decimal computer. equipment. Pictures supplied by Atlantic Refining Co.

MODAC-404MODAC-404 Mountain Digital Automatic Computer 404 Mountain Systems, Inc. Thornwood, New York Condensed Book Club Readers Digest Association Pleasantville, New York Bickok Manufacturing Company Rochester, New York GENERAL SYSTEM STORAGE Microsec Application Business Data Processing, Accounting Media Words Access and Statistical distribution, Coding and Controls. Magnetic Drum 20,000 15,000 Timing Asynchronous 120,000 digits of storage. Operation Sequential Pleasantville computer stores 500,000 binary digits at 0.05 sec access. NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Decimal - Excess 3 INPUT Decimal digits per word 6 Media Speed Arithmetic system Fixed-point Punched Tape 200 char/sec Instruction type One-address Code Pleasantville computer also has R.R. Tab Number range 0 to 999,999. cards input at 0.25 sec/card. Programming system is designed for special application. System includes addition, subtraction, OUTPUT unit entry, bulk entry and transfer. Media Speed ARITHMETIC UNIT Punched Tape 20 char/sec Add time(excluding storage access) 1800 microsec Pleasantville computer also has R.R. Tab Construction Vacuum-tubes and Diodes Cards output at 0.25 sec/card. Basic pulse repetition rate 150 kilocycles/sec NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS Arithmetic Mode Serial. Tubes 600 Tube types 3 Crystal diodes 1000 CHECKING FEATURES PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Fixed Number checks One technician or operator is required during Address checks operation. Pleasantville computer has automatic stop when data does not conform. RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE Date first init passed acceptance test Sept 1954. PHYSICAL FACTORS Attempted to run 9814 Power consumption, Computer 5 K.W. No. of different kinds of plug-in units 5 Space occupied, Computer 32 cu ft 16 sq ft No. of separate cabinets (excluding power and air Total weight, Computer 750 lbs cond.) 2 MANUFACTURING RECORD ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Number produced 2 Anticipated rate of entry to machine is 2,400,000 per Number in current operation 1 month. Delivery time 6 months Any one of 300 catagories of transactions (further divided into 20 sections) may be placed in appropriate COST register, out of a total of 6,000 storage registers Approximate cost of basic system $85,000 by means of 4 keystrokes per transaction. Price for basic system includes input and output equipment described. Other equipment is dependent upon specñfic application. Pleasantville computer cost $100,000 and the Tab Card input additional cost is $40,000. This computing installation utilizes 2 operators and was placed in operation in July, 1955. The computer is a special purpose type, can add, subtract and tally, and is externally programmed by paper tape for format. Normal operating programs are built-in.

MODAC-410MODAC-410 Mountain Digital Automatic Computer MANUFACTURER Mountain Systems, Inc. Thorawood, New York OPERATING AGENCY Condensed Book Club of Readers Digest Association GENERAL SYSTEM STORAGE Microsec Application Business Data Processing Media Words Access Timing Asynchronous Magnetic Drum 5000 7,500 Operation Sequential 50,000 decimal digits stored. Computer is serial with buffer storage. Buffer storage in magnetic cores. NUMERICAL SYSTEM INPUT Internal number system Decimal - Excess 3 Media Speed Decimal digits per word 10 Punched Tape 400 char/sec Arithmetic system Fixed-point Punched Cards 600 cards/min Instruction type One-address Code Number range 0 to 10 Decimal digits OUTPUT Program is stored internally and on tape Media Speed especially for this application. Punched Tape 60 char/sec Punched Cards 600 cards/mn ARITHMETIC UNIT Add time(excluding storage access) 600 microsec NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS Multiply time (" " ") 7000 microsec Tubes 600 Divide tine (" " ") 7000 microsec Tube types 3 Construction Vacuum-tubes, Magnetic elements Crystal diodes 3000 and Diodes Number of rapid access word registers 50 Magnetic elements l000 Basic pulse repetition rate 150 kilocycles/sec Arithmetic Mode Serial CHECKING FEATURES PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Fixed Number Checks One operator required during operation. Address Check Odd number check RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERLE NCE No. of different kinds of plug-in units 5 PHYSICAL FACTORS No. of separate cabinets(excluding power and Power consumption, Computer 4 K.W. air cond.) 2 Space occupied, Computer 40 cu ft 20 sq ft This system is to be installed in 1955 Total weight, Computer 1000 lbs at Readers Digest Condensed Book Club. MANUFACTURING RECORD ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Number on order 1 Special translator or converter feature to Delivery time 10 months read an abbreviation on a punched card, look up corresponding code from a list of 5000, and punch COST code number into sane card at reading and punching Approximate cost of basic system $120,000 rate of 500 per minute. Price includes input and output equipment High speed tallying feature for 1,440,000 unit described. Other equipment dependent upon additions per hour into selected registers. specific application. Transactions, from a total of 4000 categories, are read at random and added to appropriate one of 4000 registers.

MONROBOT-IIIMONROBOT-III Monroe Computer III MANUFACTURER Monrobot Laboratory Monroe Calculating Machine Company Morris Plains, N.J. OPERATING AGENCY Computing Laboratory Air Force Cambridge Research Center Cambridge 59, Mass. GENERAL SYSTEM STORAGE Microsec Application Scientific calculation Media Words Access Timing Synchronous Magnetic Drum 100 numbers 15,000 Operation Sequential Magnetic Drum 100 instructions l5,000 NUMERICAL SYSTEM INPUT Internal number system Binary-coded decimal Media Speed Decimal digits per word 20 Keyboard Manual Decimal digits per instruction 10 Paper Tape 10 dig/sec Instructions per word 1 Total no. of instructions decoded 11 OUTPUT Total no. of instructions used 11 Media Speed Arithmetic system Fixed-point Typewriter (Flexowriter) 10 dig/sec Instruction type Four-address code Paper Tape (Flexowriter) Number range (l0^{10}-l) x 10^{-10}ARITHMETIC UNIT Add tine (including storage access) 120 millisec Multiply time ( " " " ) 540 millisec Divide time ( " " " ) 540 millisec Construction Vacuum-tubes Basic pulse repetition rate 10 kilocycles/sec Arithmetic Mode Serial NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Tubes 800 One technician or mathematician is required Tube types 4 to operate. Crystal diodes 100 RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE PHYSICAL FACTORS Since 1 Feb. 1955 average good time has been Power consumption, Computer 2.5 K.W. approximately 28 hours. Allowing 1 hour/day for Space occupied, Computer Desk Size maintenance, this is approximately 75% good time. Total weight 1000 lbs

MONROBOT-VMONROBOT-V Electronic Survey Computer MANUFACTURER MONROBOT Laboratory Monroe Calculating Machine Co. Morris Plains, New Jersey OPERATING AGENCY Surveying Branch Engineer Research and Development Labs Fort Belvoir, Virginia GENERAL SYSTEM STORAGE Microsec Application Computing problems normally Media Words Access encountered on surveying operations Magnetic Drum 300 18,000 Timing Synchronous Paper Tape Operation Sequential Access time on drum is for 100 twenty digit numbers. NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary-coded decimal INPUT Decimal digits per word 20 Media Speed Decimal ~iigits per instruction 10 Keyboard Manual Arithmetic system Fixed-point Paper Tape(Reader) 570 char/min Instruction type Four-address code OUTPUT Media Speed ARITHMETIC UNIT Typewriter (Flexowriter)Reader 570 char/min Add time(including storage access) 120 microsec(approx) Printer 400 char/min Multiply (" " ") 540 microsec (approx) Divide time(" " ") 540 microsec (approx) Construction Vacuum-tubes Basic pulse repetition rate 10 Kilocycles/sec CHECKING FEATURES PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Fixed Storage selection lights. One person required for operating and servicing. PHYSICAL FACTORS RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE Power consumption, Computer 5 K.W. Date unit passed acceptance test March 1955 Space occupied, Computer 44" x 72" x 31" Desk Average error free running period 7.2 hours Total weight 1,686 lbs Operating ratio 0.90 Good time 850 hours Attempted to run 936 hours COST Computer has operated for several days without Approximate cost of basic system $86,074 any down time; however the only actual figure is the 936 hours taken from the running time meter. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Pre-addressed tapes Single cycle operation where program is checked line for line. Pre-determined automatic sequencing. Shock-mounted for van installation; mobile.

MONROBOT-VI-MUMONROBOT-VI-MU Monrobot VI and Multiple Unit MANUFACTURER Monrobot Laboratory Monroe Calculating Machine Company Morris Plains, New Jersey GENERAL SYSTEM STORAGE Microsec Timing Synchronous Media Words Access Operation Sequential Magnetic Drum 200 16,670 max 4000 digits of magnetic drum storage. NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary coded Decimal INPUT Decimal digits per word 20 Media Speed Decimal digits per instruction 10 Keyboard Manual Instructions per word 2 Punched Tape 10/sec Total no. of instructions used 200 Punched Card 17/sec Arithmetic system Fixed-point Punched Tape is optional to 60/sec Instruction type Four address code Standard Teletype or Kleinscbmidt units for Number range +~xxxxx xxxxx . xxxxx xxxxx tape processing. Fixed point is centrally located. ARITHMETIC UNIT Add time(including storage access) 135 millisec Multiply time( " " " ) 600 m.illisec Divide time ( " " " ) 600 millisec Construction Vacuum-tubes and Crystal Diodes Basic pulse repetition rate 10 Kilocycles/sec Arithmetic Mode Serial Automatic positioning of numerical results about the decimal point. OUTPUT ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Media Speed The Monrobot Laboratory has desi~aed and is Printed Copy 10/sec building calculators in accordance with the Punched Tape 10/sec M0R0B0T-MU (Multiple Unit) concept. This Punched Card 17/sec permits almost any combination of storage and Standard Teletype or Kleinschmidt units. 60/sec input-output units to be appended to a basic Punched Tape and Punched Card is optional. calculating unit. The MONROBOT-Mu is a stored program, general purpose calculator using two CHECKING FEATURES complete and independent arithmetic and control Fixed Parity checks units, operating serially on coded decimal Optional MAID (Monrobot Automatic Internal Diagnosis) information. Storage is magnetic drums of and dual units. various capacities with saturable reactor magnetic selection. Input-output is by Flexo~-iters, Klein- schmidt and Teletype units, punched card, magnetic tape, photoelectric paper tape readers, and line-at a-time printers. MAID (Monrobot Automatic Internal Diagnosis) system is used for malfunction detection Parity checking is used. The MONROBOT-MU word (instruction, number, or alpha-numeric group) contains 100 bits. A decimal digit is represented by a tetrad and an alphabetic or punctuation character by a pair of tetrads. In a number word 24 tetrads represent 24 decimal digits. An instruc. tion word contains two instructions coded in a modified one-address system. Fifteen instructions are used. A MONROBOT-MU for automatic inventory control and analysis is currently under construction for the USAF under Contract No. AF33 (616)-2158.

NARECNAREC Naval Research Electronic Computer MANUFACTURER Naval Research Laboratory Washington 25, D.C. OPERATING AGENCY Naval Research Laboratory GENERAL SYSTEM STORAGE Microsec Application Scientific problems Media Words Access Timing Asynchronous Electrostatic tubes 1024 10 Operation Sequential, with concurrent recording Magnetic Drum 1536 8,340 (Avg.) A total of 115,200 binary digits of storage. NUMERICAL SYSTEM A new 30 rps magnetic drum of 8192 word Internal number system Binary capacity will be installed. Binary digits per word 45 1 to 256 word blocks may be transferred from Binary digits per instruction 21 drum to CRT and vice versa. Instructions per word 2 Total no. of instructions used 31 INPUT Arithmetic system Fixed-point Media Speed Instruction type One-address code Paper Tape 200 char/sec Number range -l x 1 Magnetic Tape 300 char/sec The paper tape reader is a Ferranti Reader ARITHMETIC UNIT MK-II Add time(excluding storage access) 3 microsec Multiply time( " " " )520-790 microsec OUTPUT Divide time ( " " )660-790 microsec Media Speed Construction Vacuum-tubes Paper Tape 60 char/sec Number of rapid access word registers 6 Magnetic Tape 300 char/sec Basic pulse repetition rate Asynchronous Typewriter (Flexowriter) 10 char/sec Arithmetic Mode Parallel NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS Tubes 2,000 Tube types 4 Crystal diodes 20,000 CHECKING FEATURES RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPER1ENCE Fixed Automatic comparison of all transfers between No. of different kinds of plug-in units B registers. No. of separate cabinets(excluding power and Optional Automatic comparison of all transfers between air cond.) 4 the arithmetic section and the storage section Until the NABEC is completed in July 1956, half of the time is spent in engineering develop- PHYSICAL FACTORS ment and the other half in computing. Machine Power consumption, Computer 25 K.W. efficiency has averaged approximately 70 per cent. Space occupied, Computer 800 cu ft 100 sq ft Power consumption, Air cond. 15 K.W. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Capacity 20 tons Flexowriters are used in parallel, each printer Air conditioning is for computer and working area, giving the results of a separate problem sizmaltaneously. Centralized operating area by pLacing photoelectric MANUFACTURING RECORD tape reader, high speed punch, and Flexowriter Number produced 1 adjacent to control console. Number in current operation 1 M-G set to replace electronic power supply. Detailed reports will be prepared on engineering PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS and mathematical aspects of NAREC project. Two technicians are required for one 8-hour shift.

NCR-CRC-102ANCR-CRC-102A Computer Research Corporation 102A MANUFACTURER National Cash Register Corporation Dayton 9, Ohio OPERATING AGENCIES Gulf Research and Development Company Pittsburgh 30, Pa. U.S. Naval Post Graduate School Monterey, Cal. Chemical and Radiological Laboratories Army Chemical Center, Md. U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake, California GENERAL SYSTEM ARITHMETIC UNIT Application General purpose, scientific, education Add time(excluding storage access) 4,000 microsec Timing Synchronous Multiply time ( " " " ) 15,000 miccrosec Operation Sequential Divide time ( " " " ) 15,500 microsec Pictures supplied by ACC and USN. Construction Vacuum-tubes and Condenser-diode Number of rapid access word registers 8 NUMERICAL SYSTEM Basic pulse repetition rate 100 kilocycles Internal number system Binary Arithmetic Mode Serial Binary digits per word 42 (one for timing) Double precision multiplication, division and Binary digits per instruction 41 save remainder, automatic scale commands included. Binary digits per instruction not decoded 1 Numbers have overflow digit and can be distinguished Instructions per word 1 from commands. Total no. of instructions decoded 27 The Pittsburgh Computer has 28 instructions Total no. of instructions used 27 decoded, automatic conversion and automatic editing. Arithmetic Fixed-point Instruction type Three-address code STORAGE Number range -l +2^{-36}to l-2^{-36}Media Words Digfts Microsec Access Magnetic Drum 1024 41984 12,500 Magnetic Tape 102,000/reel Up to 7 tape units may be used with one Computer. INPUT NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS Media Speed Tubes 400 Flexowriter Typing Tube types 12 Paper Tape 10 char/sec Crystal diodes 8000 Magnetic Tape 1.6 char/millisec Gulf H & D Corporation l000 Additional diodes OUTPUT 60 Extra vacuum-tubes Media Speed 5 KVA regulator instead of previous 2.5 KVA. Magnetic Tape 600 char/sec CHECKING FEATURES Elec Typewriter 10 char/sec Paper tape 10 char/sec Fixed Duplicate recording on magnetic tape USN P-G School. "Overflow" alarm Digital point plotter operates independent of "No Command" alarm Computer. No conversion is necessary for plot. Plotter is manufactured by California Computer PHYSICAL FACTORS Products Company. Power consumption, Computer 7.7 K.W. Space occupied, Computer 250 sq ft. Total weight, Computer 2,700 lbs. MANUFACTURING RECORD PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Gulf R & D Corporation Daily Operation Engr Oper or Tech. Basic installation, delivered in May of 1954, One 8-hour shift 1 1 required 17 months for delivery after receipt of Two 8-hour shifts 1 2 order. Three 8-hour shifts 1 3 U.S. Army Chemical Center Gulf R&D Corporation: System placed in operation Sept. 15, 1954. Their personnel includes an engineer and an U.S.N.O.T.S. China Lake operator, both employees of the company. The System placed in operation July 23, 1954. remainder of the staff consists of three persons, U.S.N.O.T.S. reports approx. 23 systems produced. who handle administration, numerical analysis, programming and coding. COST In addition a number of other employees of the Approximate cost of basic system $89,500. company have been made familiar with the programm- Additional equipment Tape Units $19,500 Flexo. $3,185 ing techniques and some of these have progra~mned Rental rates of basic system $3750 per mo on one year problems. They are currently operating on one lease. eight-hour shift. This will probably have to be Tape unit $725 per month increased to a twelve-hour operation. Flexowriter $150 per month U.S.N. P-G School: Maintenance contracts available. Computer operated by other govt. agencies in Rental includes maintenance. Monterey area. Computer is maintained by service USN P-G School contract with NCR (one man). Operated and pro- Price paid was $57,000 in 1952, incl educational grammed by students, faculty and staff. discount and $143 per month for IBM card units. U.S. Army Chemical Center: Magnetic Tape units, CCP7Ol Plotter and Flexowriters Service contract calls for 8 hours preventive cost $22,000. maintenance per week. U.S. Army Chemical Center Price paid was $100,000 for basic system. U.S. N.O.T.S. Price paid for basic system was approx. $100,000. The magnetic Tape Unit cost $20,000. [converter's note - several pages of exhaustive detail about site experience deleted from this .html ]

NCR-CRC-102DNCR-CRC-102D National Cash Register 102-D MANUFACTURER National Cash Register Corp. Dayton 9, Ohio OPERATING AGENCY Rich Electronic Computer Center Engineering Experiment Station Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia GENERAL SYSTEM Application Educational, industrial, commercial governmental Timing Synchronous Operation Sequential RECC Ga. Tech. reports that timing for magnetic tape storage is asynchronous. Pictures contributed by NCR and Ga. Tech. RECC. NUMERICAL SYSTEM Internal number system Binary coded decimal Decimal digits per word 9 plus 6 Binary Decimal digits per instruction 9 plus 6 Binary Decimal digits per instruction not decoded 1 Instructions per word 1 Total no. of instructions decoded 27 Total no. of instructions used 27 Arithmetic system Fixed-point Instruction type Three-address Number range -2^{36}to 2^{36}EECC EES Ga. TECH.reports: Add time 7,800 microsec including access Multiply time 21,100 to 49,100 microsec including access Divide time 21,100 to 55,200 microsec including access. ARITHMETIC UNIT Add time(excluding storage access) 4000 microsec Multiply time(" " " ) 15,000 " Divide time (" " ") 15,500 " Construction Vacuum-tubes and Condenser-diodes Number of rapid access word registers 8 Basic pulse repetition rate 100 kilocycles/sec Arithmetic mode Serial. STORAGE Microsec Media Words Digits Access Magnetic Drum 1024 41984 12,500 Magnetic Tape 102,000/reel 918,000/reel Up to 8 tape units can be used with one computer at one time. INPUT Media Speed Paper Tape (H/S Reader) 200 char/sec Paper Tape (Flexowriter) 10 char/sec Magnetic Tape 600 char/sec Typewriter Manual RECC EES Ga. Tech. Punched card is used at 100 cards/min Punched Paper Tape is used at 3600 char/mm OUTPUT COST Media Speed Approximate price of basic system $99,500 Magnetic Tape 600 char/sec Approximate price of tape units $19,500 Paper Tape 10 char/sec Approximate price of High Speed Paper Tape Paper Tape (H/S Punch) 60 char/sec Reader $9,500 Approximate price of High Speed Paper Tape NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS Punch $5,000 Tubes 425 Maintenance contracts available on purchased Tube types 15 equipment. Crystal diodes 8500 Rental rate for basic system $4100/month Rental rate for tape unit $ 725/month CHECKING FEATURES Rental rate for H/S Paper Tape Reader $500/month Fixed Duplicate recording on magnetic tape Rental rate for H/S Paper Tape Punch $400/month Optional "Overflow" alarm Rental rate for H/S Paper Tape Flexowriter $150 "No command" alarm Rental includes mintenance. PHYSICAL FACTORS PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Power consumption, Computer 7.7 K.W. Daily Operation Engr Oper or Tech. Space occupied, Computer 250 sq ft One 8-hour shift 1 1 Total weight 2700 lbs Two 8-hour shifts 1 2 Three 8-hour shifts 2 3 RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE Users include: Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia The National Cash Register Company, Dayton, Ohio The National Cash Register Company, Hawthorne, Cal.

NCR-303NCR-303 Electronic Data Brocessor MANUFACTURER National Cash Register Company Electronics Division Hawthorne, California GENERAL SYSTEM STORAGE Microsec Application General Purpose Computer Media Words Access Timing Synchronous Magnetic Drum 1,024 12,500 Operation Sequential Buffer 8 1,500 Magnetic Tape 115,000 NUMERICAL SYSTEM All words are stored as 9D plus 6B digits. Internal number system Decimal 8 tape units with 115,000 word storage each Digits per word 9 Dec plus 6 Binary may be used. Digits per instruction 9 Dec plus 6 Binary 0.14 seconds for reading or writing a block of Digits per instruction not decoded 1 8 words. Magnetic tape searching is over 720 words/sec. Instructions per word 1 Total no. of instructions decoded 27 INPUT Total no. of instructions used 27 Media Speed Arithmetic system Fixed-point Paper Tape 200 char/sec Instruction type Three-address code Special Paper Tape 130 char/sec Number range Integers less than 10^{11}or Special tape reading includes handling of fractions less than one information. ARITHMETIC UNIT OUTPUT Add time(excluding storage access) 7.8 millisec Media Speed Multiply tine( " " ")20.7to 48.8 millisec Paper Tape 60 char/sec Divide time( " " ")23.4 to 54.6 millisec Printed Page 10 char/sec Construction Vacuum-tubes and Condenser-diodes Magnetic tape may be used for input and output Number of rapid access word registers 3 of information at the rate of 60 words/sec. Basic pulse repeition rate 100 kilocycles/sec Arithmetic Mode Serial NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS Constants, zero, and all binary ones can be Tubes 350 obtained with 0.39 millisec access. Tube types 3 Crystal diodes 6,500 CHECKING FEATURES PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Fixed "No Command" and "Overflow" alarm, duplicate Daily Operation No. of Eng. recording on tape. One 8-hour shift 1/2 Two 8-hour shifts 1 PHYSICAL FACTORS Three 8-hour shifts 1 Power consumption, Computer 11 KVA at 0.7 pp One supervisor, one programmer and 1 Space occupied, Computer 30" x 59" x 73" plus operator is also required. 60" x 33" x 36" Total weight, Computer 2,000 lbs. ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Capacity Air Cond. 25,000 New magnetic tape commands BTU/hour Sorting and merging commands Automatic output editing. PURCHASE: PURCHASE PRICE NCR 303 Computer $ 140,000 NCR 138 Magnetic Tape Handling Unit $25,000 NCR 160 High Speed Paper Tape Reader $ 9,500 NCR 170 High Speed Paper Tape Punch $ 5,000 Model 378 Flexowriter $ 2,900 LEASE MONTHLY RATE NCR 303 Computer $4,250 NCR 138 Magnetic Tape Handling Unit $ 800 NCR 160 High Speed Paper Tape Reader $ 500 NCR 170 High Speed Paper Tape Punch $ 400 Model 378 Flexowriter $ 150 (Prices shown are for Single Shift Operation. Add 25% of Single Shift Rental for each additional shift.)

NORCNORC Naval Ordnance Research Calculator MANUFACTURER International Business Machines Corporation OPERATING AGENCY U.S. Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren, Virginia GENERAL SYSTEM STORAGE Microsec Application General scientific calculation Media Words Access Timing Asynchronous Electrostatic Tubes (CRT) 2,000 8 Operation Concurrent Magnetic Tape 4,000,000 Variable 16 decimal digits/stored word NUMERICAL SYSTEM Storage may be visually inspected by numerals Internal number system Decimal on the faces of Cathode Ray Tubes. Decimal digits per worn 16 Decimal digits per instruction 16 INPUT Total no. of instructions decoded 64 Media Speed Total no. of instructions used 64 Magnetic Tape 4000 words/sec maximum Arithmetic system Floating-point and Fixed-point Full reading speed in 8 millisec. Instruction type Three-address code 8 Tape Units; 500 char/inch; 140 inches/sec Number range 10^{-43}to 10^{+31}OUTPUT ARITHMETIC UNIT Media Speed Add time(excluding storage access) 15 microsec Magnetic Tape 4000 words/sec maximum Multiply time ( " " ") 31 microsec Printer (Two) 18,000 char/min Divide time ( " " ")227 microsec Printing is con-current with calculating. Construction Vacuum-tuoes Characters are delivered to printers at the Number of rapid access word registers 2,000 rate of 10,000 per second. Basic pulse repetition rate One megacycle/sec Arithmetic Mode Serial and Parallel NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS Tubes 9800 Tube types 20 Crystal diodes 30,000 CHECKING FEATURES PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS No. of Tech Fixed Bit count modulo-4 associated with each Daily Operation No. of Eng. and Operators word Tbree 8-hour shifts 1 25 Modulo-9 arithmetic check. RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE PHYSICAL FACTORS Date unit passed acceptance test 25 Feb 1955 Power consumption, Computer 168 K.W. No. of different kinds of plug-in units 60 Space occupied, Computer 3,000 sq ft. No. of separate cabinets(excluding power and Power consumption, Air cond. 72 K.W. air cond. ) 4 Space occupied, Air cond. 600 sq. ft. Capacity 66 tons ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS Provisions for addition, subtraction, and MANUFACTURING RECORD shifting of instruction words make possible pro- Number produced 1 grammed synthesis of instructions. A large Number in current operation 1 variety of conditional program transfer instruc- tions are available. Three address-modifier COST registers make possible the modification of operand Approximate cost of basic system $2,500,000 addresses without changing the stored instruction. Card-tape card conversion is used.