A Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital Computing Systems


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Computers with names starting with J through N


                             JOHNNIAC

JOHNNIAC
John Von Neuman
Integrator and Automatic Computer

MANUFACTURER
The RAND Corporation
Santa Monica, California

OPERATING AGENCY
The RAND Corporation



GENERAL SYSTEM                                    STORAGE                      Mircosec
Application Scientific and engineering; data      Media               Words    Access
 processing problems.                             Magnetic Core        4096      15
Timing Asynchronous                               Magnetic Drum      12,000  18,000
Operation     Sequential                           40 binary digits per word. Information from
                                                   storage is available in 8 microseconds to the
NUMERICAL SYSTEM                                   first address; 50 microsec per word thereafter.
Internal number system      Binary
Binary digits per word   40                       INPUT
Binary digits per instruction    20               Media                          Speed
Binary digits per instruction not decoded 1       Card Reader (IBM Collator) 240 cards/min
Instructions per word 2                           Reads all 80 columns. Either card feed of
Total no. of instructions decoded 128             the collator may be used.
Total no. of instructions used Approx. 85
Arithmetic system     Fixed-point                 OUTPUT
Instruction type One-address code                 Media                         Speed
Number range Numerically less than unity;         Card Punch (IBM523) 100 cards/min
negative numbers as complements.                  Printer (Analex) 900 lines/min
                                                  Punches all 80 columns on cards.
ARITHMETIC UNIT                                   Printer has 40 columns of numeric information.
Add time(excluding storage access) 15 microsec
Multiply time(" " ") 500 microsec(Avg.)           NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
Divide time (" " ") 1000 microsec(Approx.)        Tubes                 5000
Construction Vacuum-tubes                         Tube types               8
Number of rapid access word registers 4           Crystal diodes         200
Basic pulse repetition rate Asynchronous          Magnetic elements  165,840 storage cores
Arithmetic Mode       Parallel                                         5,120 switch cores
 Add time runs concurrent with a store cycle.
 Multiply time varies with -ier digit content.
 Registers are Accumulator, MQ, Memory Register, 
 and Instruction Register.




CHECKING FEATURES	                                PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
Marginal checking only                            Two engineers are on call. One operator is
                                                  required. Operators are machine operators who
PHYSICAL FACTORS                                  process the problems through the machine. The
Power consumption, Computer 35 K.W.               engineers are electronic technicians who have
Space occupied, Computer  12 ft x 3 ft s 8 ft     been trained in the maintenance and repair of
Total weight, Computer 5000 lbs.                  the machine.
Capacity, Air Cond. 25T for Computer - 5T for room
                                                  RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE
MANUFACTURING RECORD                              Date unit passed acceptance test March 1954
                                                  Average error free running period 15 hours
Number produced 7 including all IAS types.        Operating ratio 0.95
Number in current operation 7
The RAND Corporation builds computing machines    The system has been shut down from Aug 54 to
use only.                                         Feb 55 awaiting the delivery and converting
for its own, internal use only.                   from a 256-word Selectron (Electrostatic)
                                                  storage to the 4096 word core storage.

                                                  ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
                                                  Drum storage to be increased to 100,000
                                                  words; Magnetic tapes and B-boxes are to be
                                                  added during A9SS-S6. Pictures furnished by
                                                  the Rand Corporation and the International
                                                  Telemeter Corporation.


                             LARC


LARC
Livermore Automatic
Research Calculator

MANUFACTURER
Sperry Rand Corporation
515 Fourth Avenue
New York, N.Y.

OPERATING AGENCY
Radiation Laboratory
University of California
Livermore, California

GENERAL SYSTEM                                    ARITHMETIC UNIT
Application Scientific, general purpose           Add time 14 microsec
Operation Concurrent                              Multiply time   8 microsec
  Computer to be built for the Atomic Energy      Divide time 28 microsec
Commission.                                       Number of rapid access word registers 100 B-registers.
                                                  Basic pulse repetition rate 2.50 megacycles/sec
NUMERICAL SYSTEM                                  Arithmetic mode    Parallel.
Internal number system Decimal                    All arithmetic operations are complete floating..or
Decimal digits per word    12                     fixed.point. An add time may involve two shifts, two
Total no. of instructions decoded  1000           additions, and an adjustment of a B-box all within
Total no. of instructions used 1000               the allowed 4 microseconds. Times above include
Arithmetic system Floating-and fixed-point        fixed and floating~point operation.
Instruction type   One-address
  Floating point characteristic base 50.          STORAGE
                                                  Media                   Words
                                                  Magnetic Core             97,500
                                                  Magnetic Drum or Disc  1,000,000/unit drum
                                                                         2,000,000/unit disc
                                                   Basic computer will have 20,000 words of high speed
                                                  storage capacity.
                                                   A storage cabinet will contain 10,000 words of
                                                  coincident current ferrite core storage arranged in
                                                  blocks of 2500 words. Each 2500 word section is
                                                  complete with its own storage switches, read amplifiers,
                                                  and storage register and may be addressed independently
                                                  of, and concurrently with, any other section.
                                                   The drum (cylinders) are in pairs on two vertical
                                                  shafts.



INPUT                                           NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
Media	                Speed                     Modular construction throughout.
Punched Cards      600 cards/min                Solid state devices are used throughout.
Magnetic Tape	20,000 char/sec
Keyboard             Manual                     CHECKING FEATURES
                                                Fixed Check of all input-output operations.
OUTPUT                                          Storage and transfer of all information is
Media                 Speed                     checked via a self-correcting (one error per
Magnetic Tape     20,000 char/sec               word) check and an odd-even code.
Punched Cards        600 cards/min              All arithmetic operations are checked by
High Speed Printer   600 lines/min              either duplication or use of an active "zero"
                     130 char/line              circuit.
  Input-Output controlled by one input-output   Drum and disc storage utilize five bits/dec dig.
processor and buffer registers.




PHYSICAL FACTORS                                    ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
 All modular units will employ self-contained       The basic computing system consists of one
power supplies operating from a central 400 cycle   input-output processor, two disc files or drum
motor-generator set with a stand by spare.          equivalents, four tape units, one printer at
  Heat exchangers will be provided in all units to  each console, one keyboard at each console and
provide reliable operation independent of room      one computing unit.  Provision will be made for
air conditioning.                                   adding four computing units, each with control
  Maximum system requires a 55 ft by ~6 ft room.    consoles. These may be used separately or in
                                                    association. Online keyboards will be provided
MANUFACTURING RECORD                                at each operators and engineer's station.
Number produced 0                                    Operator may interlace the running of two
Number on order 1                                   problems on one or more computing units and
                                                    assign relative priorities.
PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS                              Solid state components will be used throughout
 8 Engineers will be trained to operate and         the main computing system.
maintain the computer.                              Marginal checking in the form of volt-second
  20 programmers will be trained to code for        clock pulse control will be provided.
the computer.




                             LGP-30

LGP-30
Librascope General
Purpose Computer

MANUFACTURER
Librascope, Incorporated
Glendale, California

GENERAL SYSTEM                                       STORAGE Microsec
Application Engineering and scientific computation   Media         Words Access
Timing Synchronous                                   Magnetic Drum 4096  8500
Operation Sequential                                   Drum rotates at 5500 RPM.
                                                       Total storage is 151,072 binary digits.
NUMERICAL SYSTEM                                     A special sector numbering system on the
Internal number system     Binary                    drum facilitates optimum coding. Hence, the
Binary digits per word    30                         operating access time is materially reduced
   [editor's note: 29 bits per word read from drum]  from the average value.
Binary digits per instruction   16	
Instructions per word        1
Total no. of instructions decoded 16                 INPUT
Total no. of instructions used 16                    Media                     Speed
Arithmetic system   Fixed-point                      Paper Tape (Flexowriter) 10 char/sec
Instruction type One-address code                    Keyboard
 Negative numbers representation by complement.      The 10 char/sec are coded decimal or sexadecimal
                                                     digits.
ARITHMETIC UNIT
Add time(excluding storage access) 260 microsec      OUTPUT
Multiply time(" " ") 17,000 microsec                 Media                      Speed
Divide time  (" " ") 17,000 microsec                 Typewriter (Flexowriter) 10 char/sec
Construction Vacuum-tubes                            Paper Tape               10 char/sec
Basic pulse repetition rate 120 kilocycles/sec	
Arithmetic Mode        Serial                        NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
 The control counter, order register, and	           Tubes           100
accumulator are recirculating registers on the       Tube types        7
magnetic drum.                                       Crystal diodes 1200



PHYSICAL FACTORS                                     PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
Power consumption, Computer 1.5 K.W. 115v 60 cycle    One operator required during operation.
Space occupied,Computer 5.25 ft x 1.83 ft 15 cu ft
Total weight, Computer 400 - 500 lbs.                RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE
  The computer is cooled by a forced air system of   No. of different kinds of plug-in units 10
400 cu. ft. per mm.                                  This new machine has been in development for
                                                      2 1/2 years. Demonstrations are available
MANUFACTURING RECORD	upon request.
Number produced 3
Number in current operation 3                        ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Delivery time 6 months                               The computer is designed to handle large scale
                                                     engineering and scientific calculations at medium
COST                                                 speed.
Approximate cost of basic system $30,000                Subroutines available.



                             LOG



LOG
The Logistics Computer

MANUFACTURER
Engineering Research Associates
Division of Remington Rand
Minneapolis, Minnesota

OPERATING AGENCY
Logistics Research Project
George Washington University
Washington 7, D.C.

GENERAL SYSTEM                                        STORAGE              Microsec
Application    Data handling; shot, simple routines	Media Access
 repeated many tines.                                 Magnetic Drum         17,400
Timing Synchronous                                    The number of words of storage obtainable on
Operation Sequential                                  the drum varies from 57,200 words at 4 decimal
 The computer is plugboard controlled,                digits per word to 14,200 words at 12 decimal
                                                      digits per word. The recording method is non-
NUMERICAL SYSTEM                                      return to zero.
Internal number system    Decimal
Decimal digits per word Variable 4-12                 INPUT
Arithmetic system Fixed-point                         Media                 Speed
 The "excess 3" system is used. Plugboard control	Paper Tape Reader (Photoelectric) 525 or 162.5 ch/sec
provides operations of Add, Subtract, and Multiply,	Magnetic Tape Reader 525 or 162.5 ch/sec
Input and Output, and various logical operations.	 A Ferranti photoelectric reader will soon be
Drum word length is variable from 4 to 12 decimal	installed with a speed of 200 characters/sec
digits inclusive, but is fixed during any single
program (plugboard)                                   OUTPUT
                                                      Media
ARITHMETIC UNIT                                       Paper Tape Punch (Teletype) 60 char/sec
Add time(excluding storage access)(95 + 52d) nicrosec	Magnetic Tape 600 char/sec
Multiply time( " " ")1685 min to 10487 max            Typewriter 10 char/sec
Divide time ( " " ")oot available except by
 subroutine                                           NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
Construction Vacuum tubes                             Tubes           4100
Number of rapid access word registers 5               Tube types         3 (General use)
Basic pulse repetition rate 220 kilocycles/sec        Crystal diodes  2600
Arithmetic Mode Serio-parallel: Each decimal digit	Magnetic elements 246 cores 
is serial; the four binary digits expressing the decimal   200 relays are utilized.
digit are parallel. The multiply time depends upon word
length. The letter "d' under "add time" above stands
for number of digits in the word: 4-12.



CHECKING FEATURES                              PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
Fixed "Excess 3" false code detector           Daily Operation  No. of Eng. No. of Tech.
      Arithmetic fault overload.               One 8-hour shift          2            4
Optional Address overload, product overload,
 tape-fast overload                            RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE
                                               Date unit passed acceptance test March 1953
PHYSICAL FACTORS                               No. of different kinds of plug-in units 90
Power consumption, Computer 45 K.W., max.      No. of separate cabinets(excluding power and
Space occupied, 190 sq ft                           air cond.) 5
Capacity, Air Cond. 11 tons                       5% of time is devoted to unscheduled maintenance
                                                 15% of time is devoted to scheduled maintenance
MANUFACTURING RECORD                             80% of time is good time
Number produced 1
Number in current operation 1                  ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
                                               A complete programmer's manual for the Logistics
COST                                           Computer should be available late in 1955.
Approximate cost of basic system $35O,OOO
Additional equipment $5O,000 for magnetic tape
 units.


                             MAGNEFILE-B

MAGNEFILE-B
Magnefile System B

MANUFACTURER
Electronics Corporation of America
Business Machines Division
Cambridge 42, Mass.

OPERATING AGENCY
B. Altman and Company
Fifth Avenue,
New York, New York

GENERAL SYSTEM                                        STORAGE                         Microsec
                                                      Media                    Words  Access
Activity of organization Retail Sales Department      Magnetic Drum            4040     3 x l05
   Stores
Application Inventory Control                         8 decimal digits per word.
Timing      Asynchronous                              INPUT
Operation   Sequential                                Media                      Speed
NUMERICAL SYSTEM                                      Full Keyboard               4 char/sec
Internal number system Decimal                        OUTPUT
Decimal digits per word 8                             Media                      Speed
Instructions per word Instructions are wired in       Electric Typewriter         7 char/sec
Total no. of instructions used 7
Arithmetic system Fixed-point                         NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
Instruction type One-address                          Tubes 130
 Three addresses are entered at once.                 Tube types 6
ARITHMETIC UNIT                                       Crystal diodes 40
Add time(excluding storage access )l.5x105 microsec
Construction Vacuum-tubes
Basic pulse repetition rate    30 kilocycle/sec
Arithmetic Mode      Serial



CHECKING FEATURES                                      PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
                                                        One operator required during operation.
Fixed Continuous Checking Total                       Serviceman called when needed. No engineer
                                                      required in attendance.
PHYSICAL FACTORS
Power consumption, Computer 0.6 K.W.                  RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE
Space occupied, Computer 3.5 ft x 2.5 ft              Date unit passed acceptance test 15 Feb 1954
Total veight, Computer 400 lbs                        No. of different kinds of plug-in units 10
COST                                                  No. of separate cabinets (excluding power and
Approximate cost of basic system $20,000.	             air cond.) 1

ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
 Magnefile systems are special purpose digital
systems utilizing drum storage and wired in
prograimning. The Harvard Business School has a
similar system.


                             MAGNEFILE-D

MAGNEFILE-D
Magnefile System D

MANUFACTURER
Electronics Corporation
of America
Business Machines Division
Cambridge 42, Mass.

OPERATING AGENCY
B. Altman and Company
Fifth Avenue
New York

GENERAL SYSTEM
Application Inventory control
Timing	Asynchronous
Operation Sequential

NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system Decimal
Decimal digits per word. 142
Instructions per word All instructions are
wired in.
Total no. of instructions used 77
Arithmetic system Fixed-point
Instruction type One-address code
Three one-address co~ands are entered
at once.

ARITHMETIC UNIT
Add time(excluding storage access) 10 microsec
Construction Vacuum-tubes
Basic pulse repetition rate 40 kilocycles/sec
Arithmetic Mode Serial
	STORAGE		Microsec
	Media	Words	Access
	Magnetic Drum	8000	5 x l0~
	Magnetic Drum	500	5 x l0~
The larger drum stores 8,000 21 dec dig words
The smaller drum stores 500 142 dec dig words.

STORAGE                 Microsec
Media            Words  Access
Magnetic Drum    8000   5 x 104
Magnetic Drum     400   5 x 104

INPUT
Media	Speed
Pull Keyboard	Manual (Approx 14 cbar/sec)
Remote keyboards may be added

OUTPUT
	Media	  Speed
	Electric Typewriter	10 char/sec

NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
Tubes 1140
Tube types 14
Crystal diodes 2140



PHYSICAL FACTORS                          PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
Power consumption,  Computer 1 K.W.       Daily Operation No. of Tech.
Space occupied, Computer 5 ft x 3 ft      one 8-hour shift 1
Total weight 700 lbs                      No engineers are used. A serviceman is on
                                            call when needed.
MANUFACTURING RECORD
Number produced 1                         RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE
Number in current operation 1             Date unit passed acceptance test 5 Aug 53
Delivery time 7 months                    No. of different kinds of plug-in units 12
                                          No. of separate cabinets(excluding power and
COST                                        air cond.) 1
Approximate cost of basic system $50,000
                                          ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
                                          Large magnetic drum storage; wired (fixed)
                                          programming; special purpose machine.


                             MAGNETRONIC RESERVISOR

MAGNETRONIC
RESERVISOR
Nagnetronic Reservisor

MANUFACTURER
Teleregister Corporation
Stanford, Connecticut

OPERATING AGENCY
American Airlines, Inc.

GENERAL SYSTEM                                   STORAGE                            Microsec
Activity of Organization Airline Transportation  Media                      Words   Access
Application Reservation inventory control and    Magnetic Drum              15,000  50,000 Random
 flight status information.                         45,000 digits total storage capacity
 This is a special purpose digital computer        The drum is designed with a conservative
operated at the New York Reservations office of    packing factor of 20 to the inch, and an
American Airlines situtated at La Guardia Field    axial spacing of 8 tracks to the inch and
serving many sales outlets in metropolitan New     a timing frequency of 20 kilocycles/sec.
York. When a ticket is returned or a reservation
cancelled, there must be a fast and accurate pro-  INPUT
cessing of that fact. A valuable item of stock     Media
has been returned, it is available for resale,     120 Hand Operated Key-sets
and it must be sold, because if unoccupied at      Approximately 17 seconds are required to
airplane departure tine it suffers a 100% mark     insert coded plate and set up key-board-
down. System is currently operating at a rate      100 millisec delay clearing through seeker
of 7.5 million transactions per year.              equipment.

                                                   OUTPUT
                                                   Media
                                                   Illuminating Matrix on Key Set

                                                   NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
                                                     The components were selected for long life
                                                   characteristics. The principal vacuum-tubes
                                                   employed are rendering 20,000 to 30,000
                                                   hours of useful life.



CHECKING FEATURES                              RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE
Fixed 2 Storage Drums and 2 Computers          Date unit passed acceptance test July 1952
operating in parallel,cross-checks between     Average error free running period 22 hrs/day
computers. Comparison of pulse polarity        Operating ratio 0.998 Good tine 21.9 hours
and timing at 4 points in The fixed program.                    Attempted to run 22 hours
Optional Specially designed test plates        Scheduled 22 hours, 7 days/week; 2 hours/day
  introducing test patterns, marginal checks.    down for marginal checks. In 1955, system
 Parity check to be added in near future.        operated 99.8% of scheduled up-time.

COST                                           ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Approximate cost of basic system $70,000	     The metallic serrated plate contains a
Additional equipment $180,000 (Key sets,       gummed label on which is recorded plain English
  transceivers, remote power supplies)         inscriptions such as flight number, city served,
                                               etc. Insertion of the plate into the key set,
PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS                         sets up a 9 element binary code representing a
Daily operation No. of Eng. No. of Tech.       psuedo address.
5-8 hour shifts     1           3                 This psuedo address terminates in a section
  The system requires full time attendance     of memory wherein is stored the precise addresses
since the entire inventory of available        for these data. Up to 8 storage locations are
airline space is contained in the storage of   read out to the key set simultaneously.
the machine and a paper inventory could not      This system permits the operator to scan
be reconstructed without 12 to 24 hours work,	groups of information and later select a precise
Majority of technicians' time is spent on       storage address in which inventory changes will
routine preventive maintenance for the input-  be reflected. The cross referencing feature of
output key sets.                               this inventory address selector permits multiple
                                               appearance of like data upon different metallic
                                               plates. In this way the stock can be grouped.
                                               according to a variety of its characteristics,
                                               and yet only occupy one position of storage in
                                               the memory.
                                                 The reliability of this system is outstanding.
                                               It can be operated on a single drum/single
                                               computer combination in the event of failure in
                                               the parallel equipment.
                                                By the end of this year experiments will be
                                               completed with remote control of the computer.
                                               Several key sets will be placed at locations
                                               700 to 1000 miles away and function normally
                                               over long line teletype grade networks.



                             MANIAC
MANIAC

MANUFACTURER
Los Alamos Scientific laboratory
Univ. of California
Los Alamos, New Mexico

OPERATING AGENCY
Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

GENERAL SYSTEM                                   STORAGE                               Microsec
Activity of organization Scientific Research     Media                           Words Access
Application Physical, mathematical, chemical,    Electrostatic tubes (Williams)  1024        8-16
  astronomical and biological research.          Magnetic Drum                   10,000 85,000 for
Timing  Asynchronous                                                                     50 words
Operation Concurrent                               Electrostatic storage utilizes 2BP1 tubes.

NUMERICAL SYSTEM                                 INPUT
Internal number system Binary                    Media                                Speed
Binary digits per word 40                        Paper Tape                    48 sec/1024 words
Binary digits per instruction 8                  Magnetic Tape                 45sec/1024 words
Binary digits per instruction not decoded 2
Instructions per word 2	                         OUTPUT
Total no. of instructions decoded  36            Media                                Speed
Total no. of instructions used     35            Printer (Teletype)            56 words/min
Arithmetic system Fixed-point	                   Printer (Anelex)            3600 words/min
Instruction type  One-address Code               Paper Tape                    81 words/min
Number range -l <= x < 1                         Magnetic Tape                 45 sec/1024 words

ARITHMETIC UNIT                                  NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
Add time (excluding storage access )80 microsec  Tubes              2400
Multiply time(" " ")l000 microsec              Tube types              7
Divide time  (" " ")l000 microsec              Crystal diodes        500
Construction   Vacuum-tubes
Number of rapid access word registers 0
Arithmetic Mode   Parallel



CHECKING FEATURES                                    PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
Fixed Check sum on loading paper tape and magnetic   Daily Operation     No. of Eng.
 tape                                                Two 8-hour shifts       4
Optional Check sum on loading, drum.                 A total of 12 technicians and operators are
                                                     used. All the operators are programmers.
PHYSICAL FACTORS
Power consumption, Computer 55 K.W.                  RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE
Space occupied, Computer 128 cu ft 20 sq ft          Date unit passed acceptance test March 1952
Capacity, Air Cond. 10 tons                          Average error free running period 5 hours
                                                     Operating ratio 0.93 Good tine 11,493 hr
MANUFACTURING RECORD                                 Attempted to run 12,399 hr
Number produced 1                                    No. of different kinds of plug-in units
Number in current operation 1                           1 Electrostatic; 6 drum
  Machine not made for comuercial marketing.         No. of separate cabinets(excluding power and
                                                       air cond.) 4
COST
Approximate cost of basic system $250,000            ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Additional equipment $48,000	for fast printer       Maniac II is being designed and constructed.
 and drum                                            Anticipated completion date is 1 Jan 1956. Three
                                                     years of engineering and mathematical experience
 Price for basic system includes development,        will be embodied on Maniac II.
construction, and overhead.


                             MANIAC-II

MANIAC-II

MANUFACTURER
University of California
Los Alamos Scientific Lab.
Los Alamos, New Mexico

OPERATING AGENCY
Los Alamos Scientific Lab.

GENERAL SYSTEM                                       STORAGE                          Microsec
Application Physical research                        Media                     Words  Access
Timing Asynchronous                                   Electrostatic tubes      12,288    8
Operation Sequential                                  Magnetic Tape            106 5,000/word
                                                      Total electrostatic storage is 589,824 digits.
NUMERICAL SYSTEM                                       Barrier grid type tubes are used.
Internal number system Binary                          Magnetic tape will search while machine is computing.
Binary digits per word 48
Binary digits per instruction 24                     INPUT
Binary digits per instruction not decoded 17         Media                          Speed
Instructions per word 2                              Paper Tape (Photoelectric)     40 words/sec
Total no. of instructions decoded 55                 Magnetic Tape                 200 words/sec
Total no. of instructions used 48                    Flexowriter Keyboard          Manual
Arithmetic system Floating and fixed point
Instruction type One-address code                    OUTPUT
Number range Floating 2-155 <= |x| < 2112              Media                        Speed
            Fixed -1 <= x < 1                        Typewriter (Flexowriter)       1 word/sec
Base of floating point is 216                      Paper Tape (Flexowriter)         1 word/sec
                                                     Punch                         4.5 words/sec
ARITHMETIC UNIT                                      Synchroprinter             60 words/sec
Add time(excluding storage access) 17 microsec       Synchroprinter operates at  15 lines/sec
Multiply time(" " " ) 280 nicrosec
Divide time (" " ") 460 microsec                     NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
Construction    Vacuum-tubes                         Tubes 2550
Number of rapid access word registers 3              Tube types 6
Basic pulse repetition rate 1 megacycle/sec          Crystal diodes 380
Arithmetic mode   Parallel.                            95% of the tubes are type  5965.
                                                        5% are primarily high power drivers.



CHECKING FEATURES                                      PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS Oper.
Fixed Parity check on electrostatic storage and        Daily Operation Engr Tech.
 magnetic tape.                                        Two to Three 8-hour shifts 4 20
  Load sums.
 Magnetic tape sums                                  RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE
Optional Overflow                                    No. of different kinds of plug-in units 1
  Exponent spill                                     No. of separate cabinets(excluding power
                                                       and air cond.) 3
PHYSICAL FACTORS                                     The plug-in units are storage units.
Power consumption, Computer 25 K.W.
Space occupied, Computer 580 ca ft 77 sq ft          ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Capacity, Air Cond. 20 tons                          One B-register for simplified indexing
                                                     Semi-automatic return at control from sub-
MANUFAC TURING RECORD                                routine.
  Currently being fabricated.                          Big base for floating point operation.
                                                     Two dimensional construction, contrasted
COST                                                 with MANIAC I, which is a three-dimensional
Approximate cost of basic system $225,000            construction.
  Cost includes fast printer and 2 magnetic
tape units.


                             MDP-MSI-5014


MDP-MSI-5014

Mountain Data
Processor MSI-5014

MANUFACTURER
Mountain Systems Incorporated
Thornwood, N.Y.

OPERATING AGENCY
Hickok Manufacturing Co.,Inc.
Rochester, N.Y.

GENERAL SYSTEM                                       INPUT
Activity of organization Manufacturer of men's       Media                             Speed
 belts, buckles, jewelry and accessories.            Paper Tape              600 char/min
 Pictures furnished by Mountain Systems Inc.          Tape is prepared by an IBM 063 Card-to-Tape
                                                     Machine or Flexowriter.
NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Decimal digits per word 5                            OUTPUT
                                                     Media                         Speed
STORAGE                                              Paper Tape               600 char/min
Media                      Words     Digits          Paper tape is prepared from the system through
Magnetic Drum              10,000    50,000              the Flexowriter.
Vac Tube Shift Reg              1         5
Paper Tape
 Random access storage on drum.
 Paper tape is a means of permament storage
while using magnetic drum for other purposes.



COST                                               RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE
Approximate price of basic system $85,000          Date unit passed acceptance test July 1954
Additional equipment Commercial Controls           Average error free running period 30.25 hours
 Flexowriter.                                      Operating ratio 0.75 Attempted to Run 957.25 hrs
Rental rates for additional equipment IBM 063         Average Good time 30.25 hours
 Card-to-Tape Machine is rented at $65 per month      Average Down Time 10.50 hours
 plus $6.50 tax.
 The MSI 5014 is owned by Hickok Manufacturing     ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Company, Inc.                                      Address numbers used to locate head number
                                                   and position on drum.
PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS                             Approximate size of magnetic drum is 8 inches
Daily Operation Eng. Oper or Tech,                 long and 7 inches in diameter. The drum has 66
One 8-hour shift 0 1                               recording heads. The address system is composed
 One technician and 1 clerk service and operate    of a relay pyramid and a vacuum tube counting
the machine. One methods engineer is utilized      system (flip-flop).
to develop applications. The programming and use     Basic operations are addition, subtraction and
of equipment is not completed.                      "reading out" a balance.

 


                             MELLON INST-DIG




108
MELLON INST
DIG
Mellon Institute
Digital Computer

MANUFACTURER
Mellon Institute of
Industrial Research
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pa.

OPERATING AGENCY
Mellon Institute

GENERAL SYSTEM                                          STORAGE                       Microsec
Application Research and development                    Media                  Words  Access
Tining   Synchronous                                    Magnetic Drum         16,384  50,000
Operation Sequential                                    Total drum storage is 1,048,576 binary
                                                              digits.
NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system   Binary                         INPUT
Binary digits per word 64                               Media                          Speed
Binary digits per instruction 16                        Flexowriter              10 dec dig/sec
Instructions per word 4                                 Motorized Tape           25 dec dig/sec
Total no. of instructions used 35
Arithmetic system Fixed-point                           OUTPUT
Instruction type One-address code                       Media                          Speed
 The Justify Instruction is used to simplify            Flexowriter               10  dec dig/sec
the programuing of floating-point operation.            Motorized Tape            25  dec dig/sec

ARITHMETIC UNIT                                         NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
Add time(including storage access) 50,000	microsec      Tubes              400
Multiply time ( " " ") 50,000	microsec                  Tube types           9
Divide time ( " " " ) 100,000	microsec                  Crystal diodes    1500
Construction Vacuum-tubes and magnetic elements           Magnetic elements 198
Number of rapid access word registers 3                 Approximately 80% of tubes are of one type.
Basic pulse repetition rate 100 kilocycle/sec
Arithmetic Mode Serial



CHECKING FEATURES                                PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
Fixed Sign check in addition and subtraction     Daily Operation     No. of Tech. or Operators
operations.                                      One 8-hour shift        2
Number-size check in divide operation.
                                                 RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE
                                                 No. of different kinds of plug-in units 21
PHYSICAL FACTORS
Power consumption, Computer 3.5 K.W.             No. of separate cabinets(excluding power and
Space occupied, Computer 120 cu ft 18 sq ft        air cond.) 2
Space occupied, Air Cond. 30 cu ft 5 sq ft
Capacity, Air Cond. 3 tons                       ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
                                                 The system used in writing numbers on the
MANUFACTURING RECORD                             drum allows the drum to be used for holding the
Number produced 1                                multiplier in the multiply instruction. Therefore,
Number in current operation 1                    only two arithmetic registers are needed in the
                                                 computer.


                             MIDAC
MIDAC
Michigan Digital
Automatic Computer

MANUFACTURER
Univ. of Michigan
Engineering Research Institute
Willow Run Research Center
Ypsilanti, Michigan

OPERATING AGENCY
Univ. of Michigan
Engineering Research Institute
GENERAL SYSTEM                                         STORAGE                                 Microsec
Application Scientific calculation; simulation;        Media                            Words  Access
 mathematical research by numerical solution of        Mercury Delay Line (Technitrol)	512	 192 (Avg.)
 equations involving simultaneity, complex roots,      Magnetic Drum (ERA)               6144  536
high order differentials, eigenvalues, eigenvectors,   The drum is used as an auxiliary storage. Average
partials, boundary values, calcalus of variations,     access to the first word on a track is 5400 microsec,
Timing	Synchronous                                and access to the next 51 words is 556 microsec.
Operation	Sequential                                 The drum storage capacity will be increased to
                                                       24,576 words of 48 bits each.
NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system Binary                          INPUT
Binary digits per word	44 plus sign                   Media                             Speed
Binary digits per instruction	45                       Paper Tape (Flexowriter)       10 char/sec
Instructions per word 1
Total no. of instructions decoded 19                   Keyboard (Flexowriter)           Manual
                                                       Paper Tape (Ferranti)         200 char/sec
Total no. of instructions used 17                        Magnetic Tape at 480 char/sec will be added.
Arithmetic system Fixed-point                            One character requires 4 bits for decimal or sexa-
Instruction type Three-address Code                      decimal input and 6 bits for alpha-numeric input.
Number range 0, +- (2-44 <= x <= 1-2-44                    
 A standard machine word contains a sign and 11          OUTPUT
decimal or sexadecimal characters.                       Media                           Speed
                                                         Paper Tape (Flexowriter) 10 dec dig/sec
ARITHMETIC UNIT                                          Printed Page (Flexowriter)lO dec dig/sec
Add time(excluding storage access) 48 microsec           Oscilloscope	1 dot/432 microsec
Multiply time (	") 2208 microsec                       Magnetic Tape will be added.
Divide time	( "	") 2208 microsec	
Construction Diode-Vacuum-tubes                          NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
Basic pulse repetition rate 1 megacycle/sec              Tubes 900
Arithmetic Mode Serial                                   Tube types 10
                                                         Crystal diodes 20,000
                                                         Two types of tubes are used in the central computer;
                                                         other types are used in the drum system, tape units, and
                                                         input-output stations.



CHECKING FEATURES                               PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
Fixed Odd-even parity on Mercury Storage and    Daily operation       No. of Eng.  No. of Tech.
 Drum                                           Three 8-hour shifts          3        6
Optional Odd-even parity on tapes.                 Engineers and technicians also	do development
 Automatic transfer summing for drum and tapes.    work.

PHYSICAL FACTORS                                RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE
Power consumption, Computer 25 K.W.             Average error free running period 16 hours
Space occupied, Computer 260 cu ft 65 sq ft	Operating ratio 0.75
Power consumption, Air cond. 10 K.W.            No. of different kinds of plug-in units 50
Space occupied, Air cond. 96 cu ft 12 sq ft     No. of separate cabinets (excluding power and
Capacity 10 tons                                    air cond.) 8
                                                The operating ratio is defined as Good Time/
MANUFACTURING RECORD                            Scheduled Time.
Number produced 1                               The average error free running period is
Number in current operation 1                    estimated and is based on the longest problem
 Not purchasable on commercial market.           performed.

ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
MACIC system of automatic programming (utility
programs, translation and conversions.)
  Present-address relative instructions
  Base counter (B-box)
  Built for possible expansion of operation.


                             MINIAC


MINIAC
Marchant System

MANUFACTURER
Marchant Research, Inc.
Oakland 8, California

OPERATING AGENCIES
Marchant Research, Inc.
Oakland 8, California
Atlantic Refining Company
Philadelphia 1, Pennsylvania

Atlantic Refining Co.
Dallas, Texas

GENERAL SYSTEM                                    STORAGE                             Microsec
Application General Purpose and Information       Media                        Words  Access
  Processing,Scientific and Engineering Problems  Magnetic Drum (Main)         3,840 5,000 (Avg.)
  at Atlantic Refining Company, Dallas and        Magnetic Drum (Fast Access)    256 1,250 (Avg.)
 Philadelphia, particularly mass spectrometer      10 decimal digits/stored word in the Oakland
  analysis.                                        Computer.
Timing Synchronous                                 10 decimal digits/word in the Dallas computer.
Operation Sequential                               26 binary digits/word in the Phila. computer.

NUMERICAL SYSTEM                                 INPUT
Internal number system Decimal and Sexdec        Media                                Speed
Decimal digits per word 10                       Typewriter (Flexo'writer)           10 char/sec
Decimal digits per instruction 10                Magnetic Tape                     1000 dec dig/sec
Decimal digits per instruction not decoded 3
Instructions per word 1                          OUTPUT
Total no. of instructions decoded 71		 Media                                Speed
Total no. of instructions used 71                Typewriter (Flexowriter)            10 char/sec
Arithmetic system Fixed-point                    Magnetic Tape                     1000 dec dig/sec
Instruction type One-address code
Number range -l to +1                            NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
                                                 Tubes 700
ARITHMETIC UNIT
Add time(excluding storage access) 300 microsec
Multiply time(" " ") 13,600 microsec
Divide time( " " ") 14,800 microsec
Construction   Vacuum-tubes
Basic pulse repetition rate	300 Kilocycles/sec
Arithmetic Mode Serial



CHECKING FEATURES                                   PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
Fixed Odd-even check of each word in drum storage   Daily operation No. of Eng. No. of Tech.
  and each digit on magnetic tape.                  One 8-hour shift      1/2       1
                                                    Two 8-hour shifts      1        2
PHYSICAL FACTORS                                    Three 8-hour shifts    2        3
Power consumption, Computer 5 K.W.
Space occupied, Computer 4 ft x 4 ft x 4 ft         RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE
Total weight, Computer 2,000 lbs                    Date unit passed acceptance test Dec. 1953
  Water cooled internally.                          Average error free running period 3 hrs(estimated)
                                                        Operating ratio 0.52
MANUFACTURING RECORD                                No. of different kinds of plug-in units 100
Number produced 3                                   No. of separate cabinets(excluding power and air
Number in current operation 3                         cond.) 1
Number on order 2                                   Above figures given by Atlantic Refining Company.
Delivery time 6 months
                                                    ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
COST                                                Atlantic Refining Company reports that all
Approximate cost of basic system $85,000            computing backlog prior to computer installation
Additional equipment "B" Register $l0,OQO           has been completed. Miniac No. 1 is at the R & D
  Fast Access Storage $20,000.                      Department at Point Breeze Philadelphia and Miniac
 Price of basic system does not include "B"         No. 2 is at Dallas, Texas laboratory. Miniac No. 2
Register, Fast Access Storage, or Input-Output      is a binary coded decimal computer.
equipment.                                          Pictures supplied by Atlantic Refining Co.


                             MODAC-404

MODAC-404
Mountain Digital
Automatic Computer 404

Mountain Systems, Inc.
Thornwood, New York

Condensed Book Club
Readers Digest Association
Pleasantville, New York
Bickok Manufacturing Company
Rochester, New York

GENERAL SYSTEM                                        STORAGE                          Microsec
Application Business Data Processing, Accounting      Media                      Words Access
 and Statistical distribution, Coding and Controls.	Magnetic Drum             20,000 15,000
Timing Asynchronous                                      120,000 digits of storage.
Operation Sequential                                     Pleasantville computer stores 500,000
                                                         binary digits at 0.05 sec access.
NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system Decimal - Excess 3             INPUT
Decimal digits per word 6                             Media                             Speed
Arithmetic system Fixed-point                         Punched Tape                 200 char/sec
Instruction type One-address Code                       Pleasantville computer also has R.R. Tab
Number range 0 to 999,999.                            cards input at 0.25 sec/card.
  Programming system is designed for special
application. System includes addition, subtraction,   OUTPUT
unit entry, bulk entry and transfer.                  Media                             Speed
ARITHMETIC UNIT                                       Punched Tape                  20 char/sec
Add time(excluding storage access) 1800 microsec	 
                                                        Pleasantville computer also has R.R. Tab
Construction   Vacuum-tubes and Diodes                Cards output at                0.25 sec/card.
Basic pulse repetition rate 150 kilocycles/sec        NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
Arithmetic Mode Serial.                               Tubes        600
                                                      Tube types     3
                                                      Crystal diodes 1000


CHECKING FEATURES                                    PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
Fixed Number checks                                  One technician or operator is required during
 Address checks                                       operation.
 Pleasantville computer has automatic stop when
data does not conform.                               RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE
                                                     Date first init passed acceptance test Sept 1954.
PHYSICAL FACTORS                                                     Attempted to run 9814
Power consumption, Computer 5 K.W.                   No. of different kinds of plug-in units 5
Space occupied, Computer 32 cu ft 16 sq ft           No. of separate cabinets (excluding power and air
Total weight, Computer 750 lbs                           cond.) 2
MANUFACTURING RECORD                                 ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Number produced 2                                    Anticipated rate of entry to machine is 2,400,000 per
Number in current operation 1                        month.
Delivery time 6 months                               Any one of 300 catagories of transactions (further
                                                     divided into 20 sections) may be placed in appropriate
COST                                                 register, out of a total of 6,000 storage registers
Approximate cost of basic system $85,000             by means of 4 keystrokes per transaction.
 Price for basic system includes input and output
equipment described. Other equipment is dependent
upon spec˝fic application.
 Pleasantville computer cost $100,000 and the
Tab Card input additional cost is $40,000. This
computing installation utilizes 2 operators and was
placed in operation in July, 1955. The computer is
a special purpose type, can add, subtract and tally,
and is externally programmed by paper tape for format.
Normal operating programs are built-in.


                             MODAC-410

MODAC-410
Mountain Digital Automatic Computer

MANUFACTURER
Mountain Systems, Inc.
Thorawood, New York

OPERATING AGENCY
Condensed Book Club of
Readers Digest Association

GENERAL SYSTEM                                   STORAGE                            Microsec
Application Business Data Processing             Media                       Words  Access
Timing  Asynchronous                             Magnetic Drum                5000   7,500
Operation Sequential                                50,000 decimal digits stored.
 Computer is serial with buffer storage.         Buffer storage in magnetic cores.

NUMERICAL SYSTEM                                 INPUT
Internal number system Decimal - Excess 3        Media                              Speed
Decimal digits per word 10                       Punched Tape                    400 char/sec
Arithmetic system Fixed-point                    Punched Cards                   600 cards/min
Instruction type One-address Code
Number range 0 to 10 Decimal digits              OUTPUT
 Program is stored internally and on tape        Media                              Speed
especially for this application.                 Punched Tape                     60 char/sec
                                                 Punched Cards                   600 cards/mn
ARITHMETIC UNIT
Add time(excluding storage access) 600 microsec  NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
Multiply time (" " ") 7000 microsec             Tubes           600
Divide tine (" " ") 7000 microsec               Tube types        3
Construction Vacuum-tubes, Magnetic elements    Crystal diodes 3000
 and Diodes
Number of rapid access word registers 50        Magnetic elements l000
Basic pulse repetition rate 150 kilocycles/sec
Arithmetic Mode Serial


CHECKING FEATURES                             PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
Fixed Number Checks                           One operator required during operation.
   Address Check
   Odd number check                           RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERLE NCE
                                              No. of different kinds of plug-in units 5
PHYSICAL FACTORS                              No. of separate cabinets(excluding power and
Power consumption, Computer	4 K.W.             air cond.) 2
Space occupied, Computer 40 cu ft 20 sq ft    This system is to be installed in 1955
Total weight, Computer  1000 lbs              at Readers Digest Condensed Book Club.

MANUFACTURING RECORD                          ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Number on order 1                               Special translator or converter feature to
Delivery time 10 months                       read an abbreviation on a punched card, look up
                                              corresponding code from a list of 5000, and punch
COST                                          code number into sane card at reading and punching
Approximate cost of basic system $120,000     rate of 500 per minute.
 Price includes input and output equipment      High speed tallying feature for 1,440,000 unit
described. Other equipment dependent upon     additions per hour into selected registers.
specific application.                         Transactions, from a total of 4000 categories, are
                                              read at random and added to appropriate one of
                                              4000 registers.


                             MONROBOT-III

MONROBOT-III
Monroe Computer III

MANUFACTURER
Monrobot Laboratory
Monroe Calculating
Machine Company
Morris Plains, N.J.

OPERATING AGENCY
Computing Laboratory
Air Force Cambridge Research Center
Cambridge 59, Mass.

GENERAL SYSTEM                                  STORAGE                               Microsec
Application Scientific calculation              Media                           Words Access
Timing Synchronous                              Magnetic Drum               100 numbers 15,000
Operation Sequential                            Magnetic Drum          100 instructions l5,000

NUMERICAL SYSTEM	INPUT
Internal number system Binary-coded decimal	Media                                Speed
Decimal digits per word 20                      Keyboard                             Manual
Decimal digits per instruction 10               Paper Tape                       10 dig/sec
Instructions per word 1
Total no. of instructions decoded 11            OUTPUT
Total no. of instructions used 11               Media                                Speed
Arithmetic system Fixed-point                   Typewriter (Flexowriter)         10 dig/sec
Instruction type Four-address code              Paper Tape (Flexowriter)
Number range (l010-l) x 10-10

ARITHMETIC UNIT
Add tine (including storage access) 120 millisec
Multiply time ( "	" " ) 540 millisec
Divide time	( " " " ) 540 millisec
Construction    Vacuum-tubes
Basic pulse repetition rate   10 kilocycles/sec
Arithmetic Mode     Serial



NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS                       PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
Tubes	800                                        One technician or mathematician is required
Tube types	4                                          to operate.
Crystal diodes	100
                                                 RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE
PHYSICAL FACTORS                                 Since 1 Feb. 1955 average good time has been
Power consumption, Computer 2.5 K.W.             approximately 28 hours. Allowing 1 hour/day for
Space occupied, Computer Desk Size               maintenance, this is approximately 75% good time.
Total weight 1000 lbs



                             MONROBOT-V

MONROBOT-V
Electronic Survey Computer

MANUFACTURER
MONROBOT Laboratory
Monroe Calculating Machine Co.
Morris Plains, New Jersey

OPERATING AGENCY
Surveying Branch
Engineer Research and Development Labs
Fort Belvoir, Virginia

GENERAL SYSTEM                                    STORAGE                             Microsec
Application Computing problems normally           Media                        Words  Access
 encountered on surveying operations              Magnetic Drum                  300  18,000
Timing     Synchronous                            Paper Tape
Operation Sequential                                Access time on drum is for 100 twenty digit
                                                  numbers.
NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system	Binary-coded decimal            INPUT
Decimal digits per word 20                              Media                          Speed
Decimal ~iigits per instruction  10                     Keyboard                       Manual
Arithmetic system Fixed-point                           Paper Tape(Reader)             570 char/min
Instruction type Four-address code
                                                        OUTPUT
                                                        Media                           Speed
ARITHMETIC UNIT                                         Typewriter (Flexowriter)Reader   570 char/min
Add time(including storage access) 120 microsec(approx)                     Printer 400 char/min
Multiply (" " ") 540 microsec (approx)
Divide time(" " ") 540 microsec (approx)
Construction Vacuum-tubes
Basic pulse repetition rate 10 Kilocycles/sec



CHECKING FEATURES                              PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
Fixed Storage selection lights.                One person required for operating and servicing.
PHYSICAL FACTORS                               RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE
Power consumption, Computer 5 K.W.               Date unit passed acceptance test March 1955
Space occupied, Computer 44" x 72" x 31" Desk  Average error free running period 7.2 hours
Total weight 1,686 lbs                         Operating ratio 0.90 Good time 850 hours
                                                             Attempted to run 936 hours
COST                                           Computer has operated for several days without
Approximate cost of basic system $86,074       any down time; however the only actual figure
                                               is the 936 hours taken from the running time
                                               meter.


                                               ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
                                               Pre-addressed tapes
                                               Single cycle operation where program is checked
                                               line for line.
                                                 Pre-determined automatic sequencing.
                                               Shock-mounted for van installation; mobile.


                             MONROBOT-VI-MU

MONROBOT-VI-MU
Monrobot VI and Multiple Unit

MANUFACTURER
Monrobot Laboratory
Monroe Calculating Machine Company
Morris Plains, New Jersey

GENERAL SYSTEM                                        STORAGE                          Microsec
Timing Synchronous                                    Media                     Words  Access
Operation Sequential                                  Magnetic Drum               200  16,670 max
                                                        4000 digits of magnetic drum storage.
NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system Binary coded Decimal           INPUT
Decimal digits per word 20                            Media                              Speed
Decimal digits per instruction 10                     Keyboard                           Manual
Instructions per word 2                               Punched Tape                       10/sec
Total no. of instructions used 200                    Punched Card                       17/sec
Arithmetic system Fixed-point                         Punched Tape is optional        to 60/sec
Instruction type Four address code                    Standard Teletype or Kleinscbmidt units for
Number range +~xxxxx xxxxx . xxxxx  xxxxx             tape processing.
 Fixed point is centrally located.

ARITHMETIC UNIT
Add time(including storage access) 135 millisec
Multiply time( "	" " )	600 m.illisec
Divide time ( "	" " )	600 millisec
Construction Vacuum-tubes and Crystal Diodes
Basic pulse repetition rate 10 Kilocycles/sec
Arithmetic Mode	Serial
Automatic positioning of numerical results
about the decimal point.



OUTPUT                                           ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Media             Speed                          The Monrobot Laboratory has desi~aed and is
Printed Copy      10/sec                         building calculators in accordance with the
Punched Tape      10/sec                         M0R0B0T-MU (Multiple Unit) concept. This
Punched Card      17/sec                         permits almost any combination of storage and
 Standard Teletype or Kleinschmidt units. 60/sec  input-output units to be appended to a basic
Punched Tape and Punched Card is optional.       calculating unit. The MONROBOT-Mu is a stored
                                                 program, general purpose calculator using two
CHECKING FEATURES	                               complete and independent arithmetic and control
Fixed Parity checks                              units, operating serially on coded decimal
Optional MAID (Monrobot Automatic 
  Internal Diagnosis)                            information. Storage is magnetic drums of
and dual units.                                  various capacities with saturable reactor magnetic
                                                 selection. Input-output is by Flexo~-iters, Klein-
                                                 schmidt and Teletype units, punched card, magnetic
                                                 tape, photoelectric paper tape readers, and line-at
                                                 a-time printers. MAID (Monrobot Automatic Internal
                                                 Diagnosis) system is used for malfunction detection
                                                 Parity checking is used. The MONROBOT-MU word
                                                 (instruction, number, or alpha-numeric group)
                                                 contains 100 bits. A decimal digit is represented
                                                 by a tetrad and an alphabetic or punctuation
                                                 character by a pair of tetrads. In a number word
                                                 24 tetrads represent 24 decimal digits. An instruc.
                                                 tion word contains two instructions coded in a
                                                 modified one-address system. Fifteen instructions
                                                 are used.
                                                 A MONROBOT-MU for automatic inventory control and
                                                 analysis is currently under construction for the
                                                 USAF under Contract No. AF33 (616)-2158.


                             NAREC

NAREC
Naval Research
Electronic Computer

MANUFACTURER
Naval Research Laboratory
Washington 25, D.C.

OPERATING AGENCY
Naval Research Laboratory

GENERAL SYSTEM                                       STORAGE                           Microsec
Application Scientific problems                      Media                         Words Access
Timing Asynchronous                                  Electrostatic tubes             1024 10
Operation Sequential, with concurrent recording      Magnetic Drum                   1536 8,340 (Avg.)
                                                       A total of 115,200 binary digits of storage.
NUMERICAL SYSTEM                                       A new 30 rps magnetic drum of 8192 word
Internal number system Binary                        capacity will be installed.
Binary digits per word 45                             1 to 256 word blocks may be transferred from
Binary digits per instruction 21                     drum to CRT and vice versa.
Instructions per word 2
Total no. of instructions used 31                    INPUT
Arithmetic system Fixed-point                        Media                            Speed
Instruction type One-address code                    Paper Tape                     200 char/sec
Number range -l x 1                                  Magnetic Tape                  300 char/sec
                                                      The paper tape reader is a Ferranti Reader
ARITHMETIC UNIT                                      MK-II
Add time(excluding storage access) 3 microsec
Multiply time( " " " )520-790 microsec               OUTPUT
Divide time ( " " )660-790 microsec                  Media                              Speed
Construction Vacuum-tubes                            Paper Tape                        60 char/sec
Number of rapid access word registers 6              Magnetic Tape                    300 char/sec
Basic pulse repetition rate Asynchronous             Typewriter (Flexowriter)          10 char/sec
Arithmetic Mode Parallel

                                                    NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
                                                    Tubes 2,000
                                                    Tube types 4
                                                    Crystal diodes 20,000


CHECKING FEATURES                                    RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPER1ENCE
Fixed Automatic comparison of all transfers between  No. of different kinds of plug-in units B
 registers.                                          No. of separate cabinets(excluding power and
Optional Automatic comparison of all transfers between  air cond.) 4
 the arithmetic section and the storage section      Until the NABEC is completed in July 1956,
                                                     half of the time is spent in engineering develop-
PHYSICAL FACTORS                                     ment and the other half in computing. Machine
Power consumption, Computer 25 K.W.                  efficiency has averaged approximately 70 per cent.
Space occupied, Computer 800 cu ft 100 sq ft
Power consumption, Air cond. 15 K.W.                 ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Capacity 20 tons                                     Flexowriters are used in parallel, each printer
 Air conditioning is for computer and working area,  giving the results of a separate problem sizmaltaneously.
                                                     Centralized operating area by pLacing photoelectric
MANUFACTURING RECORD                                 tape reader, high speed punch, and Flexowriter
Number produced 1                                    adjacent to control console.
Number in current operation 1                        M-G set to replace electronic power supply.
                                                     Detailed reports will be prepared on engineering
PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS                               and mathematical aspects of NAREC project.
 Two technicians are required for one 8-hour shift.



                             NCR-CRC-102A


NCR-CRC-102A
Computer Research
Corporation 102A

MANUFACTURER
National Cash
Register Corporation
Dayton 9, Ohio

OPERATING AGENCIES
Gulf Research and
Development Company
Pittsburgh 30, Pa.

U.S. Naval Post Graduate
School Monterey, Cal.

Chemical and Radiological
Laboratories
Army Chemical Center, Md.

U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station
Inyokern, China Lake, California

GENERAL SYSTEM                                       ARITHMETIC UNIT
Application General purpose, scientific, education	Add time(excluding storage access) 4,000 microsec
Timing Synchronous                                   Multiply time ( " " " ) 15,000 miccrosec
Operation Sequential                                 Divide time ( " " " ) 15,500 microsec
 Pictures supplied by ACC and USN.                   Construction Vacuum-tubes and Condenser-diode
                                                     Number of rapid access word registers 8
NUMERICAL SYSTEM                                     Basic pulse repetition rate 100 kilocycles
Internal number system Binary                        Arithmetic Mode Serial
Binary digits per word 42 (one for timing)             Double precision multiplication, division and
Binary digits per instruction 41                     save remainder, automatic scale commands included.
Binary digits per instruction not decoded 1          Numbers have overflow digit and can be distinguished
Instructions per word 1                              from commands.
Total no. of instructions decoded 27                 The Pittsburgh Computer has 28 instructions
Total no. of instructions used 27                    decoded, automatic conversion and automatic editing.
Arithmetic Fixed-point
Instruction type Three-address code                  STORAGE
Number range -l +2-36 to l-2-36                        Media Words Digfts Microsec Access
                                                     Magnetic Drum 1024 41984 12,500
                                                     Magnetic Tape 102,000/reel
                                                     Up to 7 tape units may be used with one Computer.



INPUT                                               NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
Media                       Speed                  Tubes 400
Flexowriter	                Typing                 Tube types 12
Paper Tape                 10 char/sec             Crystal diodes 8000
Magnetic Tape             1.6 char/millisec           Gulf H & D Corporation
                                                      l000 Additional diodes
OUTPUT                                                60 Extra vacuum-tubes
Media	                        Speed                   5 KVA regulator instead of previous 2.5 KVA.
Magnetic Tape            600 char/sec              CHECKING FEATURES
Elec Typewriter           10 char/sec
Paper tape                10 char/sec              Fixed Duplicate recording on magnetic tape
 USN P-G School.                                     "Overflow" alarm
 Digital point plotter operates independent of	     "No Command" alarm
Computer. No conversion	is necessary for plot.
Plotter is manufactured by California Computer     PHYSICAL FACTORS
Products Company.                                  Power consumption, Computer 7.7 K.W.
                                                   Space occupied, Computer 250 sq ft.
                                                   Total weight, Computer 2,700 lbs.



MANUFACTURING RECORD                              PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
Gulf R & D Corporation                            Daily Operation	Engr	Oper or Tech.
 Basic installation, delivered in May of 1954,    One 8-hour shift 1	1
required 17 months for delivery after receipt of  Two 8-hour shifts 1	2
order.                                            Three 8-hour shifts 1	3
U.S. Army Chemical Center                         Gulf R&D Corporation:
 System placed in operation Sept. 15, 1954.        Their personnel includes an engineer and an
U.S.N.O.T.S. China Lake                           operator, both employees of the company. The
 System placed in operation July 23, 1954.        remainder of the staff consists of three persons,
U.S.N.O.T.S. reports approx. 23 systems produced.  who handle administration, numerical analysis,
                                                   programming and coding.
COST                                              In addition a number of other employees of the
Approximate cost of basic system $89,500.         company have been made familiar with the programm-
Additional equipment Tape Units $19,500 Flexo. $3,185	 ing techniques and some of these have progra~mned
Rental rates of basic system $3750 per mo on one year	 problems. They are currently operating on one
 lease.                                          eight-hour shift. This will probably have to be
 Tape unit $725 per month                        increased to a twelve-hour operation.
 Flexowriter $150 per month                      U.S.N. P-G School:
Maintenance contracts available.                   Computer operated by other govt. agencies in
Rental includes maintenance.                      Monterey area. Computer is maintained by service
 USN P-G School                                   contract with NCR (one man). Operated and pro-
 Price paid was $57,000 in 1952, incl educational   grammed by students, faculty and staff.
discount and $143 per month for IBM card units.   U.S. Army Chemical Center:
Magnetic Tape units, CCP7Ol Plotter and Flexowriters	 Service contract calls for 8 hours preventive
cost $22,000.                                          maintenance per week.
U.S. Army Chemical Center
 Price paid was $100,000 for basic system.
U.S. N.O.T.S.
 Price paid for basic system was approx. $100,000.
The magnetic Tape Unit cost $20,000.

[converter's note - several pages of exhaustive detail
 about site experience deleted from this .html ]


                             NCR-CRC-102D



NCR-CRC-102D
National Cash
Register 102-D


MANUFACTURER
National Cash Register Corp.
Dayton 9, Ohio

OPERATING AGENCY
Rich Electronic Computer Center
Engineering Experiment Station
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, Georgia

GENERAL SYSTEM
Application Educational, industrial, commercial
governmental
Timing	Synchronous
Operation	Sequential
	RECC Ga. Tech. reports that timing for
magnetic tape storage is asynchronous. Pictures
contributed by NCR and Ga. Tech. RECC.

NUMERICAL SYSTEM
Internal number system Binary coded decimal
Decimal digits per word 9 plus 6 Binary
Decimal digits per instruction 9 plus 6 Binary
Decimal digits per instruction not decoded 1
Instructions per word 1
Total no. of instructions decoded 27
Total no. of instructions used 27
Arithmetic system Fixed-point
Instruction type   Three-address
Number range    -236 to 236
	EECC EES Ga. TECH.reports:
	Add time 7,800 microsec including access
	Multiply time 21,100 to 49,100 microsec
including access
	Divide time 21,100 to 55,200 microsec including
access.

ARITHMETIC UNIT
Add time(excluding storage access) 4000 microsec
Multiply time(" " " ) 15,000 "
Divide time (" " ") 15,500 "
Construction Vacuum-tubes and Condenser-diodes
Number of rapid access word registers	 8
Basic pulse repetition rate 100 kilocycles/sec
Arithmetic mode Serial.

STORAGE                                   Microsec
Media            Words            Digits	Access
Magnetic Drum     1024             41984	12,500
Magnetic Tape    102,000/reel   918,000/reel
Up to 8 tape units can be used with one computer
at one time.

INPUT
Media                         Speed
Paper Tape (H/S Reader)       200 char/sec
Paper Tape (Flexowriter)       10 char/sec
Magnetic Tape                 600 char/sec
Typewriter                     Manual
	RECC EES Ga. Tech.
	Punched card is used at 100 cards/min
	Punched Paper Tape is used at 3600 char/mm




OUTPUT                                       COST
Media	   Speed                               Approximate price of basic system $99,500
Magnetic Tape	600 char/sec               Approximate price of tape units $19,500
Paper Tape	10 char/sec                      Approximate price of High Speed Paper Tape
Paper Tape (H/S Punch)	60 char/sec             Reader $9,500
                                             Approximate price of High Speed Paper Tape
NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS                      Punch $5,000
Tubes 425                                    Maintenance contracts available on purchased
Tube types 15                                  equipment.
Crystal diodes 8500                          Rental rate for basic system $4100/month
                                             Rental rate for tape unit $ 725/month
CHECKING FEATURES	                           Rental rate for H/S Paper Tape Reader $500/month
Fixed Duplicate recording on magnetic tape   Rental rate for H/S Paper Tape Punch $400/month
Optional "Overflow" alarm                    Rental rate for H/S Paper Tape Flexowriter $150
         "No command" alarm                  Rental includes mintenance.

PHYSICAL FACTORS                             PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
Power consumption, Computer 7.7 K.W.         Daily Operation	Engr Oper or Tech.
Space occupied, Computer 250 sq ft           One 8-hour shift	1	1
Total weight 2700 lbs                        Two 8-hour shifts	1	2
                                             Three 8-hour shifts 2	3

RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE
	Users include:

Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan
Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia
The National Cash Register Company, Dayton, Ohio
The National Cash Register Company, Hawthorne, Cal.


                             NCR-303
NCR-303
Electronic Data Brocessor

MANUFACTURER
National Cash Register Company
Electronics Division
Hawthorne, California

GENERAL SYSTEM                               STORAGE	       Microsec
Application General Purpose Computer	   Media			Words 	Access
Timing Synchronous                           Magnetic Drum	1,024		 12,500
Operation Sequential                         Buffer		   8		 1,500
                                             Magnetic Tape	115,000
NUMERICAL SYSTEM                             All words are stored as 9D plus 6B digits.
Internal number system Decimal                8 tape units with 115,000 word storage each
Digits per word 9 Dec plus 6 Binary          may be used.
Digits per instruction 9 Dec plus 6 Binary    0.14 seconds for reading or writing a block of
Digits per instruction not decoded 1         8 words. Magnetic tape searching is over 720 words/sec.
Instructions per word 1
Total no. of instructions decoded 27         INPUT
Total no. of instructions used 27             Media	          Speed
Arithmetic system Fixed-point                 Paper Tape	     200 char/sec
Instruction type Three-address code           Special Paper Tape 130 char/sec
Number range Integers less than 1011 or       Special tape reading includes handling of
 fractions less than one                        information.

ARITHMETIC UNIT                                   OUTPUT
Add time(excluding storage access) 7.8 millisec   Media	   Speed
Multiply tine( " " ")20.7to 48.8 millisec         Paper Tape	60 char/sec
Divide time( " " ")23.4 to 54.6 millisec          Printed Page	10 char/sec
Construction Vacuum-tubes and Condenser-diodes    Magnetic tape may be used for input and output
Number of rapid access word registers 3           of information at the rate of 60 words/sec.
Basic pulse repeition rate 100 kilocycles/sec
Arithmetic Mode Serial                            NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
 Constants, zero, and all binary ones can be      Tubes	350
obtained with 0.39 millisec access.               Tube types	3
                                                  Crystal diodes	6,500


CHECKING FEATURES                                   PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
Fixed "No Command" and "Overflow" alarm, duplicate	Daily Operation No. of Eng.
recording on tape.                                    One 8-hour shift		 1/2
                                                      Two 8-hour shifts		1
PHYSICAL FACTORS                                      Three 8-hour shifts	1
Power consumption, Computer 11 KVA at 0.7 pp        One supervisor, one programmer and 1
Space occupied, Computer 30" x 59" x 73" plus        operator is also required.
                         60" x 33" x 36"           
Total weight, Computer 2,000 lbs.                  ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
Capacity Air Cond. 25,000                          New magnetic tape commands
	BTU/hour                                     Sorting and merging commands
                                                   Automatic output editing.
PURCHASE:	PURCHASE PRICE	
NCR 303 Computer	$ 140,000
NCR	138	Magnetic Tape Handling Unit	$25,000
NCR	160	High Speed Paper Tape Reader	$ 9,500
NCR	170	High Speed Paper Tape Punch	$ 5,000
Model 378 Flexowriter				$ 2,900
LEASE	MONTHLY RATE
NCR 303 Computer	 				$4,250
NCR 138 Magnetic Tape Handling Unit 	$ 800
NCR 160 High Speed Paper Tape Reader	 $ 500
NCR 170 High Speed Paper Tape Punch 	$ 400
Model 378 Flexowriter				$ 150
(Prices shown are for Single Shift Operation.
Add 25% of Single Shift Rental for each additional
shift.)


                             NORC



NORC
Naval Ordnance Research Calculator

MANUFACTURER
International Business Machines Corporation

OPERATING AGENCY
U.S. Naval Proving Ground
Dahlgren, Virginia

GENERAL SYSTEM                                     STORAGE 	                         Microsec
Application General scientific calculation         Media                        Words Access
Timing Asynchronous                                Electrostatic Tubes (CRT)    2,000 	8
Operation Concurrent                               Magnetic Tape 		    4,000,000 Variable
                                                     16 decimal digits/stored word
NUMERICAL SYSTEM                                  Storage may be visually inspected by numerals
Internal number system Decimal                    on the faces of Cathode Ray Tubes.
Decimal digits per worn 16
Decimal digits per instruction 16                 INPUT
Total no. of instructions decoded 64              Media                             Speed
Total no. of instructions used 64                 Magnetic Tape           4000 words/sec maximum
Arithmetic system Floating-point and Fixed-point     Full reading speed in 8 millisec.
Instruction type Three-address code                  8 Tape Units; 500 char/inch; 140 inches/sec
Number range 10-43 to 10+31

                                                  OUTPUT
ARITHMETIC UNIT                                   Media                               Speed
Add time(excluding storage access) 15 microsec    Magnetic Tape                4000 words/sec maximum
Multiply time ( " " ") 31 microsec                Printer (Two) 18,000 char/min
Divide time ( " " ")227 microsec                  Printing is con-current with calculating.
Construction Vacuum-tuoes                         Characters are delivered to printers at the
Number of rapid access word registers 2,000       rate of 10,000 per second.
Basic pulse repetition rate One megacycle/sec
Arithmetic Mode Serial and Parallel               NUMBER OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
                                                   Tubes 9800
                                                   Tube types 20
                                                   Crystal diodes 30,000


CHECKING FEATURES                               PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS No. of Tech
Fixed Bit count modulo-4 associated with each    Daily Operation No. of Eng. and Operators
 word                                            Tbree 8-hour shifts 1 25
 Modulo-9 arithmetic check.
                                                 RELIABILITY AND OPERATING EXPERIENCE
PHYSICAL FACTORS                                  Date unit passed acceptance test 25 Feb 1955
Power consumption, Computer 168 K.W.             No. of different kinds of plug-in units 60
Space occupied, Computer 3,000 sq ft.            No. of separate cabinets(excluding power and
Power consumption, Air cond. 72 K.W.               air cond. ) 4
Space occupied, Air cond. 600 sq. ft.
Capacity 66 tons                                 ADDITIONAL FEATURES AND REMARKS
                                                 Provisions for addition, subtraction, and
MANUFACTURING RECORD                             shifting of instruction words make possible pro-
Number produced 1                                grammed synthesis of instructions. A large
Number in current operation 1                    variety of conditional program transfer instruc-
                                                 tions are available. Three address-modifier
COST                                             registers make possible the modification of operand
Approximate cost of basic system $2,500,000      addresses without changing the stored instruction.
                                                 Card-tape card conversion is used.

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